ISSN: 1550-7521

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Research Article Open Access

Unnamed and Anonymous Sources: Did They Shape the Debate Over Invading Iraq?


A study of 528 news items from 11 countries explores how anonymous and unnamed sources were used by journalists during the buildup to the Iraq War. A quarter of all sources appearing in news items were not identified by name. The use of unnamed sources corresponded with a decrease in ideas opposing the war and a tone that presented the war as being more positive and unavoidable. The findings raise questions about whether anonymous and unnamed sources serve the perceived whistleblower function in political discourse.

John A. Hatcher

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