Beyond Access to Social Media: A Comparison of Gratifications, Interactivity, and Content Usage Among Egyptian Adults
Mohamed Fadl Elhadidi A*
Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Arts, Damietta University, Egypt
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mohamed Fadl Elhadidi
Department of Mass
Faculty of arts, Damietta
4, Gamal Al-Din Al-Afghani
Zarka City, Damietta, Egypt
Tel: 002 0100 1459
Received Date: May 03, 2018; Accepted Date: May 07, 2018; Published Date: May 16, 2018
Citation: Elhadidi AMF. Beyond Access to Social Media: A Comparison of Gratifications, Interactivity, and Content Usage Among Egyptian Adults. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:30.
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
Based on the concepts and new trends of Uses and Gratifications Theory and its application on new media, this study searched in the gratifications sought from Social Media SM sites among Egyptian adults (N=322); how they use the content and practice interactivity through the sites. Data were collected through a quantitative study applying a questionnaire conducted in February and March 2017. Findings through Exploratory Factor Analysis showed four categories of motives and six of content usage. Despite some sites predicting some motives, Facebook was the most leading medium to satisfy all types of users' needs. Outcomes revealed that specific content not only can satisfy specific needs but also can meet other purposes of SM usage. In addition, both Facebook and Twitter were the most predictive of interactivity among Egyptian users. The study also found some effects of demographic variables on both users' gratifications sought and interactivity.
Uses and gratifications theory; Motivation; Social media; Interactivity
With the development of Web.2, where everyone began to
participate in the production of knowledge and had an influential
and active role in society, that active participation on some of
social media SM sites has turned into a new manifestation of
modern life for the new generation. Because of such social
media features, SM platforms have quickly gained popularity and
tremendous use throughout the world. In 2017, statistics show
the steady growth every year in SM users to become 2.46 billion
. In Egypt, SM played a role in the January 25, 2011 Egyptian
Revolution , then, SM sites have widely turned into a new
space for Egyptians to share information, ideas, and news and
to communicate socially. With SM technologies developing and
varying day by day, the uses of these networks are being multiplied
by Egyptian an user who became more active participants and
able to advance socially as the SM has become an increasingly
user-generated content. This highlights the importance of
studying uses and gratifications U&G approach as Ruggiero  has
confirmed that “any attempt to speculate on the future direction
of mass communication theory must seriously include the U&G
approach”. SM research is found to be lacking exploration from
the U&G approach especially in Egypt and the Arab world. The
current study attempts to fill these research gaps and to gain a
better understanding of studying the extent of SM type’s usage
by Egyptian users and what drives them to employ SM platforms,
meaning the types of gratifications sought GS from SM usage. It is
also more relevant to examine what types of content they use on
SM applications and how they interact with them.
Uses and gratifications theory and social media
The traditional imposition in uses and gratifications U&G theory
is looking at why and how people actively seek out specific media
to satisfy specific needs and that they are able to recognize
their reasons for making media choices [4,5]. The focus of the
research has changed from the traditional “media effects” to the
functionalist paradigm of social science and the research should
be focused on the functional analysis of U&G studies which would
help to make the audience play a more dynamic role in mass
media than a passive role  to come to terms with the question
by Katz  "what do people do with media? instead of "what do
media do to people?. Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas  categorized
35 needs that motivate the audience to use the traditional media
into five groups: cognitive, affective, personal integrative, social
integrative, and tension release needs.
"Every medium for mass communication provides a progressive
approach at the initial stage" , that certain kinds of consumers'
needs will drive them toward certain types of media and contents
[3,10]. With the widespread adoption of new media, several
studies have emerged to search in the new kinds of GS and
gratifications obtained GO from using the Internet [10-14]. With
the large widespread of SM, their content has the potential to
become much more varied and user became a potential producer
of content . Although this content is not necessarily truly
creative with SM, it can reach so far and become more extensive
through re/sharing, re/tweeting and re/pining within the SM
Scholars are interested in uses, tools, and adoption of different
SM sites and their services by users to fulfill specific needs. These
needs which generate motives (gratifications sought) GS vary
depending on the nature and characteristics of SM sites [16-21],
social and psychological conditions [22-25] or economic variables
and advertising [20,26,27].
Interactivity as a development of active
Active audience model was associated with U&G theory when
it was applied to traditional media. The model argues that
media audience members are active and goal-oriented in their
selection of media use behaviors  and they do not just
receive information passively but are actively involved, often
unconsciously, in making sense of the message within their
personal and social contexts  and they can interpret messages
received. However, the active audience theory is based on a
mainly one-way model of communication, as audience members
cannot interact with or respond to the content of traditional
media directly .
With the characters of SM environments, the attention was given
to the contemporary term “user” which fits in the concept of the
active audiences and is actually replacing the traditional terms
of the auditor, the viewer and the reader which fit more in the
concept of the audiences’ passiveness . The creative human
tendency plays an important role in highlighting users' interactivity
and their ability to generate and participate in SM content "userto-
content interaction" such as ranking the content, adding
to playlists, sharing with others, posting comments  and
fulfillment of social expectation "user-to-user interaction" such
as social interaction and social networking [15,16]. Therefore,
one of the main purposes of the current study is to address users'
interactivity as a generative agent affected by the extent of using
of different SM sites and their content.
With the Internet use, Stafford et al.  proved three main
categories of gratifications: content (uses of the Internet
including the need for researching or finding specific information
or material, which are gratified with content), process (users
gain gratification from the experience of purposeful navigating
or random browsing of the Internet in its functional process) and
social gratifications (uses encompass a wide range of forming and deepening social ties). In prior studies [12,13,31-34] the
most identified gratifications under these dimensions were:
information seeking, self-actualization, diversion, sociability,
social interaction, research, education, communication
interaction, companionship, convenience, combating boredom,
arousal, relaxation, entertainment, voyeurism, habit, escape
and passing time. Also technological devices which became
available to be used to access the Internet have given way to
study new directions of U&G approach, in this regard, some of
the studies [35-40] concluded gratifications from using mobile
phones, text messaging and e-mail such as: affection/sociability,
entertainment, instrumentality, psychological reassurance,
communication facilitation, status symbol, relationships,
coordination for business, fashion/status, mobility, immediate
accessibility and innovation motive. Other studies [41-43]
investigated in gratifications which evolved from online radio
listenership such as information seeking, passive mood setting,
social utility, and Self-actualization.
While early and subsequent studies about applying U&G theory
on SM and social networking sites SNSs were devoted to
adolescents and college students [21,36-38,44-47], some early
studies on adults' usage of SM  examined why and how
adults are adopting SM because of its focus on active audience
members, individual choices, and divergent populations.
Papacharissi  concluded six gratifications from personal
home pages usage: passing time, entertainment, information,
self-expression, professional advancement, communication
with friends and family. A developmental study by Xu, et al. 
found that social network usage was predicted by utilitarian
(rational and goal-oriented) gratifications of immediate access
and coordination, hedonic (pleasure-oriented) gratifications of
affection and leisure and Website social presence. In comparing
gratifications related to different SM, for instance, Gan and Wang
 found that content gratification plays the most salient role in
using microblog, while social gratification is the most important
for WeChat usage.
Research on the most popular SM sites (Facebook, YouTube,
Twitter, MySpace and Instagram) proposed motives affecting
YouTube and Facebook use: self-expression, media drenching,
passing time, information seeking, personal status updating,
relationship maintenance, socializing and entertainment [19,49],
and male subjects attached more importance to narcissism and
self-expression motivators while females preferred information
seeking and relationship maintenance . In Twitter usage,
information motives are positively related to Twitter use while
social motives are not significantly related to Twitter use [17,50].
One recent study identified the following Facebook users'
gratifications: entertainment, information sharing, media appeal,
escapism, socialization, self-documentation, self-expression,
 and another one extrapolated affection, attention seeking,
disclosure, habit, information sharing and social influence
In the current study, it is a great relevance to extrapolate what
motivates Egyptian adults to adopt and use the most known and
popular SM sites to them, while categorizing their GS from that use and preferred content through the use of factor analysis.
Certainly, it is appropriate to study the users' interactivity related
to their access to SM as an indicator of their communicative
After the review of the literature, two main questions emerge:
RQ1: What are the perceived GS by SM users?
RQ2: What are the types of content used by SM users?
The first question is helpful for understanding what motives
Egyptian users have to use SM sites. The second question comes
to deduce the various kinds of content which users are reading,
commenting on and sharing via SM. The previous studies did
not investigate in calculating and classifying SM content. In
the current study, the classification of SM content will be held
depending on exploratory factor analysis which will be used too
with GS from SM.
The study tries to test the following hypotheses:
H1: The different SM platforms usage will significantly predict the
The traditional and new media U&G approaches revealed that
people consciously choose the medium that could satisfy their
needs , these needs are represented as motives for using
a particular medium . As SM sites differ in terms of their
characteristics and applications, interactivity forms and users'
control over content due to new technologies related to their
choices, it is expected that these different SM attributes will
predict various types of GS by users.
H2: The different patterns of SM content usage will significantly
predict the users' GS.
The consumption of SM content differs from that in traditional
media which is one way (reading, listening or watching). In SM
users can skip these stages to comment post and share various
kinds of content. The second hypothesis tests the degrees of
SM content usage as predictors for the types of GS. As previous
research in SM did not study this kind of relationship between
content usage and GS, hence the current study tries to examine
H3: The users' demographics will significantly predict GS from
Much of previous studies on SM usage have focused on college
students as shown in the literature review and few of them
studied other demographic variables (economic status, level of
education, age, and sex), in a way that some of those few studies
attached these variables to young adults. In addition, it is needed
to test the impact of other demographic variables on GS from SM
by adult users specially in Egypt as a country of the Arab world.
H4: The different SM platforms usage will significantly predict the
H5: The users' demographics will significantly predict the
interactivity of SM users.
As interactivity became the main feature to distinguish new
media and SM from traditional media, the users have the ability
to generate content to communication partners or respond
to various sources. The term “produsage” has been added to
delineate this new SM production which is responsible for the
creation of digital content in Web 2.0 environments [21,53]. It
is vital to examine the most SM networks predictors for users'
interactivity in the fourth hypothesis. It is also a great relevance
to examine users' demographic variables as predictors for
interactivity in the fifth hypothesis.
Research Design and Methodology
The present study depends on conducting a survey method
to collect data within a questionnaire on the selected sample
of the study to examine respondents' situation, their level of
motivations, uses and interactivity on SM, and demographic
Testing validity and reliability
The validity: The initial questionnaire was presented to a
group of academic experts of mass communication, new media
and journalism1 to evaluate the scientific applicability and its
relevance to the objectives and study hypotheses. As well, the
questionnaire was pre-tested on 50 respondents who use SM to
identify misunderstanding or error questions and sentences in
order to modify them as needed and to explore the most common
types of SM they use to be placed on the final questionnaire list.
The average correlation of consistency in the answers to the
questions was 91% taking into account that questionnaires with a
validity degree less than 80% were excluded.
The reliability: Re-applying the questionnaire instrument on
30 respondents of the whole sample, the value of reliability
coefficient for study instrument according to Cronbach's alpha
was 0.89, which is a high value and acceptable to the application.
The study applied two kinds of samples. The first kind was the
systematic random sampling process applied to collect data over
322 adult residents from Greater Cairo which is the capital and
biggest region in Egypt and comprising the three governorates
of Cairo, Giza, and Qaliubiya from 20 February 2017 to 17
March 20172. Differences of socio-economic status among the
three levels of neighborhoods in this area have been taken into
account to include two districts for each level. Due to the nature
of the study which required respondents' proficiency in reading and writing, the ten trained interviewers excluded respondents
with less than a prep school certificate3. The second kind was the
purposive sample consisting of respondents that the interviewers
asked first if they were using SM or not to fill in the questionnaire
with those who use it.
Research Variables and Measurements
The questionnaire items included dependent and independent
variables as follows:
The questionnaire included two main dependent variables:
Gratifications sought: This variable is associated with the
respondents' motives behind SM usage:
Based on previous studies on GS from using traditional media
[4,54,55], Internet and the Web [10,11,13] and SM [21,56,57],
respondents were asked 18 closed questions about their motives
for accessing SM so that the answers would be measured on a
five-point scale: never=1, few=2, on average=3, very often=4,
and always=5. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to
extract the types of respondents' GS from SM.
Interactivity through social media usage: Five items were
used to measure the degree of respondents' participations and
interactions with SM: "I am eager to share information, video,
and photos with others through SM", "I use SM to express my
opinion and comment on various issues and topics", "I am keen
to create posts through SM on various interests", "I am interested
in creating pages or Hastag on SM sites to call for action or take a
particular position", "I create a group/groups or subscribe to them
through social media". For each item, the response options were
measured on a five-point scale that included: never=1, few=2, on
average=3, very often=4, and always=5. The total scores of the
five terms were calculated (M=14.8, SD=4.308).
The questionnaire contained levels of predictors as shown in the
Social media sites usage: Respondents were asked questions
about how many times per week they had access to each type
of SM sites and how many hours per each time they used each
of SM platforms. The total of the two questions' answers was
computed to calculate the scale points ranging from very high=4,
high=3, mid=2, low=1, to non=0 (Table 1).
Table 1: Means of SM sites usage.
Social media content usage: 26 kinds of topics were mentioned
to respondents to answer how they were interested in and
interacting with SM content. Each topic was measured on a fourpoint
scale which included: never=0, read only=1, comment=2,
share, forward or post=3. An exploratory factor analysis was
conducted to extract the types of preferred content for SM users.
Demographic variables: The study used four standard
demographic variables: age, measured with a four-group scale: from 18-29 coded=1 to 50 years old and above coded=4 (M=1.84,
SD=0.91); gender, male coded=1, female coded=0 (M=0.37,
SD=0.48); education level, measured with a four-point scale:
from less than high school coded=1 to postgraduate, master or
PhD degree coded=4 (M=2.79, SD=0.60); and income, measured
with a six-point scale: from 2000 EGP or less coded=1 to 10000
EGP and above coded=6 (M=2.59, SD=1.41).
Results of Exploratory Factor Analysis
The exploratory factor analysis used the principal components
procedure on factors selected for having an Eigenvalue of greater
than 1 for extraction and the Varimax method of rotation with
suppressing absolute values less than .60. All reliability measures
were 0.7 or higher to reduce data to a smaller set of summary
variables and to explore the underlining theoretical structure of
the following variables:
Factor analysis on gratifications sought
The factor analysis extracted four patterns of GS from using
SM which altogether explained 65.20% of the total variance.
These patterns of GS as shown in Table 2 were: Marketing and
Reinforcement of opinions (M=24.06, SD=6.15), Social interaction
and information (M=16.28, SD=3.15), Expressive interaction
(M=12.96, SD=3.57) and Pastime (M=10.30, SD=2.91).
Factor1: Marketing and reinforcement of opinions (MRO): As
shown in Table 2, this factor included seven items expressing
the motives behind respondents' access to social networks. The
Eigenvalue of this factor is 7.36 and the factor explains 40.86%
of the total variance. The factor encompassed two stages of
respondents' dealing with opinions, ideas, and views. The first
one was related to the marketing of opinions as a means for
obtaining, updating, forming and comparing ideas and views on
issues and events. The four gratifications items most expressed
by respondents through this factor "To communicate with the
updated ideas on the raised issues" (M=3.70, SD=1.06), "Because
I seek to know different views on the issues", "To form opinions
on events and issues" and "To compare different views in the
media" reveal that respondents use SM significantly in order
to grasp and compare all views and opinions on raised issues
and events. Then comes the second stage of reinforcement of
ideas presented in SM. The last three items through this factor
comprise this stage: "To view ideas comparable to mine", "To
obtain information consistent with my views and beliefs" and "To explore views that reflect my own political opinion on events".
Table 2: Factor loading for GS from using SM.
|F1: Marketing and reinforcement of opinions
|To communicate with the updated ideas on the raised issues
|Because I seek to know different views on the issues
|To form opinions on events and issues
|To compare different views in the media
|To view ideas comparable to mine
|To obtain information consistent with my views and belief
|To explore views that reflect my own political opinion on events
|F2: Social interaction and information
|To communicate with friends and relatives
|To find out what's going on around me and keep up with friends’ updates
|To keep up with developments in the surrounding social environment
|To search for old friends or make new friends
|F3: Expressive interaction
|To add new posts that reflect my attitudes and thoughts
|To express my personal views on various issues
|To comment on the news, information and views of the participants
|To share my interests and information with friends and groups
|To entertain and enjoy the light topics
|To spend leisure time
|To escape from the daily events and problems that I might encounter
Factor 2: Social interaction and information (SII): This factor
was composed of four items measuring respondents’ use of
SM as a means for communicating with others, seeking for
useful information, answers and updates about the surrounding
social environment and forming new relationships with others
(Eigenvalue=1.69, Variance explained=9.36%). The most
expressed gratification item was "to communicate with friends
and relatives", showing how respondents use SM as a tool for
communicating with people. The recent emergence of SM uses
has accelerated this trend, as shown in MySpace, Facebook, and
many other social sites which are rooted in meeting people’s social
interaction needs  through interacting with other users either
online or offline to format and maintain the virtual communities
on user-generated sites. Through this factor, acquiring social
information about others and surrounding community ranked
second. This is clearly demonstrated by the two gratifications
items "To find out what's going on around me and keep up with
friends’ updates" and "To keep up with developments in the
surrounding social environment". This “information seeking is
driven by people’s desire to increase awareness and knowledge
of one’s self, others, and the world”  and to be keen on the
continuity of the acquisition of such information (Table 2).
Finally, in this factor respondents are seeking for friendship
through the item "To search for old friends or make new
friends". This finding completely integrates with previous studies
[21,23,58,59] which found that SM (e.g., Facebook) is not used
to meet new people and overcome inhibitions but, rather, to
maintain existing social ties which Ellison et al.  had measured as “Facebook Relationship Maintenance Behaviors”.
Factor 3: Expressive interaction (EI): This factor consisted of four
items (Eigenvalue=1.60, Variance explained=8.88%) expressing
the extent of respondents' interactivity while using SM. These
gratifications were "To add new posts that reflect my attitudes
and thoughts", "To express my personal views on various
issues", "To comment on the news, information and views of the
participants" and "To share my interests and information with
friends and groups" revealing that the respondents' expression of
their views and sharing interests are the most important forms of
interaction on SM. This is consistent with the view of Kietzmann,
Hermkens, McCarthy, and Silvestre  who defined SM as
“employing mobile and web-based technologies to create highly
interactive platforms via which individuals and communities
share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content”.
Factor 4: pastime: The composition of this factor includes some
of the motivations reached by previous studies [21,38] which
found “entertainment,” “relaxation,” and “escape” as GS from
Facebook. In the current study, three items were loaded on this
factor: "To entertain and enjoy the light topics, "To spend leisure
time" and "To escape from the daily events and problems that I
Factor analysis of content usage
The factor analysis extracted six patterns of content which are
preferred and used by respondents on SM and entirely explained
61.92% of the total variance. These patterns of content as shown
in Table 3 were: Hard topics (M=6.56, SD=3.51), Economic topics
(M=1.89, SD=1.32), Social topics (M=4.70, SD=2.01), Light topics (M=2.95, SD=2.18), Incidental topics (M=2.47, SD=1.43) and Sport
topics (M=1.07, SD=0.955). Nine topics were removed because of
their low loading values4 (Table 3).
Table 3: Factor loading for content usage on SM.
|F1: Hard topics
|Public and political freedoms
|Practices of the Muslim Brotherhood
|Politics and foreign affairs
|F2: Economic topics
|Services, facilities and infrastructure
|Investment and business issues
|F3: Social topics
|F4: light topics
|Culinary and decoration
|F5: Incidental topics
|Martyrs of the army and police
|F5: Sport topics
|% of variance explained
|Cronbach’s Alpha (Reliability scores)
|Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy
Results and Discussion of Hypotheses
Regression analysis in Table 4 shows a partial support to the
first hypothesis that Facebook was the only medium used by
respondents to match with the four types of GS which were
positively regressed on this medium usage. This finding comes
first from the fact that Facebook is the most popular SM site of
the second quarter of 2017, Facebook reached 2 billion monthly
active users as compared to 1 billion in the third quarter of 2012,
making it the first social network ever to do so  beside being
the highest ranking among Egyptian users as shown in Table 1 (Facebook usage mean=3.29 compared to Twitter the second
medium of ranking which mean=1.73) and this is the same
finding in the study by Oloo  which found that Facebook is
leading in terms of favorability among SNSs. Hence, Facebook
has the opportunity to satisfy all instrumental, ritualized and
social interaction motives due to its characteristics which enable users to get a benefit and some of them are not available in
other SM sites. Such characteristics include: hosting games, hide
updates about people and see everyone else's updates, birthday
reminder, live broadcast feature, video recording feature and
send on friends' pages and messages to congratulate them on
their own occasions as an alternative to photos, the search
feature which allows users to search for pages, people, groups or
even specific news, allowing users to connect all friends to their
friends list... etc. Also, this seems to be partially supported by
former research who found four needs for participating in groups
within Facebook: socializing, entertainment, self-status seeking,
and information  (Table 4).
Table 4: OLS Regression predicting of GS on the extent of using SM sites.
|Predictors (the extent of using SM sites)
||Gratifications sought factors
|Marketing and reinforcement of opinions (MRO)
||Social interaction and information(SII)
||Expressive interaction (EI)
Table entries are Unstandardized Regression Coefficients (B) and standard errors (SE). Degrees of freedom=8, *p ≤ 0.05, ***p ≥ 0.001. N=322
As shown in Table 4, MRO gratifications were only predicted
positively by Twitter usage. This outcome is partly supported in
the study by Liu et al.  which illuminated that Twitter does not
fulfill the motivation of social interaction and it does not dedicate
to develop functions for fun and entertainment environment for
play as provided in the current study. Although MRO gratifications
were not on the scale of the study by Liu and his colleagues, they
found alternative gratifications that Twitter fulfils users’ needs
for self-documentation (keeping a record of what a person
learns, keeping track of what a person is doing and documenting
life) and information sharing (to provide information, to share
information useful to other people and to present information on person's interests). These two types of gratifications reveal
that Twitter was designed for sharing and seeking information
(P.936) that is used for the utilitarian value of the service since
Twitter is considered as an information-oriented medium . In
addition, Johnson and Yang  revealed that although Twitter
was created for its social aspects to keep in touch with friends via
status updates of what a user is currently doing, their data strongly
suggested that Twitter is primarily used as an information source
and as a means to share information. The user can choose which
users to follow; thereby, each user is an information source and
this means that users have the capacity to easily customize which
streams of content to consume or not consume.
My finding of attaching the MRO to twitter usage indicates that
the respondents in the current study who use this medium may
tend to be more followers than to post or write on Twitter in
order to know, form, compare, explore and communicate with
different ideas and views. This notion does not fit with the
“publicity model which proposes that some users of media aim
not to engage with others but aim to “catch and hold visual or
aural attention” of spectators” . Also, this finding does not
seem to be strongly supported by other previous studies which
found that other key motives were related to the Twitter usage such as social and information motives, hedonic, utilitarian
and social appearance values . In addition, Ballard 
demonstrated that public interaction and communication among
Tweeters are a major part of the social media network that
the top three GS from Twitter were “entertainment,” “passing
time,” and “expression, while the top three GO from Twitter by
the same participants were actually “entertainment,” “relational
maintenance,” and “information seeking”. That means Twitter
users actually obtain more opportunities to manage their
relationships than they anticipate. The differences between the
current study and the studies mentioned above may be due to
the cultural and social differences, different methods and tools
or the lower level of Twitter usage by respondents compared to
Facebook in the present study.
SII gratifications sought were only predicted positively by
Instagram usage. The regression of this kind of gratifications
seems to be logical within the characteristics of Instagram which
allow the Hashtag property and enable the user to customize
Hashtag for each occasion to publish pictures and short videos
and his friends see them. Also, users can like, comment on
and bookmark others' posts, as well as send private messages
to their friends via the Instagram Direct feature. This social interaction through photos and videos posting, sharing and
commenting is strongly expressed in the study by Oloo 
which was applied on university students and concluded that
50% of the participants have met most of their friends through
SNSs including Instagram and that posting photos on Instagram
can play role in a higher level of socialization compared to just
posting comments because when students are posting photos
on Instagram their friends might see them, comment and leave
feedback on them, so, making interaction is a favorable activity
among university students. In addition, other previous studies
found that Instagram users scored highest for showing affection,
following fashion, and demonstrating sociability when they
followed brands  and that users are on Instagram to gratify
the need for self-expression and social connection and do not
separate these gratifications; that users may be aware that other
users may not be portraying accurate depictions of true-self on
the site; and lastly, that the motives originally thought to apply to
Instagram have changed/or are changing .
The higher use of Google plus only led to the higher EI gratifications
sought as shown in Table 4. This finding is compatible with the
characteristics of Google Plus platform which allow the user to
share, tag, continue and comment without any inconvenience
and make his personality popular among elite members and
those getting jobs as well. Moreover, the "user-generated
media" perspective shows these expressive interaction needs
from Google Plus usage as a reflection to allow the significance
of who one is and what one does to show himself/herself .
Finally, Table 4 shows that there were no regressed correlations
of the four kinds of GS on the other SM sites usage (YouTube,
MySpace, Flicker, and Blogs), meaning that the Egyptian users do
not have specific motives behind using these media's platforms (Table 5).
Table 5: OLS Regression predicting of GS on SM content usage.
|Predictors (Preferred content on SM)
||Gratifications sought factors
|Marketing and reinforcement of opinions
||Social interaction and information
Table entries are Unstandardized Regression Coefficients (B) and standard errors (SE). Degrees of freedom=6, *p £ 0.05, **p £ 0.01, ***p £ 0.001. N=322.
Regression analysis in Table 5 shows some support to the second
hypothesis. First, the four types of GS were positively predicted by
both hard and light topics usage, meaning that while hard topics
are related to MRO, SII and EI gratifications sought from SM, they
are also related to the seeking for "pastime" gratifications and
the same with the light topics which are related to pastime GS
as well as to the other three types of gratifications. Although this
finding violates the traditional assumption of U&G theory which
claims that each need can be fulfilled by specific content or there
is a trade-off between motivations through content , some of
previous U&G research on both traditional and new media which
revealed that entertainment and information gratifications are
sought and derived from content [4,15,67] may interpret the
current finding that while users are seeking for serious and
hard content through SM to fulfill instrumental needs, they also
use them as pastime –which includes entertainment, spend
leisure time and escape. Constructs based on the theoretical
underpinnings of U&G approach, such as the need for social
interaction, the need for entertainment, information seeking and
sharing needs, and the desire for reward or remuneration have
all been explored in recent SM studies .
This outcome of the current study reveals that any type of GS
from social media can be satisfied not only by the specific
type of content but also by different kinds of it because SM content is not merely for reading, viewing or posting. Users; for
examples, can make use of MySpace, Facebook, and other social
media to “learn how to make sense of things from their peers
on just about any subject”  and clips which are presented
in “YouTube for entertainment seekers can be considered a
buffet of "snack" videos and highly meeting people’s needs for
high-speed entertainment munching”  and it can also meet
seeking information needs. The past regression relationships are
similar to sports topics usage which positively predicted SII, EI
and pastime gratifications, but did not predict MRO gratifications.
This may be explained that sports topics usage does not need
one's reinforcement or marketing of his views and ideas about
sports events, sports heroes or preferred games. This kind of
topics is considered as entertainment content to satisfy users'
needs for pastime and, therefore, can motivate audiences to
use the media for other purposes . On the other hand, there
were no regression correlations of the four kinds of GS on the
Economic topics usage.
Table 5 also shows that SII gratifications were positively predicted
by incidental topics (Martyrs of the army and police and
Parliamentary elections) usage. The correlation is possibly due to
the fact that this type of content which contains events occurring
incidentally and are controversially connected within the
community is needed to be discussed through various channels
including SM sites which are characterized as "discursive media"
“because online communication is both active and engaging and
allows arguments through recurring discussions. This kind of
involvement lends itself to a greater number of interpersonal
discussions and reasoning efforts”  specially with this type of
political content (incidental topics factor) in the current study in
which people are empowered to act, communicate, or participate
in the broader society and political process . Therefore, this
kind of SM services satisfies people’s need for information and
developments in the surrounding environment as well as social
interaction opportunities with online friends.
Table 5 shows negative regression correlations of MRO, EI and
pastime gratifications on the social topics usage (Education issues,
Religious subjects and Health issues) which are characterized as
permanent and dominant social issues and, as a result, trends
and values towards them are established and therefore do not
affect users to seek to strengthen or change beliefs and values
about them, to express views and attitudes about them or to
access SM sites just to spend time with these kinds of content.
The low level of these motivations to use social topics on SM
does not fit with the "spectacle performance paradigm" which
assumes that the users are not only readers or watchers but
they are also performers at the same time  that there is no
"user-to-content interaction" in the current study with regard
to social topics to achieve what Shao  claimed that users
rate the content, save to their favorites, share with others, post
comments, etc. (Table 6).
Table 6: OLS Regression predicting of GS on demographic variables.
|Predictors (Preferred content on SM)
||Gratifications sought factors
|Marketing and reinforcement of opinions
||Social interaction and information
Table entries are Unstandardized Regression Coefficients (B) and standard errors (SE). Degrees of freedom=6, *p £ 0.05, **p £ 0.01, ***p £ 0.001. N=322
Regression analysis in the Table 6 shows a partial support to
the third hypothesis. First, both MRO and EI gratifications were
positively predicted by male SM usage. This means that more
males than females tend to use SM to aggregate and compare
information and opinions and then use them for self-expression and interaction. This finding is consistent with previous studies
which found that males attach more importance to narcissism
and self-expression motivators than females who attach more
importance to the relationship maintenance motivation factor
than males [49,71] and are generally restrictive in the amount of
personal information they put on the internet because they guard
their privacy more carefully than men  who are significantly
skewed towards a certain news-seeking need  to help them
for reinforcement of views and opinions. In contrast to my
findings which coincided with the above studies, there have been
other studies reaching no effects of gender differences when they
were associated with youth (age and sex), that college men and
women are equally likely to share their personal information or
to communicate with those who date them [47,73] and both men
and women express strong feelings towards their relationships
and partners . In relation to education level, there was only
one significant negative predictor to pastime gratifications that
the respondents with the lower education level attached more
importance to pastime motives.
Also, in relation to age, regression analysis indicated significant
negative correlations between it and MRO, EI and pastime
gratifications. These results may be deducted from the fact that
younger users in age of college students in the current study are
more likely to engage in fun activities than other Internet users
 and are “more performers than older users that they attach
more importance to media drenching and performance motive”
. These outcomes illuminate that while the younger users
turn to SM for entertainment and enjoyment they also look
for more insight viewpoints and interactivity via sharing and
posting information and opinions. In other words, these types
of GS from SM by younger users can be explained through the
notion of "eudaimonic motivation". When given the variations
in individuals’ desire to seek pleasure and life’s meaning from
entertainment media it is likely that moral judgment would be
distinctly impacted  to search for deeper meanings, insights
and experience strong emotions [75,76] and to be more willing
to improve their status in the world because they have more
expectations about the future  (Table 7).
Table 7: OLS Regression predicting of interactivity on the extent of using SM sites.
|Predictors (The extent of using SM sites)
Table entries are Unstandardized Regression Coefficients (B) and standard errors (SE). Degrees of freedom=8, **p £ 0.01, ***p £ 0.001. N=322.
Regression analysis in the Table 7 shows a partial support to
the fourth hypothesis that users' interactivity was positively
predicted by both Facebook and Twitter usage; whereas
the other types of SM platforms did not predict interactivity intention. The emergence of highly interaction with Egyptian
users of Facebook and Twitter strongly suggests that the users
of these two SM platforms tend to engage in conversations and
to convey and exchange information with each other based
on the expectation of gaining social rewards such as approval,
status, respect  and building reputation which is a strong
motivator for active participation . The high interactive
rate on Facebook and Twitter can be attributed to their ability
to host discussions and controversies about issues and events,
to share and update information, news, ideas, and views and to
internalize social values and identity. These activities of sharing
and posting information and views are viewed by Yoo et al. 
to be influenced by "social conformity" which is (in Twitter for
example) based on explicit or implicit consensus among group
members and is perceived as an important source of information
sharing. Such activities are a metaphor for active Twitter functions
including tweeting, tweeting and providing additional content,
mentioning other users and messaging other users directly
. The features of Facebook and Twitter are relevant to some
physical and psychological characteristics of users which prove
their activity on these two SM platforms. For example, there
is a “dopamine” system in the user's brain which is stimulated
by unpredictability, by small bits of information, and by reward
cues pretty much the exact conditions of social media that
dopamine breeds the “wanting” to seeking for information ,
and “opioid” system which controls the feelings of pleasure
associated with “liking” . In the sharing behavior, there are
many opportunities for users to devote more of speech about
themselves, to provide others with a better sense of who they
are and what they care about. These portraits of self-disclosure,
human feeling or emotion are due to the brain's dopamine
reward system that rewards users for talking about themselves
. Given the design of both Facebook and Twitter, they allow
users to update status, to post information, opinions, views, and
ideas, or to share activities to get the rewards that the brain
expects (Table 8).
Table 8: OLS Regression predicting of interactivity on demographic factors.
|Predictors (Demographic factors)
Table entries are Unstandardized Regression Coefficients (B) and standard errors (SE). Degrees of freedom=6, ***p £ 0.001. N=322
Regression analysis in Table 8 shows some of the support to the
fifth hypothesis by indicating a positive regression of interactivity
on gender, that male users are likely to be more active on SM
than females. This outcome comes from the fact that because
women interest more in interpersonal relationships online for
keeping existing relationships while men are seeking new friends and those who share the same interests on SM , they will be
more interactive to present themselves, present self-descriptions
within an online community and articulate their social networks
Also, age is the lonely significant negative predictor to interactivity
that younger users are more likely to interact via SM than older
users. This result can be interpreted as approved by Madden
and Smith  that young adults are the most active online
reputation managers in several dimensions and, when compared
with older users, they more often customize what they share and
whom they share it with.
Conclusion and Study Limitations
This research attempts to apply developments in theoretical
concepts describing how Egyptian adults interact and use SM.
Through the examination of U&G theory, factor analysis showed
that the users participate in virtual community activities to obtain
knowledge and views on events that they need in a stage of
marketing views that help them in opinion reinforcement. These
intellectual and cognitive aspects of Egyptian users which reveal
a kind of political GS are due to the environment of controversy
and debate created by SM especially after the Egyptian Revolution
of January 25, 2011. As information-seeking is a major motivator
of web use, it is important to study in future research the quality and credibility of information seeking and sharing via SM sites.
I found SM sites usage was related to social connectivity that
users used them as tools for communicating and keeping involved
with others or acquiring social information about others and
surrounding community. Egyptian users tend to freely express
their lives, thoughts and views through SM, then their privacy
and content sharing need a pattern of social and moral discipline.
Because “social media users’ online knowledge-sharing behavior
is the most essential activity for maintaining and developing the
virtual communities” [80,81], my findings also illuminate the
discussion about users to be the core of the sharing process of
information, ideas and opinions. It is needed in future research
to examine users' activities of information sharing via SM and
how these activities affect the users' online information privacy.
It is also important to examine the degree of users' adoption of
information shared through SM and how they rely on them in
forming opinions and issue judgments about various events and
issues either by joining groups or free use of blogging through
In addition to the three types of utilitarian motives mentioned
before, users are looking for entertainment and pastime
through SM sites in the current study. Ruggiero  express this
situation claiming that entertainment and mass media are nearly
synonymous for most people. While mood management theory
reveals that people's entertainment choices should similarly
serve the management of moods , Egyptian users are capable
of altering prevailing mood states through the consumption of
entertaining content. Through SM platforms, entertainment
forms vary for users that they can use millions of audio and
video clips by accessing YouTube or playing games via other sites
especially on Facebook.
Factor analysis showed six types of content usage through SM.
These types of content usage were associated with various
motives of using SM. Such finding reveals that specific content
not only can satisfy specific needs of using SM sites but also can
meet other purposes of their usage. While users are seeking for
or consuming content with hedonistic qualities they are given
opportunities to achieve utilitarian uses and the same goes for
users who are seeking for content with utilitarian purposes.
Moreover, Web-browsing process is beyond just utilitarian
purpose that there is a presence of user enjoyment [14,47]. It is
relevant in future research to examine the appropriate content
of each of SM sites according to its characteristics and attributes
and to distinguish between the process and content motivations
of each SM platform. This is because SM sites develop their
platforms and add more options and advantages to the users;
hence, there will be multiple areas for using content, interactivity
and social interaction.
The results of this study highlight how patterns of GS reveal
notable differences across categories defined by the extent of SM
type’s usage. In my sample of Egyptian adults, besides the point
that Facebook was the leading in terms of favorability among
SM sites, it fulfills all types of Egyptians' needs from SM usage.
Some of the other sites were suitable to meet specific needs such
as Twitter which satisfies users' needs to market and reinforce their opinions through seeking for information, views, and ideas,
and Instagram which has its usage to fulfill their needs for social
interaction and social information, while Google plus is a suitable
medium for users to express their opinions and views. These
results show the need to highlight the types of SM for Egyptian
users and the relevant kinds of their GS and GO due to the unique
and different design and usability features of SM platforms. Also,
it would be valuable to discover new areas of GS and GO due to
the impact of smart devices applications usage.
A major finding of this study is that the features of Facebook and
Twitter are more suitable to the Egyptian adult users to practice
high levels of interactivity which did not appear with other SM
sites mentioned in the current study. The future research must
exceed the traditional ways of measuring users' interaction
through SM due to evolving technology which enables SM to
incorporate new platforms that help users to adopt various
interactive techniques whether online or offline usage.
Other major findings of the current study were related to the
effects of some demographic varieties on GS from SM usage
and on adult users' interactivity. Because cultural differences
determine the U&G of social networks , the findings of the
current study may be different if applied in other societies with
the same demographic variables. Also, Future studies must
employ data collected from global databases about SM users to
identify the medium most used by specific community segments
and, thereby, explore the aspects of uses, gratifications, and
interactivity through SM according to population characteristics.
1The jury members were: Prof. Adel Abdul Ghafar, Prof. Ashraf Abdul Mogheeth and Associate Prof. Mehrez Ghaly (All are at Faculty of Mass Communication-Cairo University).
2Egypt has a population of 85.8 million and Cairo is the largest capital in the Arab region with a population of 25 million throughout the three governorates (Cited in Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics. 2014. Statistical Yearbook 2014.).
3According to the education system in Egypt, the education in the prep stage takes three years following the elementary stage.
4These topics were: High prices, Nile water crisis, Financial and administrative corruption, Tourism, Social events, Cultural and literary subjects, Family and society, Crime and Accidents, and Children's supplies and schools.
- Statista (2017) Number of monthly active Facebook users worldwide as of 2nd quarter 2017 (in millions).
- Chebib NK, Sohail RM (2011) The reasons social media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Business Research and Management 2: 139-162.
- Ruggiero TE (2000) Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society 3: 3-37.
- Katz E, Blumler J, Gurevitch M (1974) Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In: Blumler J, Katz E (eds.) The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, pp: 19-32.
- Severin W, Tankard J (2009) Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. (5 ed). New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.
- Weiyan L (2015) A historical overview of uses and gratifications theory. Cross-Cultural Communication 11: 71-78.
- Katz E (1959) Mass communications research and the study of popular culture: An editorial note on a possible future for this journal. Studies in Public Communication 2: 1-6.
- Katz E, Gurevitch M, Haas H (1973) On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review 38: 164-181.
- Safi F, Iqbal L (2015) Uses and needs gratification of FM radio broadcast in native Pashto language: A case study of youth from Mardan. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences 5: 220-227.
- LaRose R, Mastro D, Eastin MS (2001) Understanding Internet usage a social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review 19: 395-413.
- Beaudoin CE (2008) Explaining the relationship between Internet use and interpersonal trust: Taking into account motivation and information overload. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13: 550-568.
- Charney T, Greenberg B (2002) Uses and gratifications of the Internet. In: Lin C, Atkin D (eds.) Communication technology and society: New media adoption and uses. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, pp: 379-407.
- Papacharissi Z, Rubin AM (2000) Predictors of Internet use. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 46: 346-368.
- Stafford T, Stafford M, Schkade L (2004) Determining uses and gratifications for the Internet. Decision Sciences 35: 259-288.
- Shao G (2009) Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: a uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research 19: 7-25.
- Gan C, Wang W (2015) Uses and gratifications of social media: a comparison of microblog and WeChat. Journal of Systems and Information Technology 17: 351-363.
- Johnson PR, Yang SU (2009) Uses and gratifications of Twitter: An examination of user motives and satisfaction of Twitter use. Paper presented at the Communication Technology Division of the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. Boston, Massachusetts.
- Michailina S, Andreas M, Christos P (2015) Understanding online news: uses and gratifications of mainstream news sites and social media. International Journal of Strategic Innovative Marketing 3: 1-13.
- Park N, Kerk KF, Valenzuela S (2009) Being immersed in social networking environment: Facebook groups, uses and gratifications, and social outcomes. Cyber-Psychology & Behavior 12: 729-33.
- Phua J, Jin S, Kim J (2017) Gratifications of using Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or Snap chat to follow brands: The moderating effect of social comparison, trust, tie strength, and network homophily on brand identification, brand engagement, brand commitment, and membership intention. Telematics and Informatics 34: 412-424.
- Quan-Haase A, Young AL (2010) Uses and gratifications of social media: A comparison of Facebook and instant messages. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 30: 350-361.
- Dhir A, Kaur P, Lonka K, Tsai C (2016) Do psychosocial attributes of well-being drive intensive Facebook use? Computers in Human Behavior 68: 520-527.
- Ellison N, Steinfield C, Lampe C (2007) The benefits of Facebook “friends”: Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12: 1143-1168.
- Jensen J, Sørensen A (2013) Nobody has 257 Friends: Strategies of Friending, disclosure, and privacy on Facebook. Nordicom Review 34: 49-62.
- Pagani M, Hofacker C, Goldsmith R (2011) The influence of personality on active and passive use of social networking sites. Psychology and Marketing 28: 441-456.
- Langaro D, Rita P, Salgueiro M (2015) Do social networking sites contribute for building brands? Evaluating the impact of users’ participation on brand awareness and brand attitude. Journal of Marketing Communications, pp: 1-23.
- Wallace E, Buil I, de Chernatony L (2012) Facebook ‘Friendship’ and brand advocacy. Journal of Brand Management 20: 128-146.
- Baran S, Davis D (2006) Mass communication theory. Belmont, CA: Thomas Wadsworth.
- Meyrowitz J (2002) Media and behavior - a missing link. In: McQuail D (ed.) McQuail's reader in mass communication theory. London: Sage Publications Ltd, pp: 99-112.
- Gil de Zúñiga HG, Bachmann I, Hsu S, Brundidge J (2013) Expressive versus consumptive blog use: Implications for interpersonal discussion and political participation. International Journal of Communication 7: 1538-1559.
- Chung M, Kim H (2009) College students’ motivations for using podcasts. Journal of Media Literacy Education 7: 13-28.
- Eighmey J, McCord L (1998) Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of Business Research 41: 187-194.
- Ko H, Cho CH, Roberts MS (2005) Internet uses and gratifications: A structural equation model of interactive advertising. Journal of Advertising 34: 57-70.
- Tewksbury D, Althaus S (2000) An examination of motivations for using the World Wide Web. Communication Research Reports 17: 127-138.
- Dimmick J, Kline S, Stafford L (2000) The gratification niches of personal e-mail and the telephone: Competition, displacement, and complementarity. Communication Research 27: 227-248.
- Grellhesl M, Punyanunt-Carter N (2012) Using the uses and gratifications theory to understand gratifications sought through text messaging practices of male and female undergraduate students. Computers in Human Behavior 28: 2175-2181.
- Hoştut S (2010) Uses and gratifications of mobile phone use among students in Turkey. Global Media Journal: Mediterranean Edition 5: 1-17.
- Leung L, Wei R (2000) More than just talk on the move: Uses and gratifications of the cellular phone. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77: 308-320.
- Mazzoni C, Castaldi L, Addeo F (2007) Consumer behavior in the Italian mobile telecommunication market. Telecommunications Policy 31: 632-647.
- Wei R (2008) Motivations for using the mobile phone for mass communications and entertainment. Telematics and Informatics 25: 36-46.
- Albarran A, Anderson T, Bejar L, Bussart A, Daggett E, et al. (2007) What happened to our audience? Radio and new technology uses and gratifications among young adult users. Journal of Radio Studies 14: 92-101.
- McClung S, Pompper D, Kinnally W (2007) The functions of Radio for teens: Where Radio fits among youth media choices. Atlantic Journal of Communication 15: 103-119.
- Stark B, Weichselbaum P (2013) What attracts listeners to Web radio? A case study from Germany. Radio Journal: International Studies in Broadcast & Audio Media 11: 185-202.
- Ballard C (2011) What's happening @Twitter: A uses and gratifications approach. University of Kentucky Master's Theses 155.
- Lo O, Leung L (2009) Effects of gratification-opportunities and gratifications-obtained on preferences of instant messaging and e-mail among college students. Telematics and Informatics 26: 156-166.
- Subrahmanyam K, Reich S, Waechter N, Espinoza G (2008) Online and offline social networks: Use of social networking sites by emerging adults. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 29: 420-433.
- Wui K (2013) Social media uses and gratifications among young adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Master dissertation/thesis, UTAR.
- Xu C, Ryan S, Prybutok V, Wen C (2012) It is not for fun: An examination of social network site usage. Information & Management 49: 210-217.
- Gülnar B, Şalcı BŞ, Çakır V (2010) Motivations of Facebook, YouTube, and similar websites users. bilig 54: 161-184.
- Liu ILB, Cheung CMK, Lee MKO (2010) Understanding Twitter usage: What drive people continue to Tweet. PACIS 2010 Proceedings. Paper 92.
- Alhabash S, Chiang Y, Huang K (2014) MAM & U&G in Taiwan: Differences in the uses and gratifications of Facebook as a function of motivational reactivity. Computers in Human Behavior 35: 423-430.
- Malik A, Dhir A, Nieminen M (2015) Uses and gratifications of digital photo sharing on Facebook. Telematics and Informatics 33: 129-138.
- Lin CA (2001) Audience attributes, media supplementation, and likely online service adoption. Mass Communication & Society 4: 19-38.
- AL-Kandari AJ (2010) Arab news networks and conspiracy theories about America: A political gratification study. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research 3: 59-76.
- Elliott WR, Rosenberg WL (1987) The 1985 Philadelphia newspaper strike: A uses and gratifications study. Journalism Quarterly 4: 679-687.
- Smock AD, Ellison NB, Lampe C, Wohn DY (2011) Facebook as a toolkit: A uses and gratification approach to unbundling feature use. Computers in Human Behavior 27: 2322-2329.
- Wang R, Yang F, Zheng S, Sundar S (2016) Why do we pin? New gratifications explain unique activities in Pinterest. Social Media + Society 2: 1-9.
- Ellison N, Vitak J, Gray R, Lampe C (2014) Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication19: 855-870.
- Leung L (2001) College student motives for chatting on ICQ. New Media & Society 3: 483-500.
- Kietzmann JH, Hermkens K, McCarthy IP, Silvestre BS (2011) Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizons 54: 241-251.
- Oloo F (2013) “Instagratification”: Uses and gratification of Instagram by university students for interpersonal communication. Eastern Mediterranean University Master's Theses pg: 123.
- Chen GM (2011) Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior 27: 755-762.
- McQuail D (2010) McQuail’s mass communication theory. 6th ed. Sage, London.
- Yoo J, Choi S, Rho M (2014) Why people use Twitter: Social conformity and social value perspectives. Online Information Review 38: 265-283.
- Apodaca J (2017) True-self and the uses and gratifications of Instagram among college-~aged females. UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones pg: 2936.
- Palmgreen P, Wenner LA, Rosengren KE (1985) Uses and gratifications research: the past ten years. In: Rosengren KE, Wenner LA, Palmgreen P (eds.) Media gratifications research: current perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, pp: 11-37.
- Luo X (2002) Uses and gratifications theory and e-consumer behaviors: A structural equation modeling study. Journal of Interactive Advertising 2: 34-41.
- Dolan R, Jodie C, Fahy J, Goodman S (2015) Social media engagement behavior: a uses and gratifications perspective. Journal of Strategic Marketing, pp: 1-17.
- Bowman S, Willis C (2003) We media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information. The Media Center at the American Press Institute.
- Pavlik JV, Everette ED (1996) New Media Technology and the Information Superhighway. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
- Tufekci Z, Spence K (2007) Online social network sites: A gendered inflection point in the increasingly social web. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. New York.
- Ran W (2008) Motivations for using the mobile phone for mass communications and entertainment. Telematics and Informatics 25: 36-46.
- Madden M, Smith A (2010) Reputation management and social media. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Pew Research Center.
- Sveningsson M (2007) Young people's presentations of relationships in a Swedish Internet community. Young 15: 145-167.
- Tsay-Vogel M, Krakowiak M (2016) Effects of hedonic and eudaimonic motivations on film enjoyment through moral disengagement. Communication Research Reports 33: 54-60.
- Oliver MB, Raney AA (2011) Entertainment as pleasurable and meaningful: Identifying hedonic and eudaimonic motivations for entertainment consumption. Journal of Communication 61: 984-1004.
- Turel O, Serenko A, Bontis N (2007) User acceptance of wireless short messaging services: deconstructing perceived value. Information and Management 44: 63-73.
- Wasko M, Faraj S (2005) Why should I share? Examining social and knowledge capital contribution in electronic networks of practice. MIS Quarterly 29: 35-57.
- Seiter C (2017) The psychology of social media: Why we like, comment, and share online. [Web log post].
- Boyd D, Ellison N (2007) Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13: 210-230.
- Jin X (2016) Information sharing in the era of social media. Academic dissertation, University of Jyväskylä.
- Karimi L, Khodabandelou R, Ehsani M, Ahmad M (2014) Applying the uses and gratifications theory to compare higher education students’ motivation for using social networking sites: Experiences from Iran, Malaysia, United Kingdom, and South Africa. Contemporary Educational Technology 5: 53-72.