Does an Active Journalistic Role Conception Rectify Questionable Reporting Practices? Answers from a Representative Survey of
Journalists in Germany
Department of Communication Studies and Media Research, LMU Munich, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sebastian Scherr
Department of Communication Studies and Media Research
LMU Munich Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Oettingenstr, 67 80538 München, Germany
Tel: +49 89 2180-9453
Received Date: March 24, 2017; Accepted Date: April 01, 2017; Published Date: April 01, 2017
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
Based on a secondary analysis of representative survey data of journalists in Germany (n=1536), this paper draws attention to two variables that are important when it comes to explain whether journalists accept questionable reporting practices, such as paying people to obtain information or using confidential government documents without permission. First, perceived role achievement is important, as journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role tend to accept questionable reporting practices more often. Second, however, this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate tendency to the political left. Findings are explained by means of the theory of cognitive dissonance.
Political leaning of journalists; Journalistic role perception; Questionable
journalistic reporting practices
Does an Active Journalistic Role
Conception Rectify Questionable
Answers from a Representative Survey of Journalists in Germany
Cases like Snowden and WikiLeaks emblematize the crucial
debate about the appropriate means to enable the public
access to important political information . There are several
journalistic reporting practices that may contribute to political
transparency; however, they can be regarded questionable from
an ethical point of view. For example, journalists have to decide
whether it is acceptable to claim to be someone else, to badge
or harass sources, to pay for information, or to use confidential
government documents without permission [2,3]. Does the end
justify the means? Answers on the ethical dilemma between
promoting transparency and being a watchdog on the one
hand, and problematic means to achieve those functions on the
other hand can be one factor potentially shaping news coverage
[BLINDED FOR PEER REVIEW].
This may be one of the reasons why large national surveys of
journalists usually contain questions about the acceptability
of different reporting practices [2,4,5] While there is no lack of
descriptive findings on the acceptance of those reporting practices , research on how individual characteristics of journalists drive
their attitudes to utilize such questionable reporting practices is
Generally, journalism research is interested in both rather
professional individual characteristics like role perceptions and
rather non-professional characteristics like age, political leanings
etc. [6-8]. Especially the concept of journalistic roles has received
much attention [7,9,10]. While journalists’ role perceptions are
theoretically and empirically well-researched, there is a lack of
research investigating how professional goals and their perceived
achievement are related to ethical considerations like attitudes
toward questionable reporting practices.
Another crucial individual characteristic are the political leanings
of journalists which are object to often controversial discussions
about news bias and the democratic functions of the media
[11-14]. While there are a lot of descriptive findings on how
journalists position themselves on a left-right-scale [15-17], the
studies regularly do not illustrate in how far political attitudes of
journalists are meaningful for professional attitudes like ethical
views which finally can affect the topic, focus or style of media
In this paper, we theoretically and empirically discuss in how
far the perceived role achievement and political leanings of journalists are important variables when it comes to explain
the acceptance of questionable reporting practices. We will
do so, by reanalyzing data from a cross-sectional survey that is
representative for German journalists.
Attitudes towards reporting practices and its
Revealing confidential sources, paying for secret information,
claiming to be someone else, using personal documents without
permission, or getting employed to gain inside information
– whether journalists think of these methods as acceptable
especially varies from country to country, except in the case of
revealing confidential sources [3,5,18]. For example, while only
12 percent of the German journalists say it may be acceptable to
badger or harass news sources, more than half of the surveyed
American journalists showed that attitude .
The Worlds of Journalism Project  documents country
differences with regard to the dimensions relativism (i.e., meaning
of values regardless of situation and context) and idealism (which
refers to consequences in the responses to ethical dilemmas).
Concerning idealism, a large majority of journalists in the US,
Germany, and Switzerland agrees that questionable practices
of reporting should be avoided in any case, even if this means
not getting the story. Contrary to that, for example in Israel,
only a minority of journalists agrees with this point . Put in
more general terms, Western journalists are deemed to be less
supportive of questionable reporting practices than journalists in
developmental or transitional environments, probably because
journalists in those countries justify controversial reporting
practices by their individual contribution to social change. While
it is well documented that ideological and cultural factors have an
impact on ethical orientations  and that they can change over
time , the question in how far individual characteristics affect
their acceptance of different journalistic reporting practices has
been widely neglected so far. However, there are three important
The first exception, considering the impact of political leanings,
is the study of Weaver et al.  on the American journalist.
In 1992, conservative journalists were less likely to tolerate
questionable reporting practices, whereas the authors did not
find a statistically significant correlation in 2002. Nevertheless,
these findings have not been discussed more thoroughly with
regard to their theoretical grounds and consequences. Another
exception, considering the impact of journalistic roles on their
research and reporting practices, is a specific finding in a study
by Weaver et al.  namely that journalists who preferred an
adversarial or interpretative function more strongly justified
controversial reporting practices, which was less so for journalists
ascribing themselves a more passive disseminator function.
Nevertheless, these findings may be especially true for the U.S.-
American context, and their theoretical implications are not yet
fully explored. Third, [BLINDED FOR PEER REVIEW] found that the
perceived achievement of an active role increases the acceptance
of questionable reporting practices. While there is a large body
of research on journalistic role perceptions, the question and consequences of in how far journalists feel able to achieve their
goals still deserves more attention.
Linking perceived role achievement with the
acceptance of questionable reporting practices
The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that discrepancies
between beliefs and behaviors produce feelings of discomfort
. While this approach receives intensive attention in
psychology, journalism studies mostly refer to it when it comes
to explain the selection of news by the audience . However,
cognitive dissonance is also likely to occur, when journalists
perceive a discrepancy between their professional role and goals
on the one hand, and the achievement of it on the other hand.
Role achievement seems to be an important predictor, as studies
showed that journalists who perceive discrepancies between
role ideals and daily practice are less satisfied with their job,
more frustrated with work, cynical and less committed [24-27].
Nevertheless empirical evidence that contributes to a deeper
understanding of these findings is still scarce.
Given these findings, [BLINDED FOR PEER REVIEW] found
empirical support for their hypothesis that the degree, to which
journalists perceive the achievement of an active role, has an
effect on their acceptance of questionable reporting practices.
German journalists who perceived to have achieved less in
their job were more likely to accept questionable journalistic
reporting practices. The study pointed out that the acceptance
of questionable reporting practices might serve as way to reduce
cognitive dissonance in consequence of a perceived discrepancy
between an active role and its fulfillment. Journalists who do not
feel able to achieve their professional goals probably try to play
an active role by (at least) justifying and utilizing questionable
reporting practices [BLINDED FOR PEER REVIEW]. Given these
theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we formulate
the following hypothesis:
H1: The less journalists perceive to have achieved an active
professional role, the more they accept questionable journalistic
Journalists’ political leanings and the acceptance
of questionable reporting practices
The political leanings of journalists is usually captured on a
left-right or liberal-conservative continuum  turned out
to be a predictor of the acceptance or willingness to change
social circumstances by journalists. More specifically, in a
cross-sectional survey of 1,068 news people from all different
Australian news media, Henningham  found that Australian
journalists had only few ethical concerns about using leaked
government or business documents, to badger sources, or to pay
for information. Moreover, holding more ethical positions was
correlated with political conservatism (r=0.11, p<0.001). Hence,
compared to more right or conservative journalists, left or liberal
journalists should be more likely to justify questionable reporting
Generally, a distinct motivation to change society and to stand
up for the disadvantaged can be regarded as typical for more left or liberal attitudes [29-31]. It is therefore not surprising that
research on the “The American Journalist” suggests that the
more liberal the journalist, the more likely they are to embrace
values that refer to an interpretative, adversarial and populist
mobilization function . In line with this finding, [BLINDED FOR
PEER REVIEW] found that more left/liberal journalists tend to
show professional attitudes representing a slightly more active
role perception such as being an advocate for disadvantaged
people. As rather left or liberal journalists tend to play an active
role it is plausible to assume that these journalists are more
likely to accept questionable reporting practices. Such methods
include but are not limited to paying for information or to claim
to be someone else, which serve as a way to gather important
information that allow journalists to challenge the powers and
to play an active role in society by promoting social change. Put
differently, journalists who want to actively change society rather
than being passive disseminators of information can be assumed
to hold the ethical view that the end (i.e., social change) justifies
the means (i.e., questionable reporting practices). Following this
premise, the impact of the perceived role performance on the
acceptance of questionable reporting practices might also be a
function of journalists’ political leaning.
However, the effect of perceived role achievement on the
acceptance of questionable reporting practices has not been
explored more deeply; we still do not know for which journalists
this relationship is especially true. In the following, we will point
out that a journalist’s political leaning is an important variable
when it comes to explain the acceptance of questionable
reporting practices. So far, no research explored more in detail
the explanatory power of political leaning of journalists for
the association between the perception of having achieved an
active professional role on the one hand and the acceptance of
questionable journalistic reporting practices on the other hand.
For instance, it might be the case that only journalists who hold
extreme political world views more strongly accept questionable
research practices. This could not have been detected in simple
correlational analyses between these variables as presented
by Henningham . Therefore, we formulate the following
RQ1: How does political leaning of journalists moderate the
association between the perceived achievement of an active role
and the acceptance of questionable reporting practices.
Sample and procedure
Data from a representative cross-sectional survey of German
journalists from 2005 (n=1536) were used in this study to test
the hypotheses. The elaborate multistep sampling procedure
to obtain a sample that is representative for the population
of German journalists has been described elsewhere . The
sample includes journalists from different media outlets (TV,
newspaper, online news, magazines, radio, news agencies)
with different circulation and publication frequency as well as
journalists who were both working as staff or freelancer. Highest
efforts in flexible scheduling of interviews and getting in touch with journalists yielded a remarkable response rate of 73%. In
the final sample, 37% of the journalists were female. The mean
age was 40.5 years (SD=9.2), 25% worked as freelancers (vs. 75%
working as staff) for a media company and 22% worked for a public
broadcasting company (vs. 78% working for a commercial media
company). Since this study focuses on correlations between
the variables of a more general aspect within journalism (i.e.,
research practices, political leaning of journalists), we regarded
the dataset from 2005 as still valuable for important insights into
We used the dataset for our secondary data analysis presented
here. The data includes questions about perceptions of having
achieved important aspects of an active journalistic role, the
acceptance of different journalistic reporting practices, and the
journalists´ political leaning.
Acceptance of questionable journalistic reporting practices:
Nine statements about journalistic reporting practices were
included in the survey. The acceptance of these statements (e.g.,
“Using confidential government documents without permission
is…”) was measured on a five-point Likert like scale ranging
from 1 “absolutely not acceptable” to 5 “totally acceptable”.
Principal axes factor analysis with Promax rotation (KMO=0.865;
Bartlett´s test p<0.001, 35% explained variance) yielded a twofactor
solution, of which the first factor describes questionable
journalistic reporting practices, while the second factor was a
methodological artifact resulting from extreme or ambiguous
question wording. Therefore, only the first factor was used
for further analysis. As the six items of the first factor yielded
sufficient reliability (Cronbach’s α=0.78) an index variable
measuring the acceptance of questionable journalistic reporting
practices was constructed (M=2.2; SD=0.7).
Perceived achievement of an active journalistic role: Journalists
were asked about personally relevant aspects of their
professional role and to what degree they perceive themselves
having achieved them. Principal axes factor analysis with Promax
rotation (variance explained=35.22%; KMO=0.833; Bartlett´s
test p<0.001) yielded in three distinct factors (politically active,
provider of service information, explain reality), of which we
focus on the first. Reliability analysis showed that the three items
capturing the first factor on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from
1 “totally disagree” to 5 “totally agree” (e.g., “I achieved in my
job being advocate for disadvantaged people“) showed only
limited reliability (Cronbach’s α=0.63), but were transformed
into an index variable based on theoretical considerations and
appropriateness (M=3.4; SD=0.6).
Political leaning of journalists: Journalists were asked to indicate
their political leaning on a continuous scale ranging from 1 “left
wing political orientation” to 100 “right wing political orientation”
. The mean value (SD) for political orientation was 37.5 (15.8)
indicating a positively skewed distribution to the political left.
Overview of Data Analysis
We tested a moderation model, in which we especially focus
on the regions of significance as indicated by the Johnson-Neyman technique offered in the Process macro for SPSS .
The direct effect of perceived journalistic role achievement on
the acceptance of questionable journalistic reporting practices
was assessed to test for H1 and moreover, the effect was
differentiated for individual political leanings (RQ1).
Due to the dropout effected by the survey structure or item
non-response, the final sample size was n=960. The model is
based on ordinary-least-squares regression, and to obtain biascorrected
95% conﬁdence intervals for the direct effect and its
moderation, we used nonparametric bootstrapping (n=5000) as
recommended by Preacher and Hayes . This approach turned
out to be superior to the Sobel test .
Journalists in the sample were more left-leaning (M=37.5;
SD=15.8; n=1500) with 95% of the participants indicating
political leanings lower or equal to a value of 60 (a value of 100
would indicate an extreme leaning towards the political right).
Moreover, political leaning towards the right/conservative was
correlated with having achieved important aspects of an active
journalistic role (r=0.069, p=0.033; Pearson´s r; p for a two-tailed
test of significance). Descriptive statistics are depicted in Table 1.
Table 1. Correlations between the perceived achievement of an active journalistic role, the acceptance of questionable reporting practices, and
political leaning of German journalists.
|1. Political leaning
|2. Perceived achievement of an active journalistic role
|3. Acceptance of questionable reporting practices
Note. Intercorrelations for German journalists (n=1536) are presented below the diagonal. Means and standard deviations are presented in the horizontal rows. For all scales, higher scores are indicative of a more right political leaning or a more extreme responding in the direction of the construct assessed. *p<0.05. **p<0.01. ***p<0.001.
The significant moderation model indicates that the political
leaning of the surveyed journalists alters the effect of perceived
achievement of an active journalistic role on the acceptance
of questionable research practices of journalists (R2=0.02,
p=0.0006). While both the perception of less having achieved an
active journalistic role (b=–.10, p=0.011), and political leanings
left from the middle (b=–.005, p=0.002) significantly predicted
the acceptance of questionable research practices, there was
no significant interaction between these variables (b=0.0009,
p=0.668). Therefore, we accept H1.
With regard to answering our research question, we explored
regions of significance, in which the influence of both an active
journalistic role significantly contributes to the acceptance of
questionable research practices depending on the extremity
of the journalists’ political leaning using the Johnson-Neyman
technique. Analysis shows that only if the political leaning ranges
between values of 20 and 49 (100 indicates political leaning to
the right), journalists with the perception of not having achieved an active role will be more willing to accept questionable
research practices. Interestingly, the hypothesized effect applies
to about 65% of the surveyed journalists. Within this region of
significance, the effect of the perception of less having achieved
an active journalistic role on the acceptance of questionable
research practices is significant and ranges between b=-0.11 and
b=-0.09. This is indicative of a small effect only for journalists
with political leanings positioned slightly left from the middle.
Figure 1 shows the effect of less having achieved an active
journalistic role on the acceptance of questionable research
practices (left Y-axis) plotted against the journalists’ political
leaning (X-axis) and indicates that this effect slightly decreases
(i.e., is closer to the horizontal dotted zero-effect line) the more
journalists have political leanings towards the right. The frequency
distribution of the political leaning of the journalists in the
sample is plotted against the right Y-axis with the corresponding
distribution curve being depicted in the background. Figure
1 shows that the majority of German journalists falls into the
Johnson-Neyman region of significance (left from the political
middle position), where the non-achievement of an active
journalistic role significantly increases the acceptance of
questionable research practices.
Figure 1: Effect of an achieved active journalistic role on the acceptance of questionable research practices (QRP) moderated by the political
leaning of journalists in Germany (n = 960). Political leaning of journalists scaled from 1 "left" to 100 "right"; perceived achievement
of an active journalistic role scaled from 1 "totally disagree" to 5 "totally agree"; acceptance of questionable reporting practices
scaled from 1 "absolutely not acceptable" to 5 "totally acceptable".
Reading instruction: The thick line being below zero generally indicates a negative relationship. The grey area below and above
the line is the 95% confidence band of the relationship. Figure 1 indicates that the relationship between the perception of not
having achieved an active journalistic role and a higher acceptance of questionable research practices is larger for more left-leaning
journalists with the region of significance for the effect (i.e., confidence band of the line is not crossing the dotted zero effect line)
being between a political leaning of 20 and 49. None of the journalists indicated a political leaning higher than 90.
Journalists’ attitudes toward reporting practices are relevant
because methods of newsgathering can have an impact on the
amount of information accessible to the public. A journalist’s
contribution to transparency, however, may sometimes require
oblematic reporting practices like claiming to be someone else
or badging and harassing sources. In such cases, journalists have
to decide whether the end justifies the means. Theoretically,
it has been argued that the feeling of not having achieved an
active role can lead to feelings of mental distress, a cognitive
dissonance, which can be reduced by utilizing questionable
reporting practices in order to play the pursued active role.
Moreover, journalists’ political leanings are arguably related to
the acceptance of questionable reporting practices, as they can
be indicative of the journalists’ ambition to change society.
Our findings show a relationship between the perception of not
having achieved an active role and the acceptance of questionable
reporting practices. Moreover, this relationship is only significant
for journalists with a moderate tendency to the left. This difference
between rather left and rather conservative journalists may be
explained by the stronger emphasis leftish journalists put on the goal of changing society. Moreover, journalists tend to select
their employer due to its political line that supposedly ensures
the achievement of political and professional goals, and therefore
offers an environment of congruence between personal political
views and their employer’s political line . The more journalist
perceive not having achieved an active role the more they
arguably try to reduce the corresponding cognitive dissonance
 by accepting and utilizing questionable reporting practices.
Methodologically, secondary data analyses always suffer from
the questions that have been asked and those that are missing.
This is an inevitable problem inherent to secondary data analysis
and limits the conclusions that can be drawn . For example,
journalists were not asked whether and how often they really
apply aggressive reporting practices. Moreover, as suggested by
Henningham , we have no information on the importance
of the story, for which certain research practices are adopted.
Offering journalists a reference point for this (e.g., “given an
important story  could produce new insights in future
studies. Furthermore, one may ask in how far the results of a
survey among German journalists can be transferred to other
countries? Research has shown that measuring political leaning
on a left-right continuum can vary across countries , which
can be traced back to underlying personal values, which differ
between countries . Hence, we conclude the results of
this study are not representative for all journalistic cultures.
However, we assume that our findings are especially relevant for
North American journalism cultures since e.g., Hanitzsch et al. concluded that the German journalism culture is most similar to
the US in terms of the institutional roles and ethical ideologies of
journalists. Lastly, as the original study dates back to 2005, one
could call the actuality of the presented results into question.
In times of increasing economic pressure on newsrooms,
journalists seem to be confronted with the problem of not
being able to achieve the role they want to play in society. This
study carves out the moderating influence of political leaning, a
variable that is arguably more than a private non-professional
characteristic. While one can argue about the impact of
journalists’ political leanings on the tendency of news coverage,
the political leanings apparently matter as well in terms of the
acceptance of questionable reporting practices. Claiming to
be someone else, badging or harassing sources, or paying for
information is arguably ethically problematic, although it may
contribute to transparency at the same time, which is essential
for a flourishing democracy.
It turned out that perceived role achievement is an important
predictor of accepting questionable research methods, since
journalists who do not feel able to achieve an active role are
more likely to accept questionable reporting practices. However,
this relationship is only true for journalists having a moderate
tendency to the left. Especially left/liberal journalists who
can be characterized by a stronger pursuit of changing society
may be trying to reduce mental distress by accepting or even
utilizing questionable reporting practices. Especially in times of intrusion of economic pressures into newsrooms, it can be hard
for journalists to achieve an active role. These journalists do not
surrender – instead they tend to accept aggressive reporting
practices true to the non-idealistic motto: The end justifies the means. The cases of Snowden and WikiLeaks have shown the
tremendous social, political, and international consequences of
- Lynch L (2010) “We're going to crack the world open”: Wikileaks and the future of investigative reporting. Journalism Practice 4: 309-318.
- Weaver DH, Willnat L (2012) The global journalist in the 21st century. New York: Routledge.
- Quandt T, Löffelholz M, Weaver DH, Hanitzsch T, Altmeppen KD (2006) American and German online journalists at the beginning of the 21st Century: A bi-national survey. Journalism Studies 7: 171-186.
- Weischenberg S, Malik M, Scholl A (2006) Souffleure der Mediengesellschaft: Report über die Journalisten in Deutschland. [Prompters in a mediated society: Report on journalists in Germany]. Konstanz: UVK.
- Köcher R (1986) Bloodhounds or missionaries: Role definitions of German and British journalists. European Journal of Communication 1: 43-64.
- Donsbach W (2008) Journalists’ role perception. In Donsbach W (ed.) The international encyclopedia of communication Malden, MA: Wiley, pp: 2605-2610.
- Hanitzsch T (2007) Deconstructing journalism culture: Toward a universal theory. Communication Theory 17: 367-385.
- Donsbach W, Patterson TE (2004) Political news journalists: Partisanship, professionalism, and political roles in five countries. In: Esser F, Pfetsch B (eds.) Comparing political communication. Theories, cases, and challenges Cambridge: University Press, pp: 251-270.
- Mellado C, Márquez-Ramírez M, Mick J, Alonso OM, Olivera D (2016) Journalistic performance in Latin America: A comparative study of professional roles in news content. Journalism.
- Mellado C, van Dalen A (2015) Between Rhetoric and Practice. Explaining the gap between role conception and performance in journalism. Journalism Studies 15: 859-878.
- Groseclose T (2011) Left turn: How liberal media bias distorts the American mind. New York: St. Martins.
- Kepplinger HM (2011) Journalismus als Beruf [Journalism as a profession]. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
- McChesney RW (2003) The problem of journalism: A political economic contribution to an explanation of the crisis in contemporary US journalism. Journalism Studies 4: 299-329.
- Patterson TE, Donsbach W (1996) News decisions: Journalists as partisan actors. Political Communication 13: 455-468.
- van Dalen A, van Aelst P (2012) Political journalists: Covering politics in the democratic-corporatist media system. In: Weaver DH, Willnat L (eds.) The global journalist in the 21st century New York: Routledge, pp: 511-525.
- van Dalen A (2012) The people behind the political headlines: A comparison of political journalists in Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain. International Communication Gazette 74: 464-483.
- Weaver DH, Wilhoit GC (1991) The American journalist: A portrait of U.S. news people and their work (2ndedn), Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- Weaver DH, Willnat L (2012) Journalists in the 21st century: Conclusions. In: Weaver DH, Willnat L (eds.) The global journalist in the 21st century. New York: Routledge, pp: 529-551.
- Plaisance PL, Skewes EA, Hanitzsch T (2012) Ethical orientations of journalists around the globe: Implications from a cross-national survey. Communication Research 39: 641-661.
- Brownlee BJ, Beam RA (2012) US journalists in the tumultuous early years of the 21st century. In: Weaver DH, Willnat L (eds.) The global journalist in the 21st century New York: Routledge, pp: 348-362.
- Weaver DH, Beam RA, Brownlee BJ, Voakes PS, Wilhoit GC (2007) The American journalist in the 21st century: U.S. news people at the dawn of a new millennium. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Festinger L (1957) A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: University Press.
- Donsbach W (2009) Cognitive dissonance theory -a roller coaster career: How communication research adapted the theory of cognitive dissonance. In: Hartmann T (ed.) Media Choice. A Theoretical and Empirical Overview Routledge: London, New York, pp. 128-148.
- Scherr S, Baugut P (2016) The meaning of leaning: The impact of journalists’ political leaning on active role perception and satisfaction with audiences and editorial policy. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 93: 142-163.
- Sigelman L (1973) Reporting the news: An organizational analysis. American Journal of Sociology 79: 132-151.
- Stark RW (1962) Policy and the pros: An organizational analysis of a metropolitan newspaper. Berkeley Journal of Sociology 7: 11-31.
- Pihl-Thingvad, S. (2015). Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism. Journalism 16(3): 392-411.
- Henningham J (1996) Australian journalists' professional and ethical values. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 73: 206-218.
- Hopmann DN, Elmelund-Praestekaer C, Levinsen K (2010) Journalism students: Left-wing and politically motivated? Journalism 11: 661-674.
- Lukes S (2003) Epilogue: The grand dichotomy of the twentieth century. In: Ball T, Bellamy R (eds.) The Cambridge history of twentieth-century political thought Cambridge: University Press, pp: 602-662.
- Schoenbach K, Stuerzebecher D, Schneider B (1994) Oberlehrer und Missionare?: Das Selbstverständnis deutscher Journalisten [Teachers or missionaries?: On the self-conception of German journalists]. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 34: 139-161.
- Malik M (2011) Repräsentativität als Herausforderung für Journalistenbefragungen in Deutschland [Representativity as a challenge for journalist surveys in Germany]. In: Jandura O, Quandt T, Vogelgesang J (eds.) Methoden der Journalismusforschung Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp: 259-275.
- Hayes AF (2013) An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: Guilford.
- Preacher KJ, Hayes AF (2008) Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods 40: 879-891.
- MacKinnon DP, Warsi G, Dwyer JH (1995) A simulation study of mediated effect measures. Multivariate Behavioral Research 30: 41-62.
- Reinemann C, Baugut P (2014) Political journalists as communicators: The impact of individual characteristics on their work. In: Reinemann C (ed.) Handbook of communication science: Political communication. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, pp: 325-348.
- Dale A, Wathan J, Higgins V (2008) Secondary analysis of quantitative data sources. In: Alasuutari P, Bickman L, Brannen J (eds.) Social research methods London: Sage, pp: 520-535.
- Thorisdottir H, Jost JT, Liviatan I, Shrout PE (2007) Psychological needs and values underlying left-right political orientation: Cross-national evidence from Eastern and Western Europe. Public Opinion Quarterly 71: 175-203.
- Piurko Y, Schwartz SH, Davidov E (2011) Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries. Political Psychology 32: 537-561.