Dialogic Communication Patterns between Company-Community in Achieving
Community Empowerment In Indonesia : A Case Study of Waste Problem
Widodo Muktiyo3 and
Sri Kusumo Habsari4
1Lecture at Dept. Communication,
University of Muhammadiyah
2Dept.Education University of
11thMarchSurakarta, Central Java,
3Dept.Communication University of
11th March Surakarta, Central Java,
4Dept.English University of 11th March
Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Adhianty Nurjanah
Received Date: October 19, 2017; Accepted Date: May 20, 2017; Published Date: May 25, 2017
Citation: Nurjanah A. Dialogic
Communication Patterns between
Company-Community in Achieving
Community Empowerment In Indonesia: A
Case Study of Waste Problem. Global Media
Journal. 2017, 15:28.
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
Waste; Dialogic communication; Corporate social responsibility (CSR);
The problem of waste is one of the problems of development in
Cilacap. The garbage problem in Cilacap until today is still a serious
problem. This is because the ratio of waste tonnage produced per
day compared to the number of garbage trucks is imbalanced.
In a day, the volume of waste in the city area of Cilacap district
reached 646.5 cubic meters of waste which is equivalent to
approximately 92 truckloads of garbage . Today, people still
think that garbage as waste materials are useless, so much to
dispose of waste without being well-managed and has resulted
in the pollution of the environment. The increasing number of
Cilacap district residents followed by their consumption patterns
causes increased waste volume from day to day and more diverse
types of waste such as packaging waste that is hazardous and/or
not easily decomposed by natural processes. As a result, there
are accumulations of garbage that cause odor, can reduce the
level of soil fertility and inhibit circulation of soil, waterways and
ultimately the environment to be damaged and unhealthy.
Based on Law No. 18 of 2008 on Waste Management along
with Government Regulation No. 81 of 2012 has not been fully
implemented by the public. Act (UU) and Government Regulation
(PP), which mandates the need for changes in waste management,
namely the paradigm of collecting-hauling-disposing wastes into
processing that relies on waste reduction and waste management
has not been properly implemented, especially in Cilacap.
One private company in Cilacap, Central Java, which since 2001 until today, diligently implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk. Cilacap Plant. According to Trinidad and Tobacco Bureau of Standards (TTBS) that the corporate social responsibility or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) related to the values and standards being made with regard to the operation of a company, the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is defined as the commitment of business to act ethically, operating legally and contribute to economic improvement, along with improved quality of life of employees and their families, local communities and society in a broader way.
The Indonesian government affirms that any company that manages natural resources has an obligation to take responsibility for the welfare and improvement of living standards for people in the vicinity. This was stated in the Decree of the Minister of SOE Nomor.KEP-236/MBU/2003 dated June 17, 2003 and Law Number 40 Year 2007 on Limited Liability Company set in July 2007. In Article 74 it is stated that:
1. Any company that is conducting its business activities in the
field and/or related to the natural resources is required to
carry out social and environmental responsibility;
2. Social and environmental responsibility as referred to in
paragraph (1) is an obligation of the Company's budgeted
and accounted for as an expense of the Company which are
carried out with due regard to decency and fairness. "
Ife (2002) stated that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a moral and ethical concept which is generally characterized so that on its practical level it must be channeled into concrete programs. One form of actualization of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is Community Development (CD). Program Community Development (CD) can be carried out by the company on the basis of attitudes and opinions that generally has in him the attitude and outlook of generosity. Furthermore Ife (2002) states that Community Development (CD) for industrial environments basically can be used as a medium to increase community commitment to be able to coexist symbiotically with business entities (companies) and their operations. Thus, the program is expected to Community Development (CD) to provide benefits to the company's existence and can be used to develop a harmonious relationship between the company and the community around the company.
But in reality the roles of companies in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Indonesia today are mostly only provide support voluntary funding, and is in the nature of philanthropy, not to play a role in community development activities or Community Development (CD) so there are many Corporate Social Responsibility program sustainability (sustainability) program that are not achieved.
While based on research results from Sumaryo , entitled Implementation of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) In Empowerment and Welfare Improvement Society Case Lampung Province is that the implementation of corporate social responsibility in the agro-industry in Lampung Province as one form of private participation in regional development has not been optimal both in quality and quantity. This is because the CSR program has not touched the fulfillment of basic needs (food, clothing and shelter) and has not been able to increase the income and welfare of the community significantly.
In the implementation of CSR programs, ideally, other than in the form of community development programs, the CSR program also has to touch the needs and aspirations of the beneficiary communities (beneficiaries). Sen and Battacharya  identified that there are six main points that should exist in the CSR program which is the dimension of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Those six dimensions of CSR are (1). Community support: sponsorship and charitable, educational programs, health programs, art programs and so on, (2).Diversity: the company's policy not to distinguish between the consumers, and the workers in terms of gender, physical appearance or particular race, (3). Employee support: the protection of labor, incentives and rewards as well as safety, (4). Environment: create a healthy and secure environment, manage waste properly, environmental friendly products, etc., (5). Non-US operation: the company is liable to provide the same rights for the people of the world to get a chance to work, among others, opening factories abroad (abroad operation), (6). Product: the company is obliged to make products that are safe for health, non-fraud, do a continuous product development research and use recyclable (recycled).
In addition to the implementation of the community empowerment program needs effective communication approach between company and society adapted to the characteristics of the beneficiaries. Based on research conducted by Tahoba , entitled Strategy of Communication Program Community Development (Community Development) Case: Community Development Program in Indigenous Communities Affected Directly by Tangguh LNG Project Around Bintuni in Teluk Bintuni Regency of West Papua, the result is that persuasion by involving traditional leaders, creating communication climate that can stimulate community participation using traditional communication channels and to develop participatory communication in group communication.
Based on the research results by Tahoba  that the level of community involvement in the Community Development program had an impact on communication differences that occur. People who engaged actively experience changing in knowledge, skills and attitudes as a result of the delivery of messages or innovation offered compared to the people who are not actively involved tend to indicate indifference or indolence to find out about the message.
Independent Waste Bank is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) program PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk. Cilacap Plant as participation of companies in tackling the garbage problem in Cilacap. Independent Waste Bank CSR program is located in the Family Empowerment Post (Posdaya) RW X Ketapang Peace Village Kebonmanis North Cilacap regency, Central Java. The principal activities of Bank Mandiri is saving Garbage, where people sort their household garbage each according to its type then collected and sent to the bank to be weighed and the results are incorporated into the passbook.
Conceptually, community empowerment is an attempt to increase the dignity of society which is in current state that cannot afford to escape the trap of poverty and underdevelopment, thus empowering means enabling them and make them independent . Community empowerment delivery as a process that is the starting point for the community's independence in order to improve their own life by using and accessing local resources as possible. In other words, empowerment is the process of improving the ability and attitude of self-reliance. The process of this community empowerment puts community as the main party or the development center (people or community centered development).
Phillips and Pittman  asserts that community development is intended to build capacity." In another part it is submitted that "community development builds the capacity of a people when they encourage or teach others to create reviews for their own dreams, to learn new skills and knowledge. That community empowerment is intended to build the capacity of communities, and encourage or teach others to make their own dreams, to learn new skills and knowledge. ”The general objective of community empowerment in development is to empower specific groups in society socio-economically. Thus, they can be more independent, able to meet the basic needs of their lives, and are able to participate in community development. Community empowerment as a process of community development has a sphere of community empowerment; according to Mardikanto  consisted of the following:
1. Human Development as the first and foremost effort in
community empowerment based on the understanding that
the purpose of development is to improve quality of life or
well-being. In this case the Human Development includes the
strengthening or development of human capacity.
2. Business Development is an important effort in each
empowerment and as a result of human development that
can provide benefits for welfare improvement so as to obtain
support in the form of community participation.
3. Community Development which consists of the physical
environment and the social environment. In this case the social
environment also plays an important role in determining the
sustainability of business and life.
4. Institutional Development is a form of healthy institutional
social relations and their very instrumental in the success of
community empowerment process.
Thus, through community empowerment program, the community
that once was not economically, socially and ecologically
empowered become even more empowered, having strength and
ability so that they can become agents of change in development.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
Their demands and the increasing awareness of the company
associated with the obligation to be socially responsible and
be ethical in its business, the concept of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) becomes an integral part to the company's
survival in the future. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is
essentially the need for companies to be able to interact with
the community as a whole to adapt and to obtain social benefits
in the form of trust . Kotler and Lee  stated that CSR is a
commitment to improve the welfare of society as a consideration of business practices and contributions of the company's
resources. The core of this definition does not refer to a business
activity that is governed by the legislation in force, but rather on
the voluntary commitment of companies that have been selected
and implemented in its business practices.
The concept of CSR by CSR Asia consists of "Triple bottom line" as
outlined by Elkington  , which states that if a company wants
to survive then it must pay attention to "3 P" (Profit, People and
Planet). Companies in the pursuit of profit (Profit) are concerned
and involved in the fulfillment of public welfare (People) and
contribute actively to protecting the environment (Planet).
Dialogic theory on relationships (relational
When we discuss about the relationship that is created due to
communications being built then the Dialogic Theory on the
relationship (Relational Dialogic Theory) becomes important. In
the book Stephen and Fossm , Leslie Baxter theory about
relationships provide vantage points to view the dialogue process
of this connection, those points are:
(a).Relationships generated through dialogue: In the first view
of this theory by Baxter, it is in the dialogue that you define your
relationship with others. Your ideas about yourself, other people
and relationships formed in the talks. Even when you retell
old stories of the relationship shared experiences which bring
togetherness or. Baxter refers to this as chronotopic similarity,
at the same time you will recognize the difference between
you and the other person in the relationship. At Baxter Dialogic
theory it is mentioned that relationships are generated through
a dialogue among noises. In this theory it is mentioned that the
process of dialogue is that different voices are integrated in a
conversation. According to Baxter, the dialogue is a conversation
that defines and redefines the relationship when the relationship
appears in the actual situation. Relationships generated through
dialogical communication processes are dynamic and can adjust
the similarities and differences. Actually, the relationship unites
us through equality, while a relationship also creates, maintains
and regulates areas of difference.
(b). Dialogue generates an opportunity to achieve a unity in diversity: Through dialogue we govern the dynamics of influence between the centripetal force and centrifugal-force that separates and draws us altogether, the power that creates an understanding of chaos and force that gives a sense of togetherness. These opposing forces are dialectical in the sense that they involve a tension between two or more elements of a system opposition and the relationship provides a context in which we organize opposition.
(c). Dialogue is the aesthetic: Aesthetics involves an understanding of the balance, alignment, shape and unity. Dialog provides a relationship identity, uniqueness and unity. The character of a relationship become such reflection of the aesthetics created in dialogue. Communication in a relationship can form a sense of unity through a dialogue.
(d). Dialogue is a discourse: Baxter noted that the relationship was never in the form of a series of statements of a single person but a process that runs back and forth over time. Therefore the actual conduct or practice is important where the actors involved throughout the relationship course. In theory the idea of a relationship is very important because the relationship is not something you think cognitively in your head, but is the result of the discourse.
Strategic CSR communication
According to Morsing  the strategic CSR communication
model consists of two strategies: an informing strategy and an
interacting strategy and a process: moving from one strategy to
a. The informing strategy suggests on what issues to inform
stakeholders concerning corporate CSR initiatives, i.e. those
actions taken to display conformity to stakeholder expectations
in a one-way communication process.
b. The interaction strategy suggests what two-way communicative
processes the company can stage and encourage to enhance
stakeholder dialogue and hereby increase understanding of
Finally, to promote the process of moving from one strategy to
the other, it is suggested to structurally strengthen and tie the
corporate communication to strategic management.
Importance of communication CSR in CSR
In the implementation of CSR programs, communication activities become important things to do. In the practical implementation of CSR programs, the company must be able to create two-way communication both within the company as well as with the public or with the public beneficiaries of the program. Any company who carry out CSR is required to have an understanding of effective CSR communication to stakeholders. The function of communication becomes important in the implementation of CSR. According to Podnar in Nwagbara and Reid in Rusdianto  defines CSR Communications as "CSR communication is a process of anticipating stakeholder's expectations, articulation of CSR policy and managing of different organizations communication tools designed to provide true and transparent information about a company's or brand's integrations of its business operations, social and environmental concern and interaction with stakeholders ".
That CSR communication as a process to anticipate the expectations of stakeholders, articulate CSR policy and manage communication tools of the company by providing the correct and transparent information about the company, its business operations, social and environmental as well as interaction with stakeholders.
Jalal in Rusdianto , that the CSR communication as a company's efforts to deliver messages to stakeholders and receive messages from stakeholders related to the commitments, policies, programs and performance of the company in the pillar of economic, environmental and social. Rusdianto  that CSR communication can be utilized by the company to build a reputation. Companies that understand the importance of stakeholders will manage the CSR communication carefully. That the existence of CSR communication is a key factor in building the company's reputation. Furthermore, that the reputation of the company is the result of assessment which describes the company's image based on the views of society.
In building and creating the positive reputation of the company, from the perspectives of the stakeholders, the theory of the company is expected to manage the ability to communicate with stakeholders. Therefore, CSR communication should be planned, directed and executed continuously to the stakeholders in order to create the reputation of the company as a result of the implementation of CSR programs that have been implemented.
This study is included into qualitative descriptive research. Descriptive study by Whitney (in Nazir  is the research for facts-finding with proper interpretation. It is done studying problems in the society, as well as public customs and specific situations, including relations of activities, attitudes, views and ongoing processes and effects of a phenomenon. The purpose of this research is to create a description, illustration or drawing of the facts, characters, natures, as well as the inter-phenomenon relations being investigated (studied) in a systematic, factual and accurate way. The technique of informant determination is through purposive sampling techniques (informant determination by the destination). While data collection techniques were done using interviews, documentation and literature.
The data in this study will be analyzed qualitatively. Qualitative research is a procedure that produces descriptive data in the form of written words or spoken form by people or observed behaviors . The data analysis that is qualitative in nature requires the researchers to undertake activities simultaneously with data collection, data interpretation and the writing of the research reports . Thus the data analysis is not done in isolation with data collection, but it is an activity performed jointly. During data collection, the researchers engaged interactively in the three analysis components which are data reduction, data presentation and final conclusions/verification .
Since December 2012 PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk Cilacap Plant participate actively to provide solutions to the waste problem in Cilacap through Independent Waste Bank CSR Program where the program is community empowerment synergy between PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk Cilacap plant, the Cilacap government and PNPM Mandiri. As for the location of empowerment is in Family Empowerment Post (Posdaya) Ketapang Damai RW X, Village Kebonmanis, Northern District of Cilacap, Central Java. The purposes of the Independent Waste Bank CSR Program are:
1. Helping Cilacap Government in overcoming and reducing
waste in Cilacap.
2. Enabling community participation ranging from the lower level
of RT/RW, the institutions that exist in Cilacap particularly schools, markets/trade, offices and other - to reduce waste
and make the trash beneficial from environmental, social and
3. Helping to address environmental health problems caused by
littering by involving the public directly
4. Create new jobs for the community/household.
5. Build awareness in the community about the importance
of sorting, managing waste and making them economically
valuable goods to provide additional income.
6. Giving out loans or purchasing groceries to the people in
need with the return and payment in the form of waste
that is worth selling to joint Independent Waste Bank CSR
Program . Waste is unwanted residual material after
the end of a process. Today people still think the rest of the
waste as useless, so much to dispose of waste without a
proper management and has resulted in the pollution of the
environment. The increasing population of Indonesia, followed
by consumption patterns will increase the volume of waste by
the day and more diverse types of waste such as packaging
waste that is hazardous and/or are not easily decomposed by
natural processes. As a result, the accumulation of waste that
cause odor, can reduce the level of soil fertility and inhibit
circulation of soil, waterways and ultimately the environment
to become damaged and unhealthy. Thus the problem of
waste not only needs to be dealt with by local authorities, but
need the participation of all elements of society, including the
private sector (companies) and the entire people of the city of
Cilacap so that the waste handling becomes more effective.
Not only the Cilacap government who had to intervene to solve
these environmental problems, but all elements of society, both
public and private parties (companies) should also participate to
help providing solutions to the waste problem. Waste problems
require solutions specifically how to educate people to adopt healthy behaviors to cultivate a clean and healthy living behavior
by reducing the negative impacts of littering. One way of doing
this is to make a good waste management system through
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program.
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program is a solid waste
management system in the collective that encourages people
to participate actively in it to maintain the cleanliness of the
environment. Independent Waste Bank CSR Program system is
accommodating sort, and distribute trash economic value on the
market so that people get the economic benefit of saving trash.
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program system which is the
CSR program of PT Holcim Indonesia TbkCilacap Plant begins
with: Sorting the waste according to its type conducted from
the source (domestic) carried by each household. This is where
the household waste sorted into two groups: organic and nonorganic
waste. Organic waste is processed into compost for the
greening of the environment. While non-organic waste is then
divided further into three sub-groups: plastic, paper and bottles
and metal is deposited then be processed into crafts (souvenirs)
that can be sold so as to increase the cash/income group.
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program can also improve the
household economy of the customers.
Most households in Indonesia are environmentally friendly and
they store three trash cans or large waste bags. Once the third
dustbin is full, its contents can then be "saved" in the trash of
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program. Just the way it is with a
commercial bank, we can open an account in Independent Waste
Bank CSR Program. Periodically, we can fill our savings with nonorganic
waste is weighed and given a monetary value, according
to the price set by the collectors. The monetary value of savings,
and as well as a commercial bank, the contents of these savings
can be withdrawn at any time.
The following are the illustration of waste management
conducted by Independent Waste Bank PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk
Cilacap Plant (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Waste Management of Independent Waste Bank CSR Program.
The principal activities of Independent Waste Bank is waste
savings activities, where people sort their household waste each
according to its type then collected and sent the waste to the
bank to be weighed and the results are incorporated into the
passbook. For the customers of Independent Waste Bank CSR
Program savings can also use the card as a means of payment for
buying groceries, paying electricity and telephone bills, as well
as paying laundry by using trash as a means of payment in waste
The Independent Waste Bank CSR Program of PT Holcim
Indonesia Tbk. Cilacap Plant, has been able to empower them
with the process of development activities that are:
Community development in the field of Human Development
is done through quality improvement program of Human
Resources (HR) by providing knowledge, insight and experience
to the management of Independent Waste Bank CSR Program.
The activities are conducted by organizing a training program
for the managers of Independent Waste Bank CSR program on
organic and inorganic waste management, manufacture training
of handicrafts made of plastic-paper, Motivation Training,
Leadership Training and Comparative Study studied together at
the Gemah Ripah Waste Bank in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta.
As we all know, that the managers of Independent Waste Bank
CSR program are mostly housewives who initially did not have
the skills in the field of waste management. Thus through the
human development community empowerment program it is
expected that the citizens especially the managers can improve
their capacity of knowledge, insight and experience.
As in the following interview with Mz. Sri Lasmini:
"With Independent Waste Bank CSR program, the housewives at this Kebon Manis be cleverer, able to talk coherently and dare to speak in front of people and more creative as well as more productive because we were given a lot of training and mentoring by PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk. Cilacap Plant.”(Interview of Mz. Sri Lasmini, February 20,2016).
Results of human development that is given to the public, generating a positive development for Independent Waste Bank CSR Program for now it is not only savings unit which manages waste but other micro business units such as garbage stalls, Laundromat, and even home craft business Innel Recycling Creative Handicraft which is a trash craft center unit being very financially supportive towards the income of the household economy.
As presented by Mz. Rustono :
“Mothers in this neighborhood are now very productive and have their own income from junk made crafts such as flowers, bags, plastic grocery etc., so they can help their families economically at least, can meet their own needs and can add an allowance for her children”
(Interview of Mz. Rustono, February 20, 2016).
The development of institutions by providing assistance,facilities, support and institutional strengthening through training, mentoring so that in 2013 it got nominated for the best Development Posts in Indonesia (Damandiri Award) and in 2015 received an award as a community development program with the best SME product of UNS Surakarta.
The Independent Waste Bank CSR Program gives out positive impact for clean environment with the Independent Waste Bank CSR Program, the public is increasingly aware of the importance to have clean and healthy life behavior (PHBs) that can be created from family.
“Independent Waste Bank CSR Program gives positive impact on the environment, the environment becomes clean and healthy, not a lot of rubbish strewn anymore because people are aware and in the family now there seems to be "titen" culture in observing trash carefully, sort them especially for inorganic waste (plastic, cans, bottle caps, newsprint, etc.) then collect the waste to be deposited in the Independent Waste Bank"(Interview with Mr. Moh Nurhidayat, February 20, 2016).
The Independent Waste Bank CSR Program is a CSR program that can help Cilacap district government programs, especially in waste handling. In addition, Independent Waste Bank CSR Program has been able to empower local communities by promoting self-reliance and creativity of local communities and improve the welfare of the family economy of local communities and also become a solution to the problem of garbage happening in the local area, so that people participate actively in the implementation of the Independent Waste Bank CSR Program.
In the implementation of Independent Waste Bank CSR programs, the CSR communication between the company and the community is done through the Independent Waste Bank Community Communication Forum (FKM).
Community Communication Forum (FKM) is a means of two-way communication between the company and beneficiaries of CSR programs. Community Communication Forum (FKM) also aims to evaluate the performance of CSR programs that have been conducted by PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk Cilacap Plant. The Community Communication Forum (FKM) is held half-yearly in each sub-district and then performed at the district level.
The purpose of the implementation of the Community Communication Forum (FKM) are as a means of CSR communication between the company and the beneficiaries, means of delivering the aspirations and assessment of community’s needs which is used as the basis for upcoming CSR Program.
The process of communication is done through a discussion forum in the form of Focus Group Discussions involving all elements of society and government at district and village level of Cilacap Regency. In this case the communication is done with a two-way dialogue between companies and beneficiaries of the program.
In the Community Communication Forum (FKM) the participants expressed the opinion/feedback verbally and in writing about the various constraints and obstacles encountered in the implementation of programs that have been realized. Additionally in this Community Communication Forum (FKM) the public will express opinions on the proposed development strategies or program implementation Independent Waste Bank (BSM).
As stated by Mrs. Susi Sumanti of the Staff Community Development PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk Cilacap Plant: "Through FKM we communicate by means of dialogue with the public so that we can understand what become the needs of society, so that the CSR program we do actually provide benefits and is in accordance with their aspirations".
Community Communication Forum (FKM) is the interaction strategy suggests what two-way communicative processes the company can stage and encourage to enhance stakeholder dialogue and hereby increase understanding of stakeholder expectations. As stated by Mr. Moh. Nurhidayat : “We can dialogue directly with PT Holcimthrough FKM, so they knew we needed especially in the CSRProgramIndependent Waste Bank”. Finally, to promote the process of moving from one strategy to the other, it issuggested to structurally strengthen and tie the corporate commu- nication to strategic management.
Community Communication Forum Forum (FKM) is a dialogical form of communication between the company and the community to build positive relationships and create a common vision and common goals. In case this is done continuously and sustainably so as to minimize the differences of opinion, especially about how important it is to manage waste in the household.
The initiation of the Independent Waste Bank CSR program is in 2012, there are many people who refuse to follow this empowerment program with troublesomeness as the excuses and were not assured that the normally discarded garbage shall be managed in a manner of being sorted out and then saved to be reused. Through communication that is done by dialoguing and executed continuously in the end the public is increasingly aware if the waste is to be managed properly. Thus, to date the Independent Waste Bank CSR program has made continuous innovation so the Independent Waste Bank does not only do the main course that is saving up trash, but it has the microeconomic business activities that can improve the economics of the family such as micro-enterprises in the form of garbage stalls, Laundromat even handicraft business Innel Creative handicraft Recycling which is a craft center garbage that has economic value.
The process of CSR communication for social change is emphasized on how the information is spread, how are the efforts to obtain information being driven, how trust is built among community members and by community members. Additionally, the CSR messages that are created, sent, received and responded to by the people, should be a part of a process of listening to the needs of society as a two-way communication through dialogue.
As for the answer to the needs of society in the form of communication messages created will be able to drive the behaviors or attitudes, raise awareness and understanding of the issues that exist in society, creating social awareness, foster a sense of shared responsibility to improve the overall quality of community/social life as a whole. Thus, the process of communication for social change must be created and developed, and is geared to empower communities and create social change or advancement of people's lives in a sustainable manner as well as the Independent Waste Bank CSR program to change the paradigm of people from throwing garbage into a trash saving.
Independent Waste Bank CSR Program has been able to empower people through inorganic waste management and is able to change the paradigm of people from throwing garbage into a trash saving. Community Communication Forum (FKM) is an effective means of communication in both directions (dialogical communication) between the company and beneficiaries so Independent Waste Bank CSR program can be accepted and implemented in a participatory manner by people, particularly in Kebon Manis Northern Cilacap District. Community Communication Forum (FKM) is the interaction strategy of communication of CSR which suggests two-way communicative processes the company can stage and encourage to enhance stakeholder dialogue and hereby increase of understanding of stakeholder expectations.
- Documents of Waste Bank Independent (2014) CSR Program PT Holcim Indonesia Tbk. Cilacap Plant.
- Sumaryo (2009) Implementasi Tanggungjawab Sosial (Corporate Social Responsibility/CSR) Dalam Pemberdayaan.
- Bhattacharya S (2001) Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility Journal of Marketing Research 38.
- Tahoba (2011) Communication Strategy for Community Development, Case program Community Development in Indigeneous Communities Directly Affected by The LNG Tangguh Project around Bintuni Regency West Papua.
- Mardikanto T (2010) Concept-Concept Community Development, Community Development, Post Graduate Program. Surakarta: UNS Press pp: 129-136.
- Phillips, Pittman RH (2009) An Introduction To Community Development. Routledge, London & New York.
- Bambang R, Melia F (2013) CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), Rekayasa Sains. Bandung.
- Kotler P, Lee N (2005) Corporate Social Responsibility, Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause. New Jersey: Jhon Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Elkington J (1997) Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of 21st Century Business Capstone: Oxford.
- Stephen LJ, Fossm KA (2008) Theories of Human Communication Ninth Edition, Lyn Uhl Publisher, United Stated Of America, pp: 303-307.
- Morsing M (2006) "Corporate Social Responsibility as a strategic outocommunication: on the role of external stakeholders for members identification", 2006. Business Ethiscs: A European Review 15:171-182.
- Ujang R (2013) CSR Communications A Framework for PR Practitioners, Graha Ilmu Yogyakarta.
- Muhammad N (1988) Research Methods. Ghalia. Jakarta, p: 63.
- Moleong J, Lexy (2001) Qualitative Research Methodology. Remaja Rosdakarya. Bandung, p: 103.
- Cresswell JW (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Approach. Third Edition. Pustaka Pelajar.Yogyakarta, p: 145.
- Sutopo HB (2002) Qualitative Research Methodology Basic Theory and Its Application in Research, Sebelas Maret University Press, Surakarta, p: 186.
- Jalal (2010) "CSR Communication: Building Training Corporate Reputation through Effective CSR Communication. Lingkar Study. Jakarta CSR/A+CSR Indonesia.