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Exploring the Elements of Korean Literature Education Contents for Foreigners: Selection of Korean Literature Education Contents for Russian Universities

Young Cheol Ko*

Department of Altai Studies and Chinese Studies, Kazan Federal University, Russia

*Corresponding Author:
Young Cheol Ko
Researcher
Department of Altai Studies and Chinese Studies
Kazan Federal University, Russia
Tel: 79600406612

Received Date: January 28, 2017; Accepted Date: March 08, 2017; Published Date: March 28, 2017

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to establish the elements of Korean literature education content for Russian universities through content analysis of Korean literature textbooks for high school and college students in Korea, Russia and CIS area. Nowadays the scope of education contents for Korea's high schools is setting by the Ministry of Education, the content of the education at the universities - by the professor's discretion. In Russia and CIS area universities the educational contents of Korean literature textbooks are setting according to the author’s personal opinion. In the study were considered such aspects as: The general thought of Korean literature, The characteristics of Korean literature, The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea, The characteristics of Korean classical literature, The characteristics of Korean modern literature, The characteristics of the Contemporary Korean literature, The criticism of Korean literature, The methods of teaching Korean literature, The practical using of cultural contents of Korean literary works, The present and the future of Korean literature, Segmented literature and the literature of North Korea, Korean and East Asian literature, Historical consideration of Korean literature, The understanding of the Korean literary works, The comparison of Korean and Russian literature, The theory and practice of translating Korean literary works. This study is worthy of providing basic data for the follow-up study of scholars studying Korean literary in Russia, CIS area, Korea and other foreign countries, and teaching materials of professors teaching Korean literature.

Keywords

Korean literature; Korean literature curriculum; Korean literary elements; Chinese-language literature in Korea; Korean classical literature; Korean modern literature; Universality of Korean literature; Uniqueness of Korean literature.

Introduction

The process of teaching and learning a language should not be based only on vocabulary and grammar materials, but also on learning more about consciousness and the way of thinking of the native speakers, what can be a great help in order to communicate with them. Intellectual structure of the target language, as well as the historical and mental values expressed in the language, cannot be properly understood without some knowledge about the culture and literature. However, language education is ultimately an activity and inquiry based on the nature of language, what is closely related to the goal of literary education - the achievement of humanity through literacy [1] Literature in language education can be an important teaching - learning material and a goal for the essence of language activity or for literary activities. Since the literary language is the closest to the language of everyday life, it is useful for language learning process.

This can be seen in the fact that literary works are an effective method to learn dialects, orthonyms, etc., as there are phrases such as idioms, proverbs, and literary expressions [2].

The role of literary education in Korean language education program has been neglected in the meantime. There are not so many researches about the connection between Korean language education and Korean literacy education and contents of Korean literature as a study for foreigners and teaching - learning method.

In Korea, after scholar's discontinuities, the contents of literature textbooks for high school students are fully designated by the Ministry of Education. However, Korean universities try to overlook the contents of high school textbook with the author's discretion as a meaningful part of literary literacy for the native people. Moreover, in Russia, it consists of translation of Korean books or contents of author's bias. In other words, Korean literature books published in Korea and Russia are different. And that fact shows that the authors have different intuition about the elements of Korean literature.

Preliminary research: There are scholars who provided the basis of research related to the globalization of Korean literature and Korean literature textbooks. Such as authors of works about importance of literacy education in order to improve communication skills: in foreign languages - Fountas IC, Pinnell GS (2001), Carter R, Long N (1991), and Collie J, Slater S (1988), and in Korean language - Kim Dae Haeng (2000), Yun Yeo Tak (2002, 2003), Kim Kwang He (2007). There are also researches about Korean literature textbooks for foreigners by Yun Yeo Tak (2007), Im Jung Woo (2015), Lee Chang Sik (2014), Pae Gyu Beom (2010, 2014) Korean literature textbooks in Russia were analyzed by Yeryomenko LE, Ivanova VI (1964), Nikitina MI (1982), Soldatova MV, Park KA (2003), Trocevich AF (2004), Kim VN, Park IL, Saidazimova UT (2009), Kim GN (2011), Voitishek EE, Loseva ES. (2010), Tsoy IV (2012), Hohlova EA (2015), Ko Yeoung Cheol (2016).

The purpose of this research is to analyze literature elements that can be included in textbooks in order to provide for Russian students an opportunity to experience Korean emotions through Korean literature education. The following topics are set.

Firstly, the content of Korean literature as a purpose to promote Korean language to foreigners

Secondly, the content of Korean literature as a way to understand Korean culture and soul

Thirdly, the identity of Korean literature, history and periodicity, locality (North and South Koreans, overseas Koreans), universality, specificity, sociality (social class, occupation).

Research issues: Legal criteria of Korean literature curriculum in Korea, content of Korean textbooks, contents of Korean literature textbooks in Russia and CIS, the role of elements of Korean literature for Russian and CIS college students.

Research method: analysis of literature and data related to Korean literature in Korea, Russia and CIS region, a questionnaire survey for Russian university students.

Research content: The contents of research for the Selection of Korean literature education contents for Russian universities are as follows.

Firstly, analysis of literature and data related to Korean literature in Korea

Secondly, analysis of Korean literature textbook's contents in Russia and CIS area.

Thirdly, questionnaire survey for Russian university students.

Research subjects: Research subjects for Selection of Korean literature education contents for Russian universities are as follows;

Firstly, Textbooks and books in Korea: Korean literature textbooks for High school and university students, contents of works that are related to Korean literature

Secondly, Textbooks and books in Russia: Contents of works that are related to Korean literature

Thirdly, the elements of Korean literature that Russian students are interested in.

Meaning of the research: The purpose of this study is to examine the contents of Korean literature and present the standard of contents for Korean literature education in Russian universities. The value of the research is presented as a follow-up study of Korean literature curriculum and basic data material for the lessons.

Contents of Korean Literature Textbooks for High School and University Students

Table 1 below shows the contents and standards of Korean literary textbooks announced by the Ministry of Education Notice No. 2009-41 on December 23, 2009, regarding the revision of Korean literary textbooks that currently in use by Korean high school students [3].

Table 1. Contents and area of Korean literature.

Particulars Content
Acceptance and production of literature - Composition principle of literary works
- Literature and adjacent fields
- Literature and media
- Critical acceptance of literature and creative production
Scope and History of Korean Literature - Tradition and characteristics of Korean literature
- Korean Literature and Society
- The fields and flows of Korean literature
- The universality and specificity of Korean literature
Literature and Life - Literature and Ego
- Literature and thinking
- Literature and the diversity of life
- Literature and community

Table 1 [4] is an overview of the overall contents of Korean literature textbooks. It consists of two hours of class per week during the first year (2 semesters) for high school students in Korea. This content is legal content designated by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and is worthy of reference to the content of literary education in the field of Korean language education for foreigners.

Analysis of 13 textbooks recently published for Korean high school literacy course and university literacy course showed that Korean literary textbooks for foreigners have begun to be published for the general theory of Korean literature, history of Korean literature, explanations of Korean literature, description of works, and recent globalization of Korean literature. The works are as follows.

Firstly, textbooks with characteristics of Korean literature, history of literature and major works by genre that presented by the textbook for high school students by Lim Jung Woo (2015) which briefly presents the contents of various fields of Korean literature, and textbook for high school and college students by Kim Heung Gyu (2010).

Secondly, textbooks which include historical review of Korean literature, such as The Introduction of the national literature by Kim Kwang Sun (2008), The introduction of Korean Literature by Cho Gyu Ik (2015) and Korean modern literature by Kim Yun Sik (2008)..

Thirdly, textbooks which include characteristics of scope and fields of Korean literature, such as The understanding of old Korean novel by Cho Dong Il (2008), The understanding of the Korean classic novel by Kim Gyun Tae (2013), The world of the Korean classic novel by Lee Sang Taek (2013) and Korean modern literature by Kim Yun Sik (2008).

Fourthly, Korean literature textbooks for foreigners which were created in purpose of informing foreign countries of Korean literature, such as The understanding of the Korean Literature by Lee Chang Sik (2014), The history of Korean classic literature and History of the Modern Korean Literature for Foreigners by Pae Gyu Beom (2010, 2014), The education of Korean Literature for Foreigners by Yun Yeo Tak (2007).

Table 2 summarizes the contents of 13 high school and college textbooks published in Korea by analyzing its timing, content and characteristics.

Table 2. Analysis of Korean Literature Textbooks in Korea.

Textbook Timing Content and characteristics
Han Cheol Woo. Literature for High School [5] Ancient-Modern Characteristics and Production of Korean Literature (Characteristics of Korean Literature, Works by Genre), Scope and History of Korean Literature (Works by Period), Literature and Life (Understanding of Foreign Literature)
Lee Chang Sik. Understanding of the Korean Literature [6] Ancient-Modern The recognition of genre in Korean literature and writing (periodical literature), the phenomenon of Korean literature and the world (literary works by period genre), the future of Korean literature
Kim Heung Gyu. Understanding of the Korean Literature. [7] Ancient-Modern The area of Korean literature, scope of Korean literature, language style and criticism, literary criticism, circulation of literary works, and the status of Korean literature
Kim Kwang Soon. The Introduction of the national literature [8] Ancient-19C Character, concept, scope, field, view and attitude of Korean literature, description of ancient poetry and genre
Cho Dong Il. Understanding of old Korean novel [9] Ancient The two directions of novel theory (dialectic and bio-poetry), the stylistic view for understanding the novel, the method of creation and narrative technique of the oil paddy plant, the search for the creative driver of the imperial pilgrimage, the aspect of Korean literature in Japan
Kim Gyun Tae. Understanding of the Korean classic novel [10] Ancient The origin and development of classical novels, the author of classical novels and the distribution process of readers, the style and expression of classical novels, Chinese novels, Korean novels (genre), Korean classical novels in East Asia,
Lee Sang Taek. The world of the Korean classic novel [11] Ancient The concept and characteristics of Korean classical novels, Genesis, sub-genres and types, authors, themes, motifs and their fantasy characters, compositional principle, world view, notation and modern significance.
Pae Gyu Beom, History of Korean classic literature [12] Appeal period-Ancient Dangun Myths and Founding Myths, Explanation of Ancient Works by Genre, Explanation of all Korean Classical Works until 1692
Cho Gyu Ik, Introduction of Korean Literature [13] Ancient Genre (description of genre, new prospect), ancient poetry
Kim Yun Sik, Korean modern literature [14] 1910-1970 Analysis of Genres by New Generation, Analysis of Genre by 1920, Modern Character of Korean Criticism, Movement of Critical Modernism in Professional Literature, Analysis of Genre by the 30's, 40 Years of Korean Literature, Novels and Criticism of Liberation Spaces, 1960s genre analysis
Kim Yun Sik. The history of Korean Literature [15] Modern-Contemporary Methodology criticism, Growth of modern consciousness, Enlightenment and Nationalism, Discovery of individuals and peoples, restructuring and discovery of the nation
Bae Gyu Beom The history of the Modern Korean Literature for Foreigners [17] Modern-Contemporary Explanation of periodical background and trends from the period of flowering to the 1980s
Yun Yeo Tak. The education of Korean Literature for Foreigners [2] Modern age The status of Korean education (Korean Education and Korean Studies, New Challenges of Korean Language Education, Korean Education and Culture Education), Korean language and literature education (Objectives of Korean Literature Education, Teaching and Learning of Korean Literature, Disruption of Modern Literature in Korean Education, Korean Language Education and Modern City Education), The Field of Korean Literature Education in America and China

Table 3 summarizes what kind of contents are included in Korean literary textbooks, Korean history of literature, general literature, goals and methods, introduction of works, and teaching-learning methods.

Table 3. Analyzing contents of Korean textbooks about Korean literature.

Textbook History of literature General Literature (Characteristics of Korean Literature) Goals and methods Introduction of works Teaching-learning methods
Han Cheol Woo (2015) All periods 0 0 0 0
Lee Chang Sik (2014) All periods 0 0 0 0
Kim Heung Gyu (2010) All periods 0 0 0 0
Kim Kwang Soon (2008) Classic 0 0 0 0
Pae Gyu Beom (2010) Classic X X 0 X
Kim Yun Sik (2008) Modern 0 0 0 0
Pae Gyu Beom [16] Modern 0 X 0 X
Cho Dong Il (2008) X 0 0 0 0
Kim Gyun Tae (2013) X 0 0 0 0
Lee Sang Taek (2013) X 0 0 0 0
Cho Gyu Ik (2015) X 0 0 0 X
Kim Yun Sik (2012) X 0 0 X X
Yun Yeo Tak (2007) X 0 0 X 0

According to Table 2, the contents of textbooks mainly consist of information about history of literature. Because of the quantity of textbooks, we can see that the scope of literature history is divided into ancient and modern parts. There are books consisting of only classic novels and books consisting of modern novels. There are also books composed of general literature and criticism. The recent phenomenon is the book which comprehensively and simply comprehends the contents of Korean literature for foreigners. It is thought that this phenomenon will be continuously increased by the increase of the learners among the foreigners and the contents will be supplemented and published.

Contents of Korean Literature Education of Russian and CIS Area Universities

The following are the major books and college textbooks published for university education in relation to Korean literature in the Russian and CIS regions between 1964 and 2016.

Firstly, the General history of Korean literature from the ancient literature to the 21st century by Ko Yong Chol (KFU, 2016), Korean Literature by Voitishek EE, Losev ES (NSU, 2011) and Korean literary tradition (Higher School of Economics, 2015).

Secondly, works about history of Korean literature from the ancient times to the nineteenth century, such as The history of the evolution of Korean Literature by VN, Park IL, Saidazimova UT (2009) and The history of the traditional Korean literature (till the 20th century) by Trocevich AF (2004).

Thirdly, works with summarizing contents of Korean literature from the contemporary to the modern era, such as Modern Korean Literature by Soldatova MV, Park KA (Far East Federal University, 2003), Modern Literature of the Republic of Korea by Kim G.N. (National University of Kazakhstan, 2011) and Korean Literature of the second half of the 20th century by Tsoy IV (2012).

Fourthly, works about Korean literature by Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, such as Ancient Korean poetry in connection with ritual and myth by Nikitina MI, Koncevich LR (1982) and Korean Literature: A short essay by Yeryomenko LE, Ivanova VI(1964).

Table 4 summarizes the contents of 10 Korean literary textbooks in Russia and CIS regions by analyzing its timing, content and characteristics.

Table 4. Comparative Table of Contents of Korean Literature Textbook in Russia and CIS Area.

Textbook Timing Content and characteristics
Ko Young Cheol, Korean literature for foreigners [17] Appeal period-2015 Literary change process, historical background and literary situation, genre explanation, major work description and commentary
Voitishek E.E., Losev E.S., Korean Literature [18] Ancient-20C Explanation of the phenomenon of Korean literature, the position of Korean literature in world literature, the influence of Chinese literature, Korean literature as bilingual, originality and creativity of Korean literary genre, colonial literature, division literature, formation of modern literature
Hohlova E.A. The visual art of the object region (Korea). [19] Ancient-1945 Explanation of the phenomenon of Korean literature, myths and legends, character and genre description by period, Chinese influence and creativity of Korean literature, cultural colony, division literature
A.F. The history of the traditional Korean literature (till the 20th century) [20] Appeal period-19C Dangun, etc. Myths, Fragrances, Chinese poetry, Buddhist poetry, Explanation of Chinese literary works and their relation with Chinese literature, Drama and pansori, Chinese drama
Kim V.N., Park I.L., Saidazimova U.T. The history of the evolution of Korean Literature [21] Appeal period-19C Myths, Chinese poetry, Goryeo literature, "Trifling sayings" phesol, Literature of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) and description of major works, Traditional genres of poetry and prose, Poetry of Sijo and Kasa, Prose in Chinese
Soldatova M.V., Park K.A. Modern Korean Literature [22] 1910-1980 Formation of Modern Literature, Explanation of Works by Genre, Division Status and Divisional Literature, Explanation of Literary Works in 1980. Korean Literature Trend of 20C-21C Transition
Kim G.N. Modern Literature of the Republic of Korea [23] 1950-1980 Description by characteristic, Postwar literature, 70-80s, Modern Literature, Female Literature, Split the motherland as a literary theme and literature of divided nation.
Tsoy I.V. Korean Literature of the second half of the 20th century [24] 1950 – Modern period Establishment of Korean Literature in the second half of 20C, Explanation of representative works by trends and genres of contemporary and modern era, Presenting list of North Korean literature
Nikitina M.I., Koncevich L.R. Ancient Korean poetry in connection with ritual and myth [25] 7C-Middle period Description of myths, traditions of the Unified Silla period and the Goryeo period, the influence of Buddhism, Buddhism, funeral ceremonies, and shamanistic performances
Yeryomenko L.E., Ivanova V.I. Korean Literature: A short essay [26] 1910-1950 Poetry, prose, Proletarian Literature, War Literature etc. North Korean literature

Selection of the Education Contents of Korean Literature for the Russian Universities

Based on the contents of 13 Korean textbooks on the theme of Korean literature, the criterion for the selection items of Korean literature are as follows.

Selection criteria: Choosing the core of Korean literature; Elements consist of essential elements; Consider universal and general literature aspects; Aspects that can be used for the education

The components and items of the Korean

Based on the criterions, mentioned above, the components and items of the contest of the Korean literary education are described in the Table 5.

Table 5. The components and items of the contest of the Korean literary education [27].

The main components of the Korean literature The main items of the Korean literature
1. The general thought of Korean literature The internalization of literary works, an extension of creative thinking, different lifestyle interests, communication with the community, the cultural development of the community
2. The characteristics of Korean literature The scope and fields of Korean literature, The tradition and characteristic of Korean literature, The universality and specificity of Korean literature, Recognition and methods of Korean literature, The style features of Korean literature, The phenomenon and the world of Korean literature
3. The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak) Characteristic of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak), The influence of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak) in Korean literature, Exclusion and tolerance of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak), The difference in hyangchal, idu and gugyeol
4. The characteristics of Korean classical literature The development of Korean classical literature, Identity, Theme, Composition principle, Motive, An outlook on the world, Writing methods, Matters to be noted while reading Korean classical literature, The modern meaning of Korean classical literature, The rules of Korean lyrics
5. The characteristics of Korean modern literature The structure of confession novels, Essays of 1920, The poetry of the Dark Ages of 1930, The literature of emancipation period, Post-war novel
6. The characteristics of the Contemporary Korean literature The characteristics of contemporary Korean literature, The connection between modern society and contemporary literature, The literature of the 20th century
7. The criticism of Korean literature The aspects of the criticism of Korean literature, The criticism of the professional literature, The criticism of contemporary literature, The distribution of literary works, National literature and world literature
8. The methods of teaching Korean literature The methods of teaching Korean literature and literary works
9. The practical using of cultural contents of Korean literary works The practical using of the cultural contents of classical and modern literature
10. The present and the future of Korean literature Discovery of songs’ appearance and the nation, Discovery of the development of modern conscious, individuals and peoples through the literature, the future of Korean literature
11. Segmented literature and the literature of North Korea The proletarian literature, Segmented literature, the characteristics of the literature of North Korean, The similarity and the difference between the South Korean and North Korean literature
12. Korean and East Asian literature Korean classical literature in the East Asian literature, The loan of Japanese literature in Korean literature, The loan of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak) in Korean literature
13. Historical consideration of Korean literature The flow of Korean literature from the ancient times to the present days
14. The understanding of the Korean literary works Ancient literature, Goryeo, the early Joseon period, the late Joseon period, Colonial period, The literature of emancipation period, Segmented literature, Modern literary works.
Genre: 1. Gojeonsiga 2. Hyangga (native songs) 3. Goryeo gayo (Goryeo songs) 4. Gyeong-gichega 5. Akchang (words of songs) 6. Sijo (current melodies) 7. Kasa (verses) 8. Folk songs (min-yo) 9. Sog-yo 10. Muga 11. Chinese-language literature in Korea (Hanmunhak) 12. Classic novel 13. Classical prose 14. Narratives (myths, legends, folktales) 15. Gajeon literature 16. Paegwan literature 17. Classical essays 18. P’ansori (story singing) 19. Mask plays 20. Proverbs and puzzle 21. Modern Korean poetry 22. Modern Korean novels 23. Essay 24. Drama 25. K-pop songs 26. 21th century cyber literature
15. The comparison of Korean and Russian literature Universality of Korean and Russian literature, The comparison of the characteristics of Korean and Russian literature, The comparison of the major authors, The comparison of the major literary works
16. The theory and practice of translating Korean literary works The characteristic of the language of the Korean literary works, The characteristics of Russian language, The theory of translation, The practice of translation

The following is a summary of the contents of each semester’s lecture in relation to the Korean literature class at the Russian university. For example, in the case of the Kazan Federal University, the student majoring in the Korean language and literature are given lectures 4 hours per week from the 2nd semester of the second year till the 2nd semester of the fourth grade.

Since there are five semesters in total, students are able to compile textbooks in five areas. In this case, it can be classified as shown in Table 6 based on the selected Korean literature elements and items.

Table 6. Major thematic classification of Korean literature.

Semester Classification Elements Items
1 Ancient Korean literature 1. The general thought of Korean literature
2. The characteristics of Korean literature
3. The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak)
4. The characteristics of Korean classical literature
13. Historical consideration of Korean literature (ancient)
The internalization of literary works, an extension of creative thinking, different lifestyle interests, communication with the community, the cultural development of the community, The scope and fields of Korean literature, The tradition and characteristic of Korean literature, The universality and specificity of Korean literature, Recognition and methods of Korean literature, The style features of Korean literature, The phenomenon and the world of Korean literature, Characteristic of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak), The influence of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak) in Korean literature, Exclusion and tolerance of Chinese-language literature in Korea (Korea hanmunhak), The difference in hyangchal, idu and gugyeol, The development of Korean classical literature, Identity, Theme, Composition principle, Motive, An outlook on the world, Writing methods, Matters to be noted while reading Korean classical literature, The modern meaning of Korean classical literature, The rules of Korean lyrics, The flow of Ancient Korean literature
2 Modern literature 5. The characteristics of Korean modern literature
6. The characteristics of the Contemporary Korean literature
10. The present and the future of Korean literature 11. Segmented literature and the literature of North Korea
13. Historical consideration of Korean literature (modern)
The structure of confession novels, Essays of 1920, The poetry of the Dark Ages of 1930, The literature of emancipation period, Post-war novel, The characteristics of contemporary Korean literature, The connection between modern society and contemporary literature, The literature of the 20th century, Discovery of songs’ appearance and the nation, Discovery of the development of modern conscious, individuals and peoples through the literature, the future of Korean literature, The proletarian literature, Segmented literature, the characteristics of the literature of North Korean, The similarity and the difference between the South Korean and North Korean literature, The flow of Modern Korean literature
3 Ancient literary works 7. The criticism of Korean literature (ancient)
9. The practical using of cultural contents of Korean literary works (ancient)
14. The understanding of the Korean literary works (ancient)
The aspects of the criticism of Korean literature, National literature and world literature, The practical using of the cultural contents of classical and modern literature, Ancient literature, Goryeo, the early Joseon period, the late Joseon period
4 Modern literary works 7. The criticism of Korean literature (modern)
9. The practical using of cultural contents of Korean literary works (modern)
14. The understanding of the Korean literary works (modern)
The aspects of the criticism of Korean literature, The criticism of the professional literature, The criticism of contemporary literature, The distribution of literary works, Colonial period, The literature of emancipation period, Segmented literature, Modern literary works
5 The theory and practice of translating 8. The methods of teaching Korean literature
12. Korean and East Asian literature
15. The comparison of Korean and Russian literature
16. The theory and practice of translating Korean literary works
The methods of teaching Korean literature and literary works, Korean classical literature in the East Asian literature, The loan of Japanese literature in Korean literature, The loan of Chinese literature in Korean literature, Universality of Korean and Russian literature, The comparison of the characteristics of Korean and Russian literature, The comparison of the major authors, The comparison of the major literary works, The characteristic of the language of the Korean literary works, The characteristics of Russian language, The theory of translation, The practice of translation

The above Table 6, “Major thematic classification of Korean literature” corresponds to students majoring in Korean language and literature. As for the lecturing Korean literature for 1-2 semesters, it should be organized according to the importance of Korean literature’s elements and items.

Analysis of the Needs of Korean Learners in Russian Universities

The purpose of this research is through the analysis of the learners’ needs and interests reflect the result in the development the elements of Korean literacy curriculum in the Russian universities.

Therefore, according to the above-mentioned Table 5, “The components and items of the contest of the Korean literary education”, students were asked to fill out a questionnaire to respond to the importance of 16 elements. Statistical methods were ranked by the analysis of frequency.

The period of the research: The 1st of September 2016 – The 25th of January 2017

Subject: 80 from 120 students of the 3-4th grade majoring Korean language from Kazan Federal University, Novosibirsk State University, Far Eastern Federal University sent response letters.

The contest: The questions were sent via the Internet in the period from the 10th of January 2017 to the 22nd of January 2017 and later the response letters were received.

The items of the questionnaire presented 16 major items of Korean literary education contents, which were a result of investigation and analysis of university textbooks of Korea, Russia and CIS.

Research methods and procedures:

The respondents ranked 16 main items of Korean literature from 1 to 16 according to their importance.

Data processing method: After the 80 respondents’ answers were summarized and converted into a percentage, the rankings were made by sequence scales also the rankings of importance and interest were calculated.

As a result of a questionnaire survey on the contents of Korean literature from the students majoring in Korean language in Russian universities, Table 7 summarizes what Russian students think is important in the content of Korean literature.

Table 7. Russian students’ opinion on the important items of the teaching Korean literature.

Item Rank average Percent Ranking of the main item Number of responses as №1 Importance
1. Basics of Korean literature (originality, extension of idea etc.) 7.2 5.3 6 15 B
2. Features of Korean literature (universality, singularity etc.) 5.2 3.8 2 21 A
3. The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea 4.9 3.6 1   A
4. Features of classical Korean literature 8.4 6.2 8   B
5. Features of modern Korean literature 5.3 3.9 3 17 A
6. Features of contemporary Korean literature 6.2 4.6 4 8 A
7. The criticism of Korean literature 10.1 7.4 14   D
8. Learning and teaching of Korean literature 8.8 6.5 9 13 B
9. Using cultural contest of the literary works 11.2 8.2 15   D
10. The present and future of Korean literature 7.0 5.1 5   A
11. Segmentedg literature and literature of North Korea 10.1 7.4 13   D
12. Korean and East Asian literature 9.8 7.2 11   B
13. Historical research of Korean literature 14.1 10.4 16   D
14. Korean literary works 7.8 5.7 7   B
15. Comparative literature (Korea and Russia) 10.1 7.4 12   D
16. The theory and the practice of translation (The translation of Korean literature) 9.8 7.2 10 6 B
Other 136.0 100.0      

According to the Table 7:

First, there is no significant difference in responses between rankings rate of each element.

Without a doubt all of these 16 elements have already been recognized as elements of Korean Korean literary education by the students.

It can be seen that there is no interest in only number 13 ' Historical research of Korean literature ' and number 9 “Using cultural contest of the literary works”

Second, the main items are: The characteristics of Chineselanguage literature in Korea, Features of Korean literature, Features of modern Korean literature, Features of contemporary Korean literature, The present and future of Korean literature. In fact, the current Russian and CIS textbooks have overlooked this point.

Third, the non-critical factors are: Historical research of Korean literature, Using cultural contest of the literary works, The criticism of Korean literature, Segmentedg literature and literature of North Korea, Comparative literature (Korea and Russia). This result is considered to be due to the fact that it is a professional content and might be the burden.

Fourth, according to the number of respondents of the first place, the responses show the characteristics of each student. In other words, the 3rd “The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea“ is the first among all respondents, but no respondents think it is the most important.

Due to the lack of sufficient teachers, who can teach the characteristics of Hanmuhak in Russia and CIS regions, it is considered that the answer is based on the fact that learners have a desire to learn it, but apparently have no opportunity.

Features of Korean literature (universality, singularity ect.), Features of modern Korean literature, Basics of Korean literature (originality, extension of idea ect.), Learning and teaching of Korean literature are considered to be the key elements of the contest of the education.

In addition, it can be seen that the respondents who are interested in “The theory and the practice of translation (The translation of Korean literature)” are looking forward to professional translation of Korean literature in the future.

Conclusion

The purpose of this study is to present the items of Korean literary education in Russia as a basic study for standardization of future contents of Korean literary education.

As a result of studying contents of Russian and CIS high school and university textbooks about Korean literature, the whole contents of Korean literature could be grouped into 16 elements such as: The general thought of Korean literature, The characteristics of Korean literature, The characteristics of Chinese-language literature in Korea, The characteristics of Korean classical literature, The characteristics of Korean modern literature, The characteristics of the Contemporary Korean literature, The criticism of Korean literature, The methods of teaching Korean literature, The practical using of cultural contents of Korean literary works, The present and the future of Korean literature, Segmented literature and the literature of North Korea, Korean and East Asian literature, Historical consideration of Korean literature, The understanding of the Korean literary works, The comparison of Korean and Russian literature, The theory and practice of translating Korean literary works.

These 16 items have been divided into themes “Korean Ancient Literature, Korean Modern Literature, Ancient Literary Works, Modern Literary Works, Translation Theory and Practice".

As a result of analyzing needs of learners, we should not overlook the specifics of the general thought and characteristics of Korean literature. The accumulation of data on the general, universal, and peculiarities of Korean literature as well as training the teachers should be essential part of the education.

In addition, since the learners are more interested in studying the essence of Korean literature as well as modern and contemporary literature rather than the historical review of Korean literature, ancient literature, criticism of Korean literature and comparative literature, there is a need in setting up and teaching appropriate Korean literature items.

Recommendations

As the main purpose of this research was to study the contents of Korean literature, it was accomplished and as we presented the items of Korean Korean literary education at Russian universities, it can be used as a reference while preparing Korean literature textbooks at Russian universities. For the follow-up study of Korean literature curriculum it can be considered as a basic research material also it can be used as a basic resource for teaching at Russian universities.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Seed Program for Korean Studies through the Ministry of Education of Republic of Korea and Korean Studies Promotion Service of The Academy of Korean Studies (AKS-2016-INC-2230003).

References