Multiplexes and the Cinematic Experience in Nigeria
Department of Mass Communication, Caleb University, Lagos, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Charles Nwachukwu
Department of Mass Communication
Received date: Aug 27, 2018; Accepted date: Sept 01, 2018; Published date: Sept 08, 2018
Citation: Charles Nwachukwu. Multiplexes and the Cinematic Experience in Nigeria. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:31.
Copyright:© 2018 Charles N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Global Media Journal
To Nigerian film goers, the multiplex is a relatively new concept. There is a need to determine and define what constitutes cinematic experience in the multiplex. Added to this is the need to assess how impressive multiplex offerings are to the audience. This study adopted the Technological Determinism Theory as well as the Diffusion of Innovation Theory. The methodology of this work straddles both quantitative and qualitative approaches. This has enabled a balance in data gathering, presentation and findings. Simple descriptive statistics was adopted in conjunction with logical interpretation, as well as textual accounts. Parameters covered include external appeal, internal appeal, security, customer service, box office, cinema hall technology, movie experience, audience conduct and post movie impression. It was found that Nigerian multiplex audiences were either quite impressed or excellently impressed with regard to each of the above parameters which constitute multiplex offerings. As a result, the study has succeeded in defining the parameters of the multiplex cinematic experience, whilst assessing how multiplex audiences receive multiplex offerings.
Offerings; Impression; Multiplex; Cinematic
Those who invented film did not intend to make it a
personal or individual experience. From the very beginning,
film was always exhibited to audiences comprising varying
numbers of groups of viewers. From the family to small closed
venues, to the nickelodeons, to designated film theatres, to
larger and more sophisticated film houses and on to present
day multiplexes, film viewing has remained a collective
audience experience. Although more films are watched at the
personal and family levels due to the emergence of digital
video, the cinematic experience, will of necessity, entail a
degree of social interaction. This study attempts to capture all
the elements that contribute to make the cinematic experience in multiplexes in Nigeria. Multiplexes exist in Lagos,
Part-Harcourt and Abuja, however the experiences captured at
Genesis Cinemas, Maryland and Silverbird Cinemas, Ikeja,
Nigeria shall be used a representative sample.
Many factors or elements work together to deliver what
constitutes a particular cinematic experience for any particular
viewer. In this work, the participant observers watched two
films at two multiplexes, namely: Jurassic Park 2 and Black
Panther. The latter presented a superior and more exciting
movie experience, therefore a full account of that experience
will be presented later. This paper looks at all the elements
that make a cinematic experience in a multiplex in Nigeria
unique and outstanding. Additionally, it assesses the level of
impression as well as satisfaction that aggregate multiplex
offerings have on the Nigerian film goer.
A multiplex is a large film theatre facility comprising a
number of cinema halls. These venues screen different films
for different audience types simultaneously and continually.
Multiplexes are fitted with modern film screening technologies
as well as facilities and provision for convenience, relaxation
and refreshment. A cinematic experience captures all that is
made available by the cinema management to ensure that the
viewer enjoys the outing. This starts as soon as the film-goer
steps into the multiplex, continues during the screening and
ends when he or/she steps out of the facility.
The study set out to find answers to the problem of not
knowing what constitutes the offerings of the Nigerian
multiplex. It also aims at discerning the impression created
when film audiences are exposed to these offerings.
Concerning this study, the research questions are twofold.
Firstly, what are the elements that constitute cinematic
experience in a multiplex in Nigeria? The second question that
the study attempted to answer is: Does the multiplex
cinematic experience meet and surpass the expectation of the
Nigerian film goer?
This study seeks to determine and assess, what constitutes
the total multiplex film experience for the Nigerian film goer,
especially the first time, viewer. More than anything else, what
makes the critical different between the traditional single screen film house and the ultra-modern multiplex is
technology. To that extent, therefore, the Technological
Determinism Theory and the Diffusion of Innovation Theory
are considered appropriate for adoption here.
Developed by the legendary Canadian scholar Marshall
McLuhan in the 1960s, the Technological Determinism Theory
attempts to explain the role that media technology plays in the
evolvement of culture in any given society. It gauges the extent
to which technology either slowly or speedily leads to a
concomitant change in the culture and way of life of people
and, eventually, societies . In the unequivocal view of
Marshall Mchuhan media technology lends dominance to
media of mass communication. This dominance lends to such
media concerns the power to shape and change not just
human culture, but also human existence . McLuhan also
stated that the entire history of humanity is dominated by four
powerful communication modes, namely: acoustic age, literate
age, print age and electronic age. One age gives way to the
other, which in turn yields to the next, and so on. All this while,
such transitions have been driven by technology in one form
According to McLuham, ‘‘the age of electronic
communication had just arrived. Just as print transformed the
old tribal age, so does the electronic media, and it would
transform the great culture of print.” Organ and Uche both
agree that media technologies empower dominant media .
Such dominant media carry dominant cultures that are
products of the West. Film, when it was invented started off a
kind of dominant culture. ‘‘Its content carries dominance and,
sadly, it has had a huge impact on Nigerian cultures, the
primary one being Westernization” .
Closely related to the Technological Determinism Theory,
but by far more complex than it, is the Diffusion of Innovation
Theory. Rogers EM hinged this theory on adoption and the
processes involved . According to him, innovation leads to
eventual adoption which undergoes different, stages and
processes. Diffusion has to do with the complex process of
taking a particular innovation into the recesses of society.
Rogers borrowed from the original ideas of Ryan and Gross.
Their research work at Iowa University in 1943 dwelt on the
assumption that innovation could spread or it could diffuse.
Essentially, the theory insists that there are five key stages that
any innovation passes through before becoming adopted.
These are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial and then
adoption. According to him, innovation leads to eventual
adoption which undergoes different stages and processes.
These are awareness interest, evaluation, trial and then
adoption. The stages are self-explanatory and they build up
one another until the final result is accomplished.
Furthermore, according to this theory, adoption is also
classified into five categories that underscore the diffusion of
innovation. Early adopters are those who embrace the
technology as soon as it is introduced. They are eager and
enthusiastic. These people have power and influence in the
society. They earn high incomes and have good access the
Adopters are those who embrace innovation, not as soon
as it is introduced but during the early stages. They are made
up of more persons than those who belong to the category of
early adopters. Those who do not adopt at the very early
stages of introduction, but cautiously follow the footsteps of
the adopters constitute the Early Majority.
They are then joined by the Late Majority who has taken
their time to analyze and weight the cost and risks involved in
adopting the innovation. This constitutes the late team, and
they have no apologies for coming late to the party.
For a number of reasons, including mindset, attitude,
money, orientation, experience and faith there are those who
just refuse to embrace innovation. These people are not
interested in the gains and advantages of adoption innovation.
They continue to disregard innovation with a strong attitude
and indifference. This group is made of individuals identified
by the Diffusion of Innovation Theory as the Laggards.
As far as this study is concerned, this theory is already
showing relevance in the Nigerian setting. The concept of
multiplexes is clearly an innovation in Nigeria. Whereas
Nigerians film audiences were used to the single screen model
from the late 1950s, multiplexes began to arrive in Nigeria less
than ten years ago. Those film goers who quickly embraced
the technology were the Early Adopters. These people were
then followed by the Adopters, who followed after the early
adopters. We are presently at a stage where the early majority
is actively at work. Perhaps in the next five years, the late
Majority would be known; so would the Laggards.
Cinema in Nigeria
For Nigeria, the cinematic experience began in 1903 when
the Spanish company Balboa exhibited a film at the Glover
memorial Hall, Lagos. The then Colonial Film Unit had
responsibility for film policy and administration in Nigeria.
Between the colonial film unit, missionaries and a few private
concerns, films were shown from time to time, particularly in
the Lagos area [6,7]. From the 1930s, a few venues designated
“film houses” and dedicated to film viewing began to emerge.
It was not until the 1960s that custom-built film theatres
sprang up in major cities, driven by Lebanese businessman .
By this time, the first golden age of film in Nigeria I had
arrived. Notable Nigerian film makers who were active in the
production of local films on the celluloid format included
Hubert Ogunde, Ola Balogun, Eddie Ugboma and, Ade
Afolayan. The films made by these individuals’ captivated
audiences across the land.
More film theatres were built and soon, other film makers
such as Moses Olaiya (Baba Sala) here Paimo and Isola
Ogunsola, to mention a few, joined in. Viewership was
enthusiastic, but the Indian and Chinese films continued to
garner more patronage.
The arrival of television in Nigeria, in 1959 was seen by
some as the beginning of the end of film in Nigeria. The reverse has, however, proved to be the case, Television has
served the cause of film, as film-makers of the first generation
used it as a platform to ascend unto the world of film. Ogunde
and Olaiya were quite visible on the defunct WNTV, but quickly
and effectively transformed when film became a more
attractive alternative .
Despite threats to the continuing flourish of cinema in
Nigeria in the immediate post 1990 era due to crippling
challenges, it re-emerged through a most unlikely source.
Kenneth Nnebue’s experiment with video recording in 1992
signalled the beginning of a more glorious dispensation for
cinema. With the birth of Nollywood came a re-awakening of
the entertainment culture. Since then, the entertainment film
has dominated the market place. They home video also
challenged the dominance of cinema going. Owing to its
accessibility and lower cost, an overwhelming majority of
Nigerian film viewers embraced the home video.
Today, cinema going has returned, stronger and better.
Technology has led to tremendous improvement in film
quality, film exhibition and cinema offerings. Multiplexes are
few and far between in Nigeria, with Lagos, Abuja and Port-
Harcourt in the vanguard, it is expected that the multiplex
concept will attract millions of potential film goers to
experience its exquisite offerings. There is also the possibility
that multiplexes will give way to Megaplexes in the not too
The Multiplex as a Concept
When a movie theatre is called a Multiplex, it means that
that film theater has more than three screens under the same
roof . It is specially organized, constructed, equipped and
managed to meet stakeholders’ expectations. Multiplexes
normally have up to 16 movie screens, depending on business
objectives and availability of funds. Beyond this number, the
megaplex takes over; in other words, when a multiplex
expands its number of movies screens above 16, it ceases to
be a multiplex and transforms into a magaplex .
Usually, the management of huge multiplexes is made
easier through the use of the Multiplex Management System
Software. This enables the planning, selection and exhibition
of movies in the different cinema halls to be smooth, effective
and hitch free . Multiplex management is driven by
consumerism. As a rule, multiplexes are either located within
the vicinity of a shopping mall, or they are built in as a part of
the original designs for shopping malls. The idea is to create
many appetites for the consumer; for example, a family that
comes in for a Saturday morning shopping could decide to
have refreshments at the restaurant before proceeding to
watching the next big movie, all in one place. The logic in this
sales pitch is that it brings many things that the consumer
could desire, virtually under one roof. Therefore, shopping
malls and multiplexes seem to thrive in a sort of symbiotic
A look at the Indian example will show that country had 73
multiplexes in 2004, with a total of 276 screens. Although this
figure only represented 0.6% of a total number of over 12000
film houses in Indian, multiplexes accounted for about 34% of
total box office takings. It is clear that Indian film goers prefer
multiplexes, to single or double screen film theaters . The
Indian film goer may not be too different from his Nigerian
counterpart in the preference for multiplexes. According to
this study, the Nigerian film audience already finds multiplex
offerings overwhelming and almost irresistible.
This study combines both the quantitative and the
qualitative approaches in its format and execution. As the
overriding objective remains to determine elements of
multiplex offerings that impress the film goers, a combination
of quantitative and qualitative values are considered germane.
Twelve executive film students were briefed and sent out
to two multiplexes in Lagos; one along Awolowo Road, Ikeja
(Silverbird) and the other at Maryland (Genesis). Notebooks
were provided to each for personal notes based on the entire
cinematic experience. In addition, a questionnaire was drawn
to capture a range of attitudes and impressions in graduating
values. For each parameter, the observer/researchers were
expected to choose from ‘not impressed’, ‘impressed’, ‘quite
impressed’ and ‘excellently impressed’.
Data gathering was through participant observation. This
saw the research assistants go through the cinematic
experience as film goers and researchers, simultaneously.
While the study population was all the multiplexes in Lagos,
Abuja and Port-Harcourt (about 7 in all), sampling was done
using two multiplexes in Lagos. Data was gathered in respect
of the following parameters: External Appeal, Internal Appeal
Security, Customer Service, Box Office, Cinema Hall
Technology, Movie Experience, Audience Conduct and Postmovie
Impression. Data analysis was accomplished through
simple descriptive statistics and presented in frequencies
percentages and tables. On the other hand, data gathered
through the use of qualitative methods are interpreted and
reported as text.
Results and Findings (Quantitative)
Table 1 reflects responses of participant observers on the
external appeal of the multiplex complex. Since external
appearance has a way of either inviting or disgusting the first
time audience member, this parameter is deemed crucial. As it
turned out, 5 of the observers found the facility to be quite
impressive, while 7 considered it to be excellently impressive.
Therefore, this particular facility has succeeded in effectively
inviting the potential film goer into the premises.
Table 1: How inviting is the complex from outside.
According to Table 2, upon stepping into the facility proper,
architectural, decorative and social aesthetics embrace the
film goer, thereby increasing the curiosity to know more and to get more. One hundred per cent of the respondents agree that
the multiplex facility was excellently impressive, aesthetically
Table 2: How aesthetically appealing is the multiplex facility is upon entry.
Table 3 presents data on the respondents’ assessment of
security. The place of security cannot be over-emphasized,
especially in a country that is going through its worst security challenges in a long time. Fifty percent of respondents found
the security architecture to be quite impressive, while another
50% say it was excellently impressive.
Table 3: How well secured is the multiplex facility.
Table 4 presents an assessment of personnel within the
complex, particularly as it has to do with how friendly and
helpful they were. Structures and facilities have their roles in
promoting and marketing any commercial offering. The human
factor is more crucial, as people are more unlikely not to return to a place where they were treated without respect and
regard. Here, 66.7% of respondents found the personnel’s
friendliness and usefulness to be quite impressive, while 33.3%
rate it as excellently impressive.
Table 4: Friendly and helpfulness of the personnel.
Table 5 reflects an assessment of efficiency in ticketing as
well as admission into the film hall. As much as 83.3% say that
these elements were quite impressive, even as 16.7% would consider themselves as excellently impressed. There is still
room, it seems, for improvement.
Table 5: How efficiently is ticketing and admission handled?
Table 6 takes the respondents right into the film hall. It
seeks to elicit their assessment of how technology has been deployed in the auditorium-lighting, sound, screen and
pictures. It turned, out that all the respondents were excellently impressed with the deployment of technology in
the film hall. There is 100% agreement in this regard.
Table 6: How technology has been deployed in the film hall.
Table 7, we see responses with respect to film quality and
presentation. This table captures the quintessence of the
cinematic experience as far as film-goers are concerned. The
film, its story, plot, narrative, drama, conflicts,
characterization, diction, movements, locations, sets, editing
and message are all built into this parameter. As can be seen,
as much as 91.7% have rated film quality and presentation as excellently impressive. The remaining 8.3% were not
disappointed either, though they choose to be slightly
conservative in conveying their impression. For film goers to
thoroughly enjoy any film, fellow members of the audience
must be disciplined, responsible and contained. Riotous
outbursts and relentless shuffling can irritate other members
and sufficiently reduce their enjoyment of the film.
Table 7: Assessment of quality of film and its presentation.
Table 8, audience behavior and conduct have been rated as
quite impressive by 50% of respondents. The other 50% were
slightly more impressed and they describe this parameter as
excellently impressive. For film goers to thoroughly enjoy any
film, fellow members of the audience must be disciplined,
responsible and contained. Riotous outbursts and relentless
shuffling can irritate other members and sufficiently reduce
their enjoyment of the film.
After watching a film, the film goer wants to exist in a
peaceful and orderly fashion. This is expected to be
reciprocated by all viewers in the film hall. Any unnecessary
disturbance or irritation at this end point can ruin an
otherwise terrific experience.
Table 8: To what extent the viewers’ behavior and conduct was acceptable.
Table 9 captures this essence vividly, as 75% considered this
parameter as quite impressive. This leaves 25% opting for the
“excellently impressive evaluation. After watching a film, the
film goer wants to exit in a peaceful and orderly fashion. This is expected to be reciprocated by all viewers in the film hall. Any
unnecessary disturbance or irritation at this end point can ruin
an otherwise sweet and memorable experience.
Table 9: Whether exit was peaceful and orderly.
|Quite impressive 9
|Excellently impressive 3
Results and Findings (Qualitative)
Although the participant observers visited both the Genesis
Cinemas at Maryland and the Silverbird Cinemas on Awolowo
Road, both in Ikeja, the offerings were about the same.
However, the movie experience at Silverbird was more exciting
and engaging; as a result, the account on the visit to Silverbird
Cinemas shall be presented under this section.
Not only is the Silverbird Cinemas located within the Ikeja
shopping mall a fascinating structure to behold on the outside,
its true glitter and allure takes over once one step into the
facility. This particular multiplex comprises five cinema halls.
On the day and time of observation, Hall 1 was offering a
movie titled “Tomb Raider” which stars Alicia Vikander.
Another film “Pacific Rim,” was showing in Hall 2; while Hall 4
offered the Nigerian film “Bound” by Lillian Afegbai. A film by
the Nigerian comedian, Owen Gee titled ‘‘200 million” was
showing in Cinema Hall 4. Black Panther, the preferred film for
this study was up for screening in Hall 3. Beside the cinema
halls was a very cozy relaxation center, on the left side of the
main lobby. This spot was serving meals, snacks and
refreshments to guests. It also served as a luxurious waiting
area in-between films or prior to the commencement of
screening. Intermittently, announcements were made on the
movies for the day. These facilities, services and the general
ambience succeeded in relaxing, refreshing and building up
film-goers’ expectation of the movie to be shown ahead. The
ticketing area was manned by two male employees. They
politely took time to explain the price differences. Adults were
admitted upon the payment of N=2,500 per person. Students
with their identity cards were allowed to watch a film for
N=1,000,00. At the time of observation there was an on-going
promotional activity by Pepsi. Film goers were required to buy
a bottle of Pepsi which qualified them for a raffle in which a
number of guests would with free tickets to see the movie of
Cinema Hall 3, where “Black Panther” was screened has a
large auditorium with a seating capacity of over 500. The space
was clean, and air conditioned for maximum comfort. A
massive, larger than life picture screen was located right in
front of the audience. In contrast, a digital cinema projector
was fitted at the back of the hall, well above the heads of all
seated. State of the art speakers boomed with well-filtered
sound, giving the “sorround” effect. As soon as the lights went,
out and the film started, it was as if the audience was
transported to a place beyond this world. The images were
gigantic, the colours rich and the movements amazing. When
this combined with sound output, the feeling was
With this fascinating feeling the audience was welcomed
to the film proper. “Black Panther” presented an exciting story
to an enthusiastic- and engrossed audience. T’ chaka, king of
Wikanda (an imaginary African country) is killed by Holmulzemo.
This compels his son T’Challa to return home in order to
occupy the vacant throne. His first assignment is to free his exlover-
Nakia who was working as an undercover agent in the sambisa forest, Nigeria. In order to accomplish this, he teams
up Okoye, leader of Dora Milaje.
Then a real threat stares him in the face. M’baku, leader of
the Jobari Tribe challenges him for the crown. In the ensuring
combat T’challa defeats M’baku and is crowned king of
Wakanda. Meanwhile, in faraway England, Klaue and Erik carry
out a heist making away with a piece of Vibranium from the
museum. Vibranium happens to be a solid mineral that can
only be found in Wakanda. Its immense and incomparable
qualities make it priceless. When W’ kabi gets to know of this
development, he appeals to T’Challa, the new king, to do
something to bring the two shady dealers to justice. W’kabi is
obviously doubly offended because his parents had lost their
lives in the hands of the nefarious Klaue and Erik Stevens. A
plan is quickly hatched by T’Challa, Okoye and Nakia to catch
the criminals at the point of their attempt to sell the stolen
The mission is however, aborted by the Dora Milaje when
it becomes clear that the intended buyer of the precious
mineral is no other than a CIA agent called Everett Ross. During
an ensuring car chase across the city by Okoye, Nakia T’Challa
and Ross, Klaue’s car crashes. T’Challa decides not to kill him
but to hand him over to the CIA. On the day of his
interrogation, Erik tries a dare devil operation and succeeds in
rescuing Klaue. Ross is badly injured in this operation and must
be taken back to Wakanda, if his life is to be saved.
Back at Wakanda, Ross is healing well due to the use of the
country’s advanced technology made possible by vibranium.
Meanwhile, T’Challa insists on an explanation about N’Jobu.
Zuri offers it willingly. N’Jobu had planned to share the
vibranium technology of Wakanda with people of African
descent all over the globe as a means of empowering them.
N’Jobu is finally killed in an attempt to arrest him and a lie is
cooked up to the effect that he (N’Jobu) simply disappeared.
The cover-up does not stop there. N’Jobu has an American son
(Erik) who would become Killmonger.
In another sequence, Killmonger succeeds in killing Klaue.
He does not stop there, but takes his body all the way to
Wakanda. Klaue’s is exhibited to community and tribunal
chiefs and at the same time, Killmonger throws a challenge to
T’Challa for the occupancy of the throne. After all, he had just
proven his bravery. A ritual combat ensued; Zuri is killed and
T’Challa defeated. Taking him for dead, Killmonger throws
T’Challa’s body down the waterfall. The antagonist chews up
and swallows special herbs, thus making him the Black
Panther. Although he ordered the rest of the special herb to be
destroyed in Wakand, Nakia manages to hide some.
Killmonger decided to fulfill his late father’s dreams by
trying to make vibrarium available to blacks around the world.
Shipments were to be made to Wakanda’s operatives in Hong
Kong, New York and London. These operatives would in turn,
distribute the uniquely potent resources accordingly.
Action, shifts to the Jabari tribe. M’baku’s people have
retrieved the seemingly lifeless body of T’Challa. This is in
appreciation of T’Challa’s earlier decision to spare N’baku’s life.
Nakia is on hand to administer the powerful herb on T’Challa who is then healed. He vows to challenge Killonger for the
right to the throne of Wakanda. At a different location,
attempt by Killmonger to transport Vibranium to his foreign
operatives suffers a setback. Okoye, the Dora Milaje, as well as
Nakia decide to engage and distract the Wakandan army. A
remote-piloted aircraft flown by Ross is able to bring down the
aircraft carrying the precious cargo out of Wakanda.
Killmonger is livid and weighs in; he clashes with T’Challa who
succeeds in defeating him this time. However, instead of killing
him, the former shows mercy Killmonger would have none of it
and opts to commit suicide..
As the film comes to an end the observers engaged for this
study step out quietly. The audience was warm, friendly and
properly behaved. This leaves the impression of a middle-toupper
class patronage. Once again they were fascinated by the
order, beauty and allure of the facility as they finally exit the
Cinematic experience in this instance has been exciting and
rewarding. This is a result of a combination of elements
engendered by the multiplex management. Firstly, the
aesthetics and visage of the facility was fascinating. The
appearance of the complex silently but powerfully invited the
film goer into the premises. Right inside the premises, the
spread of conveniences as well as relaxation and hospitality
points further reassured the viewer that he or she was truly in
the right place. Therefore, multiplexes through their
astonishing architectural and aesthetic qualities make positive
impressions on film goers. This is further accentuated by the
hospitality and relaxation services available within the
premises. At the box office orderliness, cleanliness combined
with the decency and politeness of staffers to offer a very
The participant observers reported that the multiplex
experience was as overwhelming as it was enthralling. The
offerings met and exceeded their expectations, without doubt
they added. The multiplex cinematic experience was
impressive enough to generate repeat visits in the future.
An experience in a multiplex in Nigeria is nothing to be
compared with an experience in the traditional single screen
film house. Technology has given the added advantages of
comfort, pleasure, safety, convenience, satisfaction amongst
others. These are without doubt, added values that can be
ascribed to the multiplex. Audiences, both fresh and stale find
the cinematic experience of the multiplex complex enthralling
as well as overwhelming. This study has been able to
determine the offerings of the multiplex in Nigeria as well as
the impression that these have on the film goer. As long as
multiplex owners and operators maintain premium keel offerings, audiences will be impressed and business will
blossom beyond dreams. Sadly, however, the huge financial
investments required to set up and manage multiplexes means
that they will continue to be urban delights while rural
enthusiasts are denied this pleasure and recreation, due to no
fault of theirs.
It is pertinent that a few limitations inherent in this study
are mentioned. On data gathering, 12 knowledgeable film
students who were also film goers were used in a participant/
observer status. Also, the sampling technique uses only 2 out
of about 7 multiplexes across Nigeria. This representative
sample is used and results/findings projected to cover the
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