Accentuating English Language as the Sole Medium of Pedagogy in South Africa: Issues and Perspectives
Odeku Kola O*
Faculty of Management and Law, University of Limpopo, South Africa
- *Corresponding Author:
- Odeku Kola O
Professor, Department of Public and Environmental Law
School of Law, Faculty of Management and
University of Limpopo, South Africa
Tel: +27 (0) 15-268 2947
Received Date: Jul 06, 2018; Accepted Date: Jul 09, 2018; Published Date: Jul 17, 2018
Citation: Odeku Kola O. Accentuating English Language as the Sole Medium of Pedagogy in South Africa: Issues and Perspectives. Global Media
Journal 2018, 16:31.
Copyright: © 2018 Odeku Kola O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
South Africa is a multilingual country where eleven official languages are constitutionally entrenched and guaranteed. These languages have equal footing in all activities, including as a medium of teaching and learning at schools. This is the reality and the owners of these languages are very cautious of them and as such guide them jealously. This article argues that while it is constitutionally expedient to recognize and protect the eleven official languages, especially the indigenous ones, all of them cannot be used at the same time as medium of teaching and learning. Against this backdrop, this article emphasis that English, which is one of the official languages recognized in the South African Constitution and at the same time widely understood by other groups and worldwide should be singled out and be adopted as the medium of instruction and education in all schools.
Language of instruction; Pedagogy;
Education; Competency; Learners
One of the important tools being used to teach, facilitate
and deliver quality education to learners is an acceptable
language of instruction and education. Against this backdrop,
the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996
recognizes the right to languages as the key to achieve this and
as such, this right is contained in the Bill of Rights in the
Constitution and for this reason, it is a fundamental human
right which must be protected, realized, fulfilled and enjoyed
. Section 2(2) of the Constitution confirmed the inherent
nature of this right and provides that “everyone has the right
to receive education in the official language of their choice.”
However, the issues surrounding language for pedagogy
have constantly generating fierce debates in South Africa postapartheid
era where the Constitution has enshrined and
recognized eleven languages as official languages . It is worthy to point out that during the colonial and apartheid
periods, both Afrikaans and English were considered as official
‘languages’, while other indigenous South African languages
were considered as ‘mother-tongues’ or ‘vernaculars and as
such they were considered intolerable for facilitating teaching
and learning in any educational institutions . Then, colonial
and apartheid languages were used as toll of discrimination
and segregation to deny indigenous South Africans from
accessing education and this was successfully accomplished
using the conquers policies of compelling the use of their own
languages for all official dealings including teaching and
learning . The introduction of constitutional dispensation in
1994 followed by the enactment of the Constitution in 1996
brought a new hope in the horizon in South Africa because all
citizens enjoy equal rights and protection. While these
constitutional emancipation and liberation are commendable,
the fact still remains that, there are still some contestations on
what language would be more effective to deliver teaching
and learning out of all the constitutionally guaranteed eleven
official languages. Interestingly, post-apartheid black South
African political and educational elites are now clamoring for
decolonization of education and the language of instruction
for education by advocating and vehemently arguing that the
language of instructions at schools should be the mothertongues
. This agitation is intended “to decolonize all areas
of the colonial matrix of power to release the fullness of
human relations” . It is the candid opinion of the author
that this uncontrolled agitation might result to narrowing the
scope of South African students by limiting their relevance
internationally and make them stay in their cocoon instead of
taking the opportunity English language presents considered
to be global language for effective pedagogic instruction in
subjects like science, mathematics, technology, astronomic
and so on.
This article accentuates that to use the eleven official
languages as languages of teaching and learning at all
educational institutions is a recipe for failure and disaster.
Therefore, there is need to take a sustainable stand whereby
English language is adopted as the language of instruction and
education in South Africa . However, this does not translate
to or mean that other constitutionally recognized languages should be discarded. This seminal article still advocate that
they should continue to enjoy the status and rights accorded
them in the Constitution to the extent of using them for
communication and all other activities but when it comes to
teaching and learning, concerted effort should be made to
adopt and use English language. This article also shows that
considering the universal usage of English language, it will be
of immense benefit to South Africa to adopt English as the
language of instruction, teaching and learning .
Colonial and apartheid regimes deliberately deployed and
used their own languages as basis for classifying and dividing
South Africans, particularly the black Africans majority . As
such, in order to continue to perpetrate their strong hold on
the conquered black South Africans and deny them access to
quality education, segregation and discrimination were
strongly entrenched in most of their education policies .
During these eras, Afrikaans and English were defined as
‘languages’, while indigenous African languages were viewed
as ‘mother-tongues’ or ‘vernaculars.’ . Indigenous languages
were viewed in derogatory terms and looked down upon by
the apartheid regime as languages not fit for use for medium
of conducting national and reasonable businesses . It is
pertinent to point out that this article does not intend to
portray English and Afrikaans languages as bad languages but
entrenching them on the indigenous population without
seeking their views or consents by the colonial conquerors was
considered to be the problem and the main concern. That is
the reason why till today, black Africans still view these
languages as languages of conquerors and oppressors brought
by the white invaders and settlers. Whereas, the indigenous
languages originated within the country and are often the
primary languages of the indigenous people, homelands and
their communities . Mother-tongue is referred to as one’s
primary best spoken language . It is considered a source of
pride to those who use their mother tongues to communicate,
but in South Africa, the concept of mother tongue is
stigmatized because the apartheid government derogated it
with disdain. For instance, in the educational space during the
apartheid era, any medium of pedagogy other than Afrikaans
was classified as mother tongue education amongst the users.
This was done deliberately to entrench and deepen
segregation and as such a perfect strategy for dividing the
indigenous people and their communities .
On the other hand, the global spread of English language
as a lingua franca is gaining acceptance on a massive scale and
being used by many countries to communicate as a first
language and also to conduct teaching and learning . In the
words of Jenkins and Leung “speakers of English as a lingua
franca represent the largest contemporary group of English
users around the world.” Nowadays, it is used in international
communication across communities’ language boundaries. For
instance, in the United Nations gatherings, English is used as
medium of communication, even though the members came
from different cultural and language backgrounds.
Consequently, because of its universal acceptance, this article suggests that English should be the lingua franca in South
Africa and prioritized as a language of pedagogy in schools.
Other ten languages can and should also be used when
appropriate, but when it comes to conducting pedagogy for all,
English should be preferred and used .
Undoubtedly, one of the dominant and pervasive problems
facing most of the previously colonized African countries is
language and its inherent complications even after they have
been liberated from the colonial rulers. Language is “a potent
vehicle of transmitting cultures, values, norms and beliefs from
generation to generation, and remains a central factor in
determining the status or nature of any nation” .
Unquestionably, the attribute and character of a nation are
easily reflected through its language. Language is a nation
stigma and hence all nations are stigmatized by virtue of the
languages they speak and understand.
In order for a nation to foster national integration, cohesion
and development, there must be a language acceptable to all
for purposes of administering and running of the country’s
affairs . Therefore, while respecting multilingualism, it is
important to point out that when it comes to medium of
instruction, English should be preferred in South Africa
because of its attribute of unifying the different languages in
Language is the soul, spirit, identity, heritage and culture of
people . Even though the indigenous languages were
suppressed as medium of pedagogy during the colonial and
apartheid eras, the Constitution has now elevated most of
these languages and they are presently recognized as official
languages. As such, they can be used for teaching and learning
in public schools . While this is commendable, it is
important to mention that it will be practically impossible to
use all the eleven constitutionally recognized languages to
teach at the same time . For instance, assuming that
students in a class are represented from different language
backgrounds, how would the teacher be able to use all the
languages to teach at the same time . Furthermore,
foreign students who do not understand or speak any of the
indigenous languages might form part of the students in the
class room, how would they be able to receive teaching in
language they do not understand . More so, the teacher
providing the teaching and learning might be a foreign national
who is unable to speak or understand any of the indigenous
languages . Over and above, it is almost impossible to have
a South African teacher who would be capable and competent
to speak and use all the eleven official languages as language
of teaching and learning. Undoubtedly, this will be a herculean
task to accomplish. It is against the backdrop of this that this
article strongly advocates for the adoption of English as a
medium of teaching and learning in all schools.
It is pertinent to reiterate that one is mindful of South
Africa’s historical discrimination against all other indigenous
languages which deliberately suppressed and denigrated all
indigenous languages through non-recognition, identity change and cleansing and enforcement of Afrikaans as the
medium of teaching. This resulted in the Soweto students’
unrest and protest of June 12 1996, where several students
protesting apartheid language policy were brutally murdered
by the apartheid police . The introduction of Afrikaans for
pedagogy at that time was meant to be used as a weapon of
domination and marginalization of the black African majority
in order to reshape their thinking and identities .
It is against the backdrop of promoting inclusion that this
article points out that the plight of the teacher in using and
promoting multilingualism and multiculturalism in multiracial
schools in classroom is unimaginable because of the difficulty
in impressing different racial groups during pedagogy.
Therefore, an English-only discourse, if agreed upon, would
have created an enabling learning environment for the
teachers, the learners, role players and stake holders.
Challenges of Using the Eleven
Languages as Medium for Pedagogy
It is apparent that an attempt at multilingual mode of
teaching instruction is unrealistic. Where this has been
enforced, students are unable to make adequate progress in
science and mathematics subjects that would unlock the
potentials of learners to be professionals in critical skills
needed in South Africa . To a large extent, English is
perfectly suited for the requirements of science and
technology while the indigenous languages are not . The
reason for this assertion is that African languages were not
developed to embed and integrate scientific and technological
terminologies into their vocabulary . It is against the
backdrop of this that one submits that African languages are
underdeveloped in scientific and technological terminologies
because they have not been prominent in these fields.
Whereas English is well developed and well suited for these
feats and purposes .
The Constitution of South Africa is “heralded as
intellectually progressive and politically enlightened because
of the significance it attaches to human rights and its
acknowledgment of multilingualism in the African context” .
Human and fundamental rights are well enshrined and
protected in the Constitution, particularly the right to language
and to receive basic education in any of the eleven languages.
However, pointing out the disadvantages in using and
recognizing all the constitutionally prescribed eleven
languages as official languages Makoni emphatically asserted
that “the South African Constitution, by recognizing nine
African languages as neatly divided is socially alienating and
cognitively disadvantaging to the very people it is intended to
serve” . This assertion is well founded because using eleven
languages may be confusing and disadvantageous especially
when it comes to communicating serious issues or teaching
students from different languages and cultural backgrounds in
a class . Hence, a common language understood by all
would serve a rewarding purpose and a unifying force. Using a
common language for teaching and learning would facilitate
understanding and cognitive because teaching and learning will take place in the classroom without anyone being
alienated or left behind.
More importantly, cultural and linguistically differences
between educators and students can have negative effects on
the education of learners . No matter how experienced an
educator is, there is bound to be conflict of culture and
language and this might result to contestation on which of the
languages is the best for pedagogy. Consequently, English as a
common language would best address this problem and unite
all the different cultures and languages. Understanding the
multilingual nature of learners and educators during teaching
and learning would enable educators to be sensitive to the
needs of the learners and as such would be able to provide
culturally responsive instruction. In this regard, English
language fits perfect to this assertion.
The Significance of English Language
as a Medium of Instruction and
English is adjudged a language of wider communication
worldwide as it serves many purposes as a lingua franca,
facilitating communication across and between ethnic groups;
a language of instruction in many tertiary institutions-having
students from diverse linguistic backgrounds . It is also a
principal language of the United Nations and often used to
conduct international trading and negotiations . According
to Kadenge and Nkomo, “English enjoys prestige and
international status as a sophisticated language which is
capable of handling formal and advanced knowledge, and can
facilitate its development and communication. It is this
international pedigree which has probably endowed the
language with such dominance and prestige” .
In order to use English for pedagogy, it must be learnt as a
subject by a person or student who does not come from the
cultural background where English is the first language .
Pundits have suggested that the surest and most reliable ways
of attaining academic and socio-economic successes is through
the learning, understanding and speaking of English language
. English in this respect serves as a means of attaining
socio- economic success, public schooling and career
Proficiency in English entails that the student has full
understanding and mastery of writing, reading, speaking, and
listening. To be declared competent, it requires a teacher who
has strong skills in English language and the ability to impart
English language to the learners. This is essential in order to
lay very strong foundation for learning since it will be used to
conduct other subjects that a learner will be taught in the class
room . This will prepare learners for success in any of the
subjects they will be offering in the course of their educational
careers and thereafter, careers in the workplaces.
English is gaining ground, and as such, recognizing it as the
sole official language will fit perfectly to the overall advantages
that will flow from this, especially when it comes to teaching
and learning. Kamwangamalu, observed that “if anything has changed at all in terms of language practices in South Africa, it
is that English has gained more territory and political clout
than Afrikaans in virtually all of the country’s institutions,
including the legislature, education, the media, and the army”
Take for an example, in South Korea, “English is regarded as
a major subject in the national curriculum and it is also one of
the key subjects in the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT)”
. Being a dominant language of education in South Korea,
students’ achievement in English subject at schools and at
CSAT has influence on their future. Competency in English is a
key component in job markets. Ability to speak and write
English is linked to opportunities and as such, it opens doors
for job seekers who possess strong comprehension of English
language. Because of its importance in the employment
markets, the requirement for English competence has surged
in South Korea job markets and many fields in job markets
require English competency for placements . The
implication of this is that most of the companies require good
English proficiency as a basic requirement for job opportunity.
Globalization is the current world outlook and from all
indications, English seems to be considered as a global
language that had transcended its original owners such as the
USA or the UK.
With regard to teaching and learning, English is today’s
dominant language of science. As a matter of fact, science is
advancing immensely due to having a dominant global
Language-English. English language is a choice language for
scientific communication and this is evident in many scientific
works that have been published worldwide in English language
English language as a medium of pedagogy could serve as
unifying element that enhances students’ ability and enabled
them to access education, employment, economy and law not
only locally but globally.
Lessons from Elsewhere
Unlike South Africa, Namibia specifically stipulates English as
the official language and language of instruction. Similarly,
even though Nigeria has four official languages recognized but
the country has taken cautious political and educational
decisions to entrench English as the main official language in
the country and language of learning . The effect of
adopting English as the sole language of pedagogy is apparent.
Nigerians are well educated and are able to integrate into most
of the developed countries in areas of any skill or expertise
because of the opportunity of receiving education in English
Namibia, similar to South Africa also experienced
entrenched draconian colonial and apartheid rules before she
attained independence in 1990 . During the oppressive
rules, English and Afrikaans were the two dominant languages
but after independence, English was made an official language by virtue of Article 3 of the new country’s constitution. The
Constitution specifically provides that “the official language of
Namibia shall be English.” This notwithstanding, in terms of
Article 3(2) the constitution also recognizes other languages
and gives “permission to use languages other than English for
legislative, administrative, and judicial purposes, as well as
medium of instruction” . This is why Namibia is regarded
as an official monolingualism. This conscious decision was
taken by Namibia to suppress Afrikaans as medium of
instruction because of the brutal experiences they
encountered under the apartheid regime. So, English was
adopted by the country at independence based on the
ideology that Afrikaans should be relegated because of the
oppressive dispositions of the owner of the language. In the
words of Frydman, “the decision to establish English as the
sole official language in Namibia was based on an ideology
informed chiefly by the sociopolitical circumstances of the
country. Oppressed and divided by South Africa’s apartheid
regime, Namibians sought liberation and unity. English, they
believed, would be the vehicle to achieve these ideals. If
Afrikaans was the language of oppression, then English was
the language of resistance and liberation” .
Frydman asserted thus “the aim of introducing English is to
introduce an official language that will steer the people away
from lingo-tribal affiliations and differences and create
conditions conducive to national unity in the realm of
Therefore, English is the first language of Namibians when it
comes to conduct national businesses and education while
other languages are regarded as the second languages. It must
however be pointed out that mother tongues and indigenous
languages are not relegated, they are equally important and
each tribe and indigene is protected under the constitution to
use its own language to communicate. But, with regard to all
national and official issues including education, English is the
dominant official language for pedagogy and other official
domains and activities. Therefore, even though Namibia is a
clearly multilingual country, English serves as the only official
language and it is constitutionally recognized and guaranteed.
Likewise, in Nigeria, English language is the sole dominant
official language used to conduct all official businesses
including delivery of pedagogy in the classrooms. English
language is the national language which also functions as a
national socio-political identity.
In Nigeria, English is recognized as the official dominant
language of the education domain and teaching and learning
activities right from the kindergarten up to the tertiary
Even though Nigeria is a multilingual country comprises of
different ethnic groups, English language is the lingua franca
especially when it comes to conducting official activities
including political, economic and educational developments.
To this day, English language is the only unifying solution to the
diverse cultural and languages. English is widely communicated and practiced and occupies prominent place
and function at the workplace, in the media and as a medium
of instruction in schools while the three crucial indigenous
languages are also recognized but they are not being used as
medium of instructions in schools except when one of them is
being taught as a module during the course of pedagogy .
More importantly and in support of English language as a
medium of pedagogy, the teaching and learning of English is
compulsory module that a learner must be found competent
at all levels of schooling up to tertiary level. This is why English
still occupies pride of place in Nigeria, especially in the formal
It is pertinent to point out that even though pundits
continue to critique English as a lingua franca, English
continues to be acceptable by the majority in Nigeria because
of its neutrality considering that Nigeria has an estimate of
about 450,000 languages . English continues to occupy
place of pride and dominance in Nigeria because it is the
language that is not fraught with suspicions in any formal or
literate context in the country .
According to Ugwuoke “as a language of wider
communication (LWC), English is used for phatic communion,
ceremonial purpose, instrument of keeping records,
information dissemination, self-experiment and embodiment
of thought among the various linguistic groups in Nigeria. The
common linguistic basis that constitutes a requisite for the
existence of any nation is provides by English. So with English
as the common tongue to all the ethnic groups, the collective
sentiment of belonging together despite the individual or
ethnic differences is forged. Related to the discussed is fact
that Nigerians or collective identity is stamped on national
institutions through the medium of English” .
Furthermore, Nigeria continues to intensify its approach
towards the use of English as medium of instruction in all
aspects of life and that is why English still “remains dominant
as the language of virtually all aspects of national life: politics,
administration, business, sports, diplomacy, communication,
media, education, creativity, literacy, constitution, law, just to
mention a few” .
The number of people who understand and speak English
language in South Africa seems to be increasing on a daily
basis. This is not to suggest that other languages have been
abandoned. When it comes to conducting official businesses,
South Africa is leaning towards the use of English language
more than other languages. Even in the parliament and courts,
the use of English to communicate and transact is now
becoming the norm despite the fact that citizens have rights
under the Constitution to use any of the constitutionally
recognized eleven languages. Adopting English language as the
official national language will foster a common language
acceptable to all. In Nigeria and Namibia, English language is
the official language for all purposes and it also the language
of education, instruction and learning. English language is
taken very seriously to the extent that in most households, parents use English to communicate with their children in
order to inculcate the culture of learning and understanding of
English in them since it is the language they will use
throughout in all their activities in these countries. This does
not mean that parents do not speak indigenous languages and
mother tongues with their children, but English is prioritized
because of its official and national status. English is taught at
schools from kindergarten up until tertiary levels. As a matter
of fact, in Nigeria, in order to qualify and be found competent
to be admitted to tertiary institutions, the learner must be
competent in oral and written English. Apart from the benefits
that accrue to English as a global language, it is best suited for
countries that have different competing languages such as
South Africa and Nigeria. Students in Nigeria continue to
benefit from being well grounded in both oral and written
English language, and as such, most times excel in
mathematics, sciences and technology. Furthermore, many
Nigerians are able to fit into any society and system where
English language is the medium of instruction and education.
Currently, South Africa seems to be at the bottom of the
ladder when it comes to mathematics, sciences and
technology education. This notwithstanding, most learners
who have strong competency in English still excel in these
subjects . It is against the backdrop of this that there
should be commitment on the part of the government to
commence steps towards adopting English language as
language of instruction and education.
Undoubtedly, English is being spoken all over the world and
many countries have adopted it as their lingua franca and
some entrenched it in their constitution as the official national
language. In South Africa, English is one of the official
languages recognized by the Constitution. However, all the
official languages in the Constitution have the same status. To
this end, no language is superior to the other. They all enjoy
the same protection under the constitution and owners of
these languages have unhindered rights and freedom to use
them to communicate, correspond and conduct all official and
unofficial activities. This notwithstanding, this article
demonstrates that English should be adopted as the sole
official language and language of education while local and
indigenous languages play complementary roles.
Multilingualism is encouraged, but when it comes to
pedagogy, monolingualism seems to be an increasingly
preferred and effective. Therefore, government should be
proactive and find a way of redirecting narratives and debates
on how to make English a dominant official language and
language of instruction and education.
English is considered and recognized worldwide as principal
language of instruction because of the unique position it
occupies in the language space. Pursuant to this, it is
recommended that it should be introduced and use as
language of instruction and education from kindergarten, primary, high and tertiary institutions throughout the
academic journey of a learner. This is doable if resources are
made available to establish learner’s competency in English.
This approach does not take away the learning of the mother
tongues as languages and of course it is recommended that
this should be enhanced and strengthened because of its value
and cultural ties and belief.
When English is taught from the kindergarten, it carries with
it a lot of benefits to the learners because learning of English
at this early stage will lay a solid foundation for learners’
competency and cognitive. By the time the learner gets to the
tertiary institution, comprehension would have been
strengthened because of the English competency foundation
laid from the onset and this would enable comprehension
during pedagogy when English is used for teaching and
learning of those modules such as mathematics, science,
technology and so on considered to have potentials to unlock
job and career opportunities for black South Africans.
- Nicol DJ, Macfarlane DD (2006) Formative assessment and self‐regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice, Studies in higher education 31:199-218.
- Sehoole MT (2013) Democratizing higher education policy: Constraints of reform in post-apartheid. South Africa.
- Sotashe AP (2016) A review of challenges in developing and empowering South African indigenous languages.
- Napier DB, Napier JD (2002) Language Dominance and Hope for Language Equality in South Africa: Examples from Schools.
- Webb VN (2002) Language in South Africa: The role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development.
- Crystal D (2012) English as a global language.
- Makoni S (2005) From misinvention to disinvention of language: Multilingualism and the South African Constitution. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies 2:137-156
- Butler A (2017) Contemporary South Africa.
- Prah KK (2003) Going native: Language of instruction for education, development and African emancipation. Language of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa.
- Ball J (2010) learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in early childhood and early primary school.
- Klerk VD (2003) Towards a norm in South African Englishes: the case for Xhosa English. Wiley Online Library.
- Jenkins, J Leung, C (2014) English as a lingua franca. Wiley Online Library.
- Ugwuoke J (2017) The roles of English language in Nigeria.
- Hall S (2014) Cultural identity and diaspora.
- Jansen JD (2009) Knowledge in the blood: Confronting race and the apartheid past.
- Ovando CJ, Combs MC (2018) Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts.
- Cazden CB (2001) The language of teaching and learning.
- Timmis I (2002) Native‐speaker norms and International English: a classroom view. ELT journal 56:240-249.
- August D, Shanahan T (2017) Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth.
- Clark NL, Worger WH (2016) South Africa: The rise and fall of apartheid.
- Perumal JC (2015) Critical pedagogies of place: Educators' personal and professional experiences of social (in) justice, Teaching and Teacher Education, 45:25-32.
- Scarcella R (2003) Academic English: A conceptual framework.
- Kubow PK, Min M (2016) The Cultural Contours of Democracy: Indigenous Epistemologies Informing South African Citizenship.
- McArthur T, Lam-McArthur J, Fontaine L (2018) Oxford companion to the English language.
- Chamberlain SP (2005) Recognizing and responding to cultural differences in the education of culturally and linguistically diverse learners.
- Pennycook A (2017) The cultural politics of English as an international language.
- Carter R (2008) Keywords in language and literacy. books.google.com.
- Kadenge M, Nkomo D (2011) The politics of the English language in Zimbabwe, Language Matters 42:248-263.
- Cook V (2016) Second language learning and language teaching.
- Patel MF, Jain PM (2008) English language teaching.
- Kamwangamalu NM (2004) The language planning situation in South Africa.
- Chang BM (2009) Korea's English Education Policy Innovations to Lead the Nation into the Globalized World.
- Bhatia VK (2014) Analysing genre: Language use in professional settings.
- Simpson A, Oyètádé BA (2008) Nigeria: Ethno-linguistic competition in the giant of Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
- Melber H (2015) Understanding Namibia: The trials of independence.
- Frydman J (2011) A critical analysis of Namibia's English-only language policy.
- Peters T (2017) Why is English chosen as Nigeria's official language?
- Sackey SM, Bester A (2016) Industrial engineering curriculum in Industry 4.0 in a South African context.