Russian Ballet Poetics in Plastic of Minor Forms in Late 19th Ã¢ÂÂ First Third of 20th Century (to the Problem of World Heritage)
Professor, GBOU HPE Institute of Slavonic culture, Moscow State University of Design and Technology, Moscow, Russia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tatiana Portnova
Professor, Department of Choreography and Art Criticism
Moscow State University of Design and
Tel: 8 903 761 26 69
Received Date: Jan 09, 2017; Accepted Date: Mar 09, 2017; Published Date: Apr 06, 2017
Copyright: © 2017 Portnova T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
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Urgency of the synthesis and interaction of Plastic Arts in late 19th – first third of 20th century is due to rise of the ballet theatre, wide public and especially people of art’s interest, who had strove to lodge the dance in different forms and genres of Arts. The aspects of dance interpretation in means of small sculptures, substantially in porcelain, as the most spectacular in image building, considered in the article. Analyzing trends in the development of ballet and sculptural plasticity of this period, the author shows them in deep mutual integration of artistic and creativity. For the first time a row of the pieces of art, identified and gathered, has been fully analyzed being in central museums of Moscow and Sankt-Petersburg and in foreign private collections. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of figurative plastic arts and features of individual products; there are highlighted their individual typical stylistic and technical features unique for different masters, mainly the Imperial Porcelain Factory. In the article provides new data on many works, resulting from the author’s long-term research.
Figurative dance aesthetics; Integration; Plastic arts
One of the most significant aspects of the Russian artistic
life in early 20th century became energization of arts
interaction, which had led to enrichment of each single field of
artistic endeavor and at the same time to appearance of new
aesthetic phenomenon [1,2]. This article is an experience of
problematic approach to analysis of difficult artistic
phenomenon related to the ballet theatre in early 20th
century with forming of new figurative dance aesthetics. Due
to that fact many of the staginess aspects, which at first glance
could be deemed as sufficiently local, achieve significant
general theoretic and practical importance . Stage
reincarnation, transformation – special condition of
character’s artistic otherness is interesting in respect of inclusion in poetic convention . Herein is obviously possible
not only talk shop of ballet and sculpture, but also find by
filling the ways of much more significant aspects of new
synthesis of the arts development.
The methodology basis of the article area unit general
aesthetic and cultural-historical principles of fabric structuring,
permitting to hide the most problems with formation of 2
styles of fine art since their introduction within the late XIX
century. what is more, the chosen approach permits organizing
the sequence of ballet images’ look in sculptural fine art, light
the precise options of every performance, the worth of various
artistic ways of each masters of sculpture and shown
performers happiness to the 2 main national colleges of
Russian ballet (St. Petersburg Campaign and Moscow). The
chosen approach additionally permits evaluating the
contribution of Russian ceramic ware art within the world
culture. The principle of a rhetorical dominant is key in specific
monuments’ choice of sculptural fine art and makes it doable
to beat the tendency to listing them, to target a holistic
coverage of the inventive culture. additionally, a private
methodology of study relies on modeling totally different
systems of figurative perception of dance. The accents of art
analysis made on specific works of small plastic art or works of
one master give the opportunity to immerse themselves in the
era of the late XIX – the first third of the twentieth century.
They allows to experience its specificity, the uniqueness of the
national school, driving style as a kind of single image system,
understand the common means and techniques of artistic
expression due to the ideological content unity associated with
Russian ballet poetics.
There are different systems of visual thinking in world of art.
Penetration of “decorativism” (ornamentation) into easel
forms became distinctive feature in early 20th century. On the
other hand, small plastic amalgamating with arts and crafts is
gravitating toward easel sculpture . Porcelain plastic art in
late 19th – the first third of the 20th century devoted to ballet
not so much interesting in respect of the certain details’
quality, as completeness and total aesthetic of inherent worth.
I apprehend it as a unity of these factors, as statement of
culture and characteristic phenomenon of the wide attention
of the fine arts to the Russian ballet at the turn of the century
[6-9]. The ballet subject is reflected by many kinds of art as if it
has aspired to perpetuate itself in different techniques,
materials vary in figurative capabilities.
Small sculpture became the most prominent incarnation of
such art’s qualities as naturalness, internal grace and freedom
of plastic expression.
However, what is the measure for contact, another words
“communicative” component of the system of plastic thinking,
which is adhered by the artists? This is a key point, as it’s a
question about work of art, refined, exquisite “elite”
Appeal to ceramic ware for ballet image creation is
conveyable. It’s a strict material, having astonishing
achromatic color, fragility and explicit chime that each one
may transmit essential ballet qualities – snowy purity of image,
unheard music of the motion. The artists dependably
reproduce “emotional field” of the time and will specific their
connections to the ballet image via minor sculptural plastic.
Peculiar means of emotional feeling consonant to
retrospectives sculpturing expresses the cult of beauty, thus as
ballet art will. Thus, there appears fortunate accordance with
mutual treatment of both arts’ qualities. Scilicet images of
porcelain plastic of minor forms and ballet both besteaded to
open up such particular relation that has a secret of synthesis
of these arts. Therefore, that enabled to master it with the
greater fineness and emotional persuasiveness .
The ballet statuettes created by the masters of the
Petersburg Porcelain Factory: Danko, Sydbin, Ivanov, Glebova-
Sudeykina, have been expressively established in respect of
plastique, so they live in ambient space and sounds as a
nocturne, therefore they are interesting and attractive [7-9].
They possess liability inherent in ballet – intimacy. An artist
working with porcelain on a dance image is able to shorten
utterly the distance between original and spectators. Such
confidential contact is similar with perception of live ballet
image on the stage. Conformable intercourse occurs with
ballet motive of indoor sculpture, although the artists working
with minor porcelain plastics have an ability to create
sculptured figure as a sociable companion. Such ability is not a
feature, but the main principle of an image content disclosure.
There is sometimes could be seemed a shade of sugariness
and candy-box beauty, but either or another image, designed
by sculpture in minor form gains full range of artistic
expression in this very dimension. Surely, the artists had not
embodied only external beauty of dance in porcelain plastics.
They can incarnate poetics and spirituality of the Russian
ballet, the nature of Pavlova, Krasavina, Nizhinskiy images in
small statuette . Each ballet dancer could be accurately
recognized by the figure, portrait features and imprinted
dance manner. Neither embellishing their characters, the
artists personify their measure of projected character’s
conception and its moral appeal. It seemed to me the key to
the visual image is a material plastic – expressive with rich
sense and subtlety of the shades. It discovers essence, meaning and content of the image. Visual image for artist is a
final phase of dance-world’s non-verbal comprehension. Thus,
speechless visual origin leads to the scenic plastique.
General line of master’s art direction in respect of ballet
image does not interfere to explore personal artistic
achievements of each one. Each master meets the same
challenges and has its own way of development and maintain
creative individuality .
Porcelain plastic of Sudbinin is distinguished by
manifestation of ballet image and precision of psychological
characteristics. He created such statuettes, as “Krasavina –
ballerina in a ballet “Petrushka” (s.z.), “Krasavina – “Giselle”’
(1914, State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin), “Pavlova
– “Giselle” (1913, State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin,
Kuskovo Museum Estate, Craft and Folk Art Museum, The State
Hermitage Museum, The State Russian Museum) which exist
precise characteristic of each ballerina’s role [Sudbinin, Moch].
The most famous of aforesaid-Giselle statuettes danced
both by Pavlova (1908-1913) and Krasavina (1913). Those
inviting statuettes show two time layer of the heroine’s live –
in first and second acts, each one provide its own melody. The
Giselle theme require artist to be emotionally responsive,
having predisposition to association thinking and
understanding of character’s moral imperative. Though
intonation defines very specific style of Giselle image of
Pavlova from first act, guessing on a chamomile. It fulfilled in a
equable and restrained manner, without betraying of
exceptional qualities of her nature. Its neutral-white scale
might be turned strict. That as if undertone soul motion:
frozen in expectation eyes and hands underlining romantic
tune. Sudbin succeed in realization of light sense and
unpretentious simple soul of peasant girl Giselle, and in the
same time he had noticed outstanding appearance of the
ballerina. Sudbin’s works have combination of charming, visual
and sensitive image of simple human with fine fiber poetic and
complicated sensation of actor’s personality – altogether it
makes him unique and the one and only artist .
Another statuette “Krasavina – “Giselle” – is the most
interesting work of Sudbinin, which he presented to Krasavina
in 1914. Well known, that “Giselle” production was to recall
the Parisians old time of Carlotta Grisi – the first performer of
that role. Sculpture impress inspired Giselle’s dance, it is
deprived of silhouette. The artist had created guiding by his
train of thought, by his sometimes-vague fillings. Thus, Giselle
became as if she does not belong to herself, but acting by will
of incredible power. Her look it turned inside, motions
reduced, as in dream. Flexible musical line is forming figure
outline with portended and crossed Giselle’s hands contain a
shade of religion detachment specific for second act of the
ballet. Her recherché silhouette is literally drawn in cold
moonlight. Biscuit (i.e. unglazed white porcelain) dissolves
sculptured figure in air, enforce sensation of phantasmal
vacillation, non-material being. All happening here is literally
occurs on a swinging plane. Colorless, light and sterile clean
surface of the work been treated tenderly and subtly. Porcelain
is apparently rippling in time with high Giselle’s jump.
Imponderable, pearly chiaroscuro impart “moonity” to plastic, which could be compared to poetic gauze of reminiscence,
though which Giselle’s entreaty dance continued until daylight
becomes faintly visible . Besides these statuettes, Sudbinin
made Pavlova in "Bacchanalia" and “Swan”. The sculpture
"Swan" was lost and "Bacchanalia" was impossible to be done
S. Sudbinin’s innovation – is broadening of a poetic subject
in aspect of its infinite and tireless composition’s complication.
Sculptor’s technical solution was truly sensational – it’s difficult
to understand how the statuette is supported if it touch
pedestal in one point by toe, as it defy decree of nature. It was
told that the statuette as light and elusive as motion of dance.
Sudbinin created another model of the same statuette with
cupids holding ballerina’s leg that looked less impressive than
the previous one (State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin)
In the statuette “Krasavina – ballerina in the ballet
“Petrushka” the artist pays attention to body plastique and
technical peculiarities of role. Portraying ballerina sur les
points second position, which is well-known by Krasavina’s
photography, sculptor is providing almost photographic image
of motion, filigreed minor finger technique. We face work of
art dedicated to external subject, but not “sensual soul”. As if
stopped and frozen pose express doll essence of soullessly
adorable ballerina Krasavina.
Works of Ivanov and Danko in contrast to Sudbinin, who
succeed in creation of ballet image’s monumentality, more
focused on intimacy and arts and crafts. The widespread use of
color, less detailed portrait likeness, features delineated by
brush – altogether introduce doll involution and smartness.
Works of Ivanov “Karsavina in the ballet “The Firebird” (1923,
The State Russian Museum, Kuskovo Museum Estate, Craft and
Folk Art Museum), “Fokin as Ivan Tsarevich in the ballet “The
Firebird” (1923, The State Russian Museum, Kuskovo Museum
Estate, The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, Craft and Folk Art
Museum), works of Danko: “Pavlova “The Dying Swan” (1923,
State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin, Kuskovo Museum
Estate, The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, Craft and Folk Art
Museum), “Nizhinsky in the ballet "Spectre de la Rose" (1920,
State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin), “Karsavina – “La
Bayadere” (State Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin,
Kuskovo Museum Estate, The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre,
Craft and Folk Art Museum), three figures: Giray, Mary, Zarema
from the triptych “The Fountain of Bakhchisarai” (1923,
Kuskovo Museum Estate), perhaps other than “Fedorova the
2nd in Spanish dance” (1921, The State Russian Museum, State
Central Theatre Museum of Bahrushin, Kuskovo Museum
Estate, The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre), as opposed to
Sudbinin’s compositions are built on smooth motions that
provide image with non-ballet aspects. Among them: pastiche
pattern, movement extravagancy, affectation, some sort of
sugariness inherent in this works.
In the sculpture cluster “Krasavina and Fokin within the
ballet “Firebird” of Lev Ivanov mentioned options considerably
distinguished than in works of Danko. However, to some
extent they supported the Fokin terribly ballet normalisation.
That ballet was found on fairy-tale, folks basis having roots in Russian epos, from the terribly ballet-master’s experiments,
UN agency had reworked by solely power of his fantasy the
Firebird character into human look in purpose of placing exotic
performance. Hence, the intense painting, colourful
conviviality, fine outlining of the “Firebird’s” plume and folk’s
costume of “Tsarevitch Ivan”. Notwithstanding the selfdependence
of each thing, these both statuettes achieve
consonance in unity just as, inseparable as in very ballet.
Plastic solution for Danko ballet images demonstrates various
figures configuration, based upon actor’s role character. “I’ve
been visiting the ballet almost every week. Keeping eyes glued
on the stage I’ve had keeping on sculpturing small figures,
sketches” . The phenomenon of decorative effect outlined
in painting and praphic arts in early 20th century had also
appeared in Danko’s works. Here is the dominant of the artistic
Among compositions crated by Danko, such as “Nizhinky in
the ballet “A Vision of a Rose”, “Pavlova – Dying Swan”,
“Krasavina in “La Bayadère” and “Fedorova the 2nd in Spanish
dance” the last one is the most felicitous composition, as
inspired scenic image is expressed along with plastique
characteristics, the nature of Fedorova’s talent. Fanciful line
emphasizes ballerina’s silhouette exposed in energetic
character dance. Beautifully worked out color specter made up
of red, black and green sounds with Spanish music of this
charming dance. Thus, just in character dances Federava had
found herself as a gifted dancer. Looking at Danko work, I recall
Markov’s words: “her small beautiful figure, speaking eyes,
great temperament had filled entire stage of the Bolshoi
Theater. There was nothing of ordinary tastelessness Spanish
ballet dance, hardly having common with true Spain. Her
dance was apprehended as a self-immolation”. The artist
rendered a very good likeness of the national folklore, realized
different spheres of national art culture via opportunity of
synthesis in minor forms. The sculptures “Nizhinky in the ballet
“A Vision of a Rose” and “Pavlova – Dying Swan” the key sense
of both roles has been perfectly indicated - an image of
perishing beauty (“Pavlova – Dying Swan”), image of magic and
seductive aroma of a rose (“Nizhinsky in the ballet “A Vision of
a Rose”) both exposed by astonishing porcelain qualities –
material fragility with light patches on its surface. Yet, slightly
exaggerated figure’s massiveness stops motion and makes
ossification of the images. Statues do not provide with
sensation of Nizhinsky’s high air jump and Pavliva’s refined
grace. Moderately selected color solution, based on two colors
inserts lyric tone in cold porcelain.
It’s to be noticed that style and artistic thinking of Glebova-
Sudeykina and Friedman-Klüzel is distinctive. Their ballet
image forms under strong influence of “art world” artist’s
traditions. Artistic language of “art-worlders” with features
mentioned before was not their individual feature.
Nevertheless, Glebova-Sudeykina’s and Friedman-Klüzel’s
minor porcelain plastics had achieved its typological purity.
That illustrates artist’s disposition to theatrical action typical of
the turn of the century. It is natural, that theatricality depends
on the very image motif, which based on refined image of
Schumann’s “Carnaval” ballet, inspired by the German
romanticism style. The same way as “art-worlders”, these masters are turned to beautiful world of Harlequins and
Columbines, which personify pleasant past and happy future.
A fatal beauty theme, or better, dream about it, as we know,
was usual art motif and ideal ballet theme.
Elegant and graceful postures of Friedman-Klüzel and
Glebova-Sudeykina’s plastics reminiscent of refine aspects of
“harlequinades” by Benoit, Somov, Bobishev, of “Harlequins”
and “Columbines” by Bourdelle, Kainer, Segonzac altogether its
aesthetics sounds alike, as in harmony with Blok poesy. Yet, it
seems that external manifestation of witty sense’s
sentimentalism, smiles, elegant costumes and fragile
whiteness of flashing porcelain hides an idea of illusiveness
and the very phantasmal side of being, where Friedman-Klüzel
and Glebova-Sudeykina’s heroes are trying to conceal their
pipe-dreams. Represented action is dramatized, relative. It is
seems to be founded on initial delusion. Silence is not
necessarily signify voicelessness. Duality of the artist’s poetic
themes – is an artistic expression of critical moment’s
ambivalence, when each thing demonstrates its seamy side
and everything could turn one way or another.
Analyzing ballet searching at the turn of the century
Krasovskaya has written following: “That is only dream of a
beauty has been remained, but the beauty itself. Therefore,
the beauty is rarely effective… it has lured and tempted
passively, since it hadn’t been embodied the destiny, but the
destiny’s orders” .
The ballet images by Friedman-Klüzel and Glebova-
Sudeykina are literally encircled with the spirit of the age, as
the artists keep on trying to find a spiritual quest and age’s
necessity. All aforesaid could be completely attributed to the
issue of ballet representation by the “art-worlders”, however
the porcelain image could be easily, or effortlessly transformed
in smart and novelty manner.
Friedman-Klüzel’s tendency to pantomime side of a dance
and white range of mimic movements and gesticulation makes
up distinctness of his porcelain works. Thus, if his earlier
statuettes made of bronze could be said inspired by motion,
his porcelain works have other accents. Motion became
secondary or punched out of site. In the statuettes:
“Eduardova in the ballet “Carnaval”, “Fokina – “Carnaval”,
“Novicov – “Carnaval”, “Krasavina, Nizhinsky – “Carnaval” (all
in foreign collections) artist have found in character’s comedy
frame sudden mood transition, semitones and nuances of
mimic play and the melody characters’ languishing speech. In
that works Friedman-Klüzel appears as subtle psychologist.
Psychological origin prevails over plastique. Feelings
predominate and override motions. A motion springs up
spontaneously or incidentally. It’s inseparable from characters’
innermost thoughts. Motion is not an independent part of the
artistic figure, but belongs to style and inflexion of the
speechless narration. Such emotional spontaneity of the scenic
“speech” leaves a mark on the entire composition style, their
construction, internal dynamics and dialog rhythm. Speaking
of the most successful and significant in the artist’s work
should be noticed skillful sight of images’ partnership. The
mean of this term, as is well known, does not limited by
character’s “pronunciation” his line or motions within bounds of mise en scene. Dance steps of Harlequin and Columbine are
apprehended as artificial posing. Their flexible bodies plexus in
various poses, from work to work their motion accents easily
shifted, they seem to be a repository of mysterious spirit .
Friedman-Klüzel had exposed different actors in the same
dance of the “Carnaval” ballet. Nevertheless, inherent
sculpture’s lightness, natural improvisation had pained those
images with many small, but colourless godsends, that allowed
to provide the statuettes with permanent natural connections
with the Fokin’s ballet.
The ballet images of Blebova-Sudeykina are reminiscent of
Sudeykin’s compositions. In the works: “Columbina” (The State
Russian Museum), “Dancer” (1924, The State Russian
Museum) pose and motion character truly represented, but
comparing with Friedman-Klüzel the image is more stylized for
truthiness and decorative effect’s sake. Refinement grace of
figure position, their gestures, which demonstrates their
qualities, altogether imparts peculiar charm.
The only publication (thesis) about Glebova-Sudeykina says:
“This statuette witnesses about great artistic gift of
professional technique. Many admirers deem them as little
masterpiece”. “Romantic or folk’s imagination, novelty of the
forms – are special features of her style, which is competitive
with the works of her famous husband” .
Deliberate affectation does not create an impression of
something unnatural. The artist had imprinted grace-felled
movement of a dance . Glebova-Sudeikin worked on ballet
theme not only in porcelain. She painted the pictures in oil –
"Dance" (1936) and watercolor on ballet motifs (coll Mme Kuill
Paris.). She also created stuffed dancers in traditional
costumes: "Columbine", "Pierrot", "Die Puppenfee",
"Desdemona", "Hamlet" etc. (coll Mme Kuill Paris).
Concluding review of the artist’s achievements in the plastic
of minor forms, it should be said, that the other masters had
dedicated their skills to the ballet theme. For instance,
Brusketti-Mitrohina had created the following works: “A
ballerina” (1930, Kuskovo Museum Estate), “Krasavina” (1980),
“Puare” (1930), “Spesivceva” (1930) etc.
In the porcelain plastics, as in works of “art-worlders” are
encountered scenes of various subjects, with pronounced
choreographic aspect, enriched with folklore and national
motives, such as: “Russian dance”, “Dancers”, “Harlequinade”,
“Ballet dancers” etc.
As an example of such arts could be mention following:
“Accordion Player and Dancer Girl” (1920, Kuskovo Museum
Estate) by Kustodiev, “Danced Girl” – three figures (1920,
Kuskovo Museum Estate, Craft and Folk Art Museum), “A
Dance of The East” (1921, Kuskovo Museum Estate) Danko
The ballet scenes are realized not only in statues, but china
also contains theme paintings: “Plate “Harlequin” (1922,
museum PFZ), “Plate “Columbine” (1922, The Museum of the
Imperial Porcelain Factory), both by Chekhonin; “Dish
“Harlequinade” (1922, Kuskovo Museum Estate) by Masyagin.
The last one’s refined color scheme has been skillfully put down about the character in a manner of terse painting, with
wattled ornamental pattern, which altogether provide dish
with elegant charm .
In this article, it is impossible to cover all masters’ works
examining each of them separately in detail. Basing on
examined works of porcelain plastic, it could be concluded,
that the ballet images made of porcelain has various
incarnations, different creation findings – from “characters” of
cast images (Sudbinin, Danko, Ivanov) to the ballet motives
(Glebova-Sudeykina, Brusketti-Mitrohina, Chekhonin,
Masiagin), from psychological capacious images to intimate
and lyrical works. There can be seen the influence of historical
changes of the late 19th and early 20th century on ballet
development. There is a change of style, new performances
are more emotional and reflect the realities of the time.
The material presented in the article in terms of a detailed
Russian Ballet poetics analysis in the plastic art of small forms
of the late XIX – early XX centuries makes it possible to see the
priority of the artistic and aesthetic taste, broaden horizons of
masters of sculpture, the development of imaginative,
associative and critical thinking unconditional for them.
Synthesizing concept of the object of our study is based on the
discovery of the general laws of formation, development and
cooperation between the two plastic arts as an integrated
system, not allowed to reveal the potential of open art –
figurative sense in porcelain. Refined poetics of this material
contained in the small chamber forms of sculpture made the
audience look closer to the subject of the ballet. Directivechoreographic
practice has made it possible to touch
disappeared ballet roles as an important source of their stage
reconstruction. Small masterpieces, collected together and
included in the content of the article, will be useful in the
organization of thematic exhibitions in the museum's theater
and the exposure; the researchers and creative workers can be
acquainted with the originals of works, according to the
locations mentioned above in the article. In terms of the
content, the activity and practice-oriented guidelines provide
the most interdisciplinary nature of plastic arts, its naturally
connection to a system of interdisciplinary integration. The
subsequent development of the subject can move in the
direction of a supplement information about Russian ballet
and dance masters embodied in plastic part of porcelain from
the museum and private collections in different countries and
the creation of publication-catalog with scholarly apparatus
that characterizes each product. This can be an exemplary
edition with an annotated list of published works. Porcelain
sculptures’ finding has become the imitation of ideals, stage
roles’ images, performed by famous ballet dancers, who
participated in S. Diaghilev "Russian Seasons" and received
refraction in the works of Russian masters. Statues depicting
the famous Ballet dancers were replicated and exhibited on
frequently organized fairs and were sold at Sotheby's,
spreading around the world [20,21]. Therefore, despite the
fact that the author is limited by the topic of Russian ballet and
Russian sculptors, the material is considerable and occupies a leading position among national searches that enables Russian
traditions and experience in this area in the overall system of
the world's art treasures.
The whole circle of works, considered in the article has
continuous speechless dialogue between “characters”
themselves, artist, statue and master’s consciousness. Most
works have inherent high artistic level, outstanding plastic
craft and maturity of thinking. This is not just a reproduction of
a character in a series of "crinoline groups" of the late XIX –
the first third of XX century, the artists gave special attitude to
the era, their love at that time, and at the same time, they
pointed out the ironic understanding of what was possible in
the plastic art of small forms.
The research on porcelain plastic art in the context of
studying ballet images expanded the boundaries of the
integrated presentation of thematic search of small sculptures
bordering on arts and crafts. Creative synthesis of the
sculpture and the ballet – long-live and fruitful tradition – got a
new impetus in the corner of the age. Porcelain and faience
factories were in many regions of Russia and Europe; they
created fashion in terms of artistic and stylistic findings. Ballet
motives become harmonious expression of Art Nouveau and
Symbolism of the Silver Age, formed as a complex synthetic
style, even more as a fusion of different styles with the
fundamental openness to cultural heritage of all time. The
proposed method of studying porcelain plastic art, including
related forms of art, can be seen as a significant addition to
the adoption and dissemination of art criticism in the
approach to monuments’ study of small sculptures.
Studying ballet images in porcelain plastic art with basic
information on the products allows realizing and
comprehending the subject, as a form of thinking, plentiful
source of inspiration. The ballet sculpture gives the audience
an idea of the art culture tendencies in late 19th – first third
20th century. Much attention was paid to plastic art of human
body (plastique) development. That allowed developing the
artistically expressive plastic language as a part of figurative
dance aesthetics. It also provided an opportunity to develop
new choreographic movements.
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