Effect of the Use of Multimedia on StudentsÃ¢ÂÂ Performance in Secondary School Mathematics
Faculty of Education, Department of Science and Technology Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Oyebola Akinoso
Faculty of Education
Department of Science and Technology Education
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Received Date: May 02, 2018; Accepted Date: May 10, 2018; Published Date: May 17, 2018
Citation: Akinoso O. Effect of the Use of Multimedia on Students’ Performance in Secondary School Mathematics. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:30.
Copyright: © 2018 Akinoso O. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The research investigates effectiveness of multimedia on students’ performance in mathematics. Two schools were randomly selected from Educational District V. Intact classes were purposely assigned into experimental and control. Quasi experimental design was adopted. Mathematics Achievement Test with reliability coefficient of 0.81 using KR-20 was used. Data collected were analyzed using ANCOVA. No significant effect exists between the Treatment and achievement in mathematics, the mean achievement score of experimental group was higher than that of control. Also, significant effect did not exist on treatment and gender, but, male have higher achievement mean score (Ã¯Â¿Â½ = 57.50) than female counterparts(Ã¯Â¿Â½ = 54.13). Multimedia positively influenced the academic performance of students in mathematics.
Multimedia; Information communication
technology; Performance in mathematics; Secondary school
Today’s world is dominated by the use of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT). Communication this day is
so easy to the extent that any part of the world can be reached
and discuss any issue at any point in time, this implies that the
world has being reduced to a concise size through information
and communication technology thus, information
communication technology ensures national development
through adequate communication to seek for opinion in any
other country which brings deep relationship with other
nations. Information communication technology can be
categorized to Information Technology (IT) and
Communication Technology (CT) . Information
communication technology comprises of technologies for
manipulative communication of information and also consists of the medium for information recording like radio, television,
and others, and technology for communication through voice
and sound or images using microphone, camera, loudspeaker,
and telephone/mobile phones . Information communication
technology is indispensable when considering its importance
in the industrialized societies. The use of information
communication technology can be seen as an added
advantage which creates suitable environment to the
educational system. This might be the reason why Ololube 
stated that information communication technology gives a
new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical
According to studies , information communication
technology facilities are described as all available facilities for
the identification, generation, processing, storage, packaging,
preservation, conservation and transfer of information, in
which time and distance is not constraints. In other words,
information communication technology is an information
handling tools which can be used for producing, storing,
processing, distributing and exchanging information.
Information communication technology has become a
powerful tool for participating in global markets, promoting
political accountability, improving the delivery of basic services
and enhancing local development opportunities (United
Nations Development Programme, 2006). Akinoso et al. 
stated that, the technology serves as an important function
beyond satisfying intellectual curiosity. Akinoso, Agoro & Alabi
further stated that the availability of powerful, globallyconnected
computers or integration of information and
communication technology alone is not sufficient to insure
that students learn, there are some other things to put into
consideration, the use of this tool i.e whether the teachers are
using the tools or not, adequate knowledge of how to use the
tool and when to use it especially for the subjects that pose
conceptual difficulties such as mathematics and science. The
National Policy on Education stated that education is an
important tool for national development . This makes the
incorporation of ICT into teaching-learning process vital. To
buttress this, Galenouh, Gordlier and Murphy, opined that the
development and role of information and communication
technology in educational sector is believed to set the pace for innovation and changes that happens to any nation. It is not
only engineers but everybody needs to be entrepreneurial in
order to understand and contribute in the context of
information and communication technology market and
business pressures. It was asserted by Albirini  that
information and communication technology is to be
programmed towards meeting the set educational goals. Thus,
it has become a compulsory issue for experienced
mathematics teachers to be confident in using information
and communication technology effectively in teaching .
Wirsiy and Shafack in Bappah  defined information and
communication technology as a broad based term that
encompasses the gathering, organization, storage and retrieval
of information that can be in textual or numerical, pictorial
and vocal forms or a combination of all (multi-media), using a
combination of computers and telecommunications telephony
Multimedia devices as part of information and
communication technology facilities which are electronic
media devices used to store and experience multimedia
content. Multimedia is concerned with the computercontrolled
integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and
moving images (video), animation, audio and any other media
where every type of information can be represented, stored,
transmitted and processed digitally. Multimedia is all about
communicating in several ways. Multimedia is used in several
fields such as advertising and marketing, education and
training sector and mass communication (journalism).
Multimedia items generally fall into one of five main categories
and use varied techniques for digital formatting such as text,
images, audio, video and animation. With the advancement of
technology in this world, this has made the world changing
rapidly which is affecting the educational field positively. The
information and communication technology has drastically
changed the classroom learning environment that can attract
the interest of students and make student active during lesson
unlike passive environment which cannot help in learning and
retention. The use of multimedia in education precisely
mathematics education is increasing and will continue to
increase in the field of learning due to the digital age. Teachers
need these resources in order to make teaching easy, to bring
into reality through the concept taught and help the student
understanding. The benefits derived from the use of
multimedia resources is not limited to the ease of teachers
work alone especially to support constructive concept
development, but help students in such a way that make them
relate the knowledge to real life. By enabling teacher to have
access in multimedia learning resource, which helps to support
constructive concept development, this helps the teacher to
be more focus to teaching the subject and help the students to
have thorough understanding of the concept. The multimedia
also help to ease learning, by enabling students to learn at
home which improve student learning skills. Multimedia
elements, which include text, graphic, video, sound and
animation, help creation of an interactive learning
environment that can help teacher and students teaching and
learning. It encourages deep reflective thinking.
Mathematics can be defined as the science of numbers,
quantity and space of which arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry
and geometry are branches, according to Oxford Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. It is defined by
Pickover  as the loom upon which God weaves the fabric of
the universal, the science of patterns, a conducting thread
connecting scientific ideas with the understanding of our
environment and a formal system of taught for recognizing,
classifying and exploiting patterns developed by the human
mind and culture. Sigh  emphasized that mathematics is
the king of other subjects and, therefore, pivotal to
development in such areas as economy, culture and policies. In
order to raise safer and better people in life, more emphases
must be laid on how to get more knowledge of mathematics to
be able to apply the knowledge in solving real life problems
. She emphasized further that, the goal of education is to
equip people to lead meaningful lives which is surely the basic
contribution of mathematics, apart from making a living, a safe
life full of joy, peace, free from all kinds of crisis, unnecessary
aggression, kidnapping and rape.
The National Policy on Education (NPE) stipulated that
mathematics should be one of the core subjects taught at
primary and secondary schools, due to its importance in the
area of science and technology. Its objectives are stated: to
inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy and ability to
communicate effectively and to lay sound basis for scientific
and reflective thinking . Mathematics, due to its importance
is a compulsory subject for all primary and post primary
schools in many countries of the world. The expectation is
that, adequate exposure of students to the knowledge of
mathematics will facilitate their achievement not only in
mathematics but also in other areas of human endeavors
Odogwu . In this volatile, uncertain, complex and
ambiguous (VUCA) world, the teaching of mathematics should
be handled with care, since it is all about solving problems
both mathematical and real life problems Akinoso .
Mathematics is widely used in the following area.
Usefulness of mathematics in everyday life in keeping of
records, four basic operations of addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division as carried out on numbers, money,
length, mass, time and other objects as they occur in everyday
life. Shopping lists as prepared before buying, estimations and
actual measurement of lengths, distance, volume, time made
at home, market and other public places, keeping
appointments, dialing numbers on mobile phones which are
carried out on daily basis.
Usefulness of mathematics in vocations or apprenticeship
such as carpentry, bricklaying, battery charging, tailoring,
welding, plumbing which needs basic understanding of
geometry involving plane shapes, three dimensional solids,
symmetry, angles and measurement. Use of calculators by
business men and women in small and big business.
Usefulness of mathematics in other school subjects such as
Geography, Sciences, English, Economic, Accounts/bookkeeping.
In geography, students need mathematics to calculate
gradients, population density, longitude and latitude.
Mathematical concepts of proportion and graphs are needed in economics classes in a topic like demand and supply. Even
subjects like English apply mathematical concepts when
students have to count the number of words in an essay. In
sciences, such words like roots, exponent, vector and power.
The application of mathematics to school subjects supports its
retention as core subject at the secondary school level.
Mathematics is very useful in different professions. Almost
all universities require a credit at the senior secondary school
for admission irrespective of the course or profession. This
underscores the significance of mathematics to various
professions. The historian applies mathematical concepts to
process his information, keep his records straight and
sequential. Dates of historical event are most meaningful and
precise when they are recorded using mathematical concepts.
Mathematics aids the accountant in keeping his records brief,
accurate, straight, logical and sequential. The accountant is
able to present his data pictorially and concisely using pie
charts, bar charts, histograms and many other mathematical
presentations. The banker uses the principle of simple interest
and compound interest to update and balance accounts on
daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly basis on individual
and cooperate accounts in the bank. The engineer cannot
function effectively without applying mathematics.
Psychologists use mathematics to build learning models. Social
sciences are using probability and game theory to study
politics and crime. Economics as a branch called econometrics
which applies substantial mathematical concepts.
Mathematical analysis has also been applied in the study of
language and literature by linguists. Computer, which has
revolutionized the whole world, is applied mathematics. The
geologist in locating oil reserves has found mathematics
indispensable. Mathematics is proving to be more useful to
the sciences, the humanities and even in arts in this era. In
government, mathematics is needed to plan, prepare budgets
and keep record of income and expenditure. There is striking
application of mathematics to the entire landscape of natural,
behavioral and social sciences. All advances in design, control
and efficiency of modern airlines depend on sophisticated
mathematical models that simulate performance before
prototypes are built. From CAT scanner in medical technology
to genetics in the decoding of DNA all apply one mathematical
concept or the other. Mathematics has made an indelible print
on modern science even as it has stimulated the growth of
many branches of science. In summary, mathematics is very
vital in other discipline.
Also, the academic achievement of students in Nigeria has
been a source of concern to researchers, educators,
government and parents. Obviously, the great importance that
mathematics has on the national development of the country
made it so important and this cannot just be overlooked.
Research report indicated a consensus of opinion about the
fallen standard of education in Nigeria . The factors that
contribute to the poor performance of students in
mathematics according to Mbugua  include socio-cultural
factors: students’ factors-entry behavior motivation and
attitude, socio-economic factors: education of parents and the
economic status, school based factors: availability and usage of teaching and learning facilities, school type and teacher
characteristics, method of teaching mathematics,
effectiveness of mathematics teacher, teachers’ workload,
teachers’ attitude towards mathematics. The strategy for
teaching a mathematics concept according to Odogwu  is
the procedure, process and the algorithm used to deal with
the concept. The strategy a teacher chooses will depend on
the nature of the topic, the class of the students and the
overall objectives of the curriculum. According to Akinoso 
the use of concrete-representational instructional strategy can
help students to learn any concept in mathematics in an active
manner and allow the use of real life materials that can be
The world of today promotes gender equity by improving
access to education especially to females through girl-child
education programs. Gender gap exists in education in sub-
Saharan Africa, and out-of-school children, more of whom are
girls, are deprived of any opportunity to gain ICT related
knowledge and skill in school. African girls have the lowest
enrolment rates in the world of science and technology
education at all levels. Studies had established that females
tend to be less interested in computer and use them less often
in their spare time . A study conducted in four African
countries identified that while in principles, girls are given the
same opportunity as boys of access to computer, gender
equity does not exist in practice. It established that girls are
less confident than boys in their computer skills, and that
some international studies have found that boys scored better
than girls in computer related knowledge and skills in vast
majority of countries. In addition, the three computer related
occupation (computer scientists, computer engineers and
system analysts, and computer science and engineering) are
the top career choices for boys . The findings of Idowu,
Adagunodo and Idowu  in study of gender differences in
computer literacy showed that there is gender difference in
computer study and experience.
Tomte and Hatlevik  pointed out factors such as: access
to the use of internet, community, parents’ influence, peer
influence, social media, gaming, responsible for the difference
in gender in the use of ICT. Abdul-Raheem found no significant
difference in achievement of male and female students in
mathematics. Contrary to the findings of Schumacher and
Martin  showing that female are less experienced with
ICT’s and are more likely than males to have negative attitudes
towards computers. Further-more, male students prefer to
study courses that require computer use more than female
students and they show interest in programming and games
playing. They were also more experience at the ICT’s use than
girls, apart from e-mails where no significant differences were
reported. Moreover, Colley and Comber  in their study on
age and gender difference in computer use and attitudes
among secondary school students found out that boys have
higher frequency of use of computers than girls. The study
carried out by Anyamene et al.,  on the effect of Computer
Assisted Instruction (CAI) packages on the performance of
senior secondary students in mathematics, history and physics
respectively revealed that no significant difference exist in the
post test performance scores of male and female students taught using this package. The findings of Bressers and Bergen
suggested that male college student internet users spend more
time online than female college student internet users.
Jackson  emphasized that “masculinist ideologies of
mastery and control” have strongly and consistently informed
Review of Literature
The Chalk and talk method of teaching which involve too
much conversation in teaching has lost its efficacy and
student’s interest in subject. From online free teaching, it was
stated that the advancement in instructional and has strongly
influenced the field of education. It was discovered that
teaching and learning are being influenced by a number of
new media such as interaction between the students and
programmed instruction that give room for manipulation
which might not be possible by using any other medium.
Students can learn new information due to multimedia
provision of easiness and facilities in education. Semerci 
expressed the fact that the message via multimedia reaches
the receivers in various ways, this provides enablement
learning environment. The subjects being taught could be
transmitted to the students with web-based audio, visuals,
video and animations in a way that might not be taught in
classrooms with other techniques. Students can gain the
knowledge and information that would not be able to get from
other ways of teaching, besides students could have the
opportunity to prepare their own products with multimedia
technique. With that information, it could be asserted that the
use of multimedia helps students with different skills and
The impact of the use of multimedia on students’ learning is
two folds: the enormous and easy availability of textual and
audio visual content to be used for teaching can make lessons
more complete and attractive; then self-production of content
that information and communication technology offer can
help teachers customize the teaching more effectively. In an
evaluation of the “Laptops for teachers” program of the British
Government (2004-2007), teachers who had been equipped
with a laptop report having extended their capacity to access
resources and save time for lesson planning and preparation
. The use of multimedia might affects education positively
when designed properly compared to traditional instruction in
terms of academic achievement . By considering the facts
gathered from the literature, it could be asserted that
multimedia apart from ease and objectifies learning, it makes
the learner active and each and every one of them contribute
their quota and making learning of mathematics more
The Behaviorist Theory
According to McLeod , the behaviourist approach is only
concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviours, and
stated that all behaviours are learned through environmental
interaction. Behaviourism emphasizes the role of
environmental factors in influencing behaviour, to the near exclusion of innate or inherited factors. This amounts
essentially to a focus on learning. New things can be learnt
through 'learning theory and behaviors, no matter how
complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus-response
association. Watson  described the purpose of psychology
as: 'to predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take
place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or
stimulus is that has caused the reaction. This theory is relevant
to this study especially to the learning of mathematics which
required enablement environment and real-life materials to
interact with to reduce the abstract level and to simplify the
complexity of the subject.
Statement of the Problem
The world today is changing at a fast rate, so also the
various sectors in the development of a nation. Education
being one of these sectors and in fact, the instrument per
excellence for national development also moves along within
this line. Ways of improving the teaching and learning of
mathematics should be a great concern of the education
stakeholder due to its benefits to the society. The use of
multimedia might play a tangible role in this area. This study
therefore focuses on students’ performance in senior
secondary mathematics and seeks to find out if there exist any
difference in the performance of the students taught
mathematics using multimedia materials and those taught
mathematics without using multimedia.
Purpose of the Study
This study investigates the effects of multimedia on
students’ performance in senior secondary school
mathematics. The study also aims at achieving the following
• To investigate the effects of multimedia on students’
performance in senior secondary mathematics.
• To investigate the influence of gender on students’
performance when taught using multimedia.
• To investigate the interaction effect of multimedia and
gender difference on students’ academic performance.
• The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of
• HO1: No significant difference exist between the mean
achievement scores of experimental and control.
• HO2: No significant difference between the mean
achievement scores based on gender.
• HO3: There is no significant interaction effect of treatment
on gender on students’ academic performance.
Scope of the Study
The study covers all the secondary schools in Lagos State. It
also covered the following topics: logarithm, percentage error, calculation of range, variance and standard deviation and circle
theorems. The multimedia materials used are computer,
calculator, microphone, speaker and CD-ROMS.
Research design is concerned with the fundamental
question of how the subject matter of a study is brought into
the scope of the research and how they will be employed
within the research setting to yield the required data. It is a
model of proof that allows the researcher to draw inferences
concerning relationships among two or more variables under
study or investigations. The pre-test, post-test control group
quasi experimental design was used for this study. The
population of this study comprises of senior secondary school
II in Lagos State. The sample used comprised 60 senior
secondary school II students. The sample was selected from
two different schools one for experimental and one for
control. The instrument used is Mathematics Achievement
Test (MAT) which contains twenty- five questions. The MAT
questions were from four selected topics in Mathematics:
logarithm, percentage error, range, variance and standard
deviation and circle theorems.
The reliability testing of the instrument using KR-20 was
0.83 which shows that the instrument was reliable. The pretest
and post-test results were scored over one hundred (100)
each. Four marks were awarded to each correct answer in the
Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT). Data collected were
analyzed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). This was
used to test the three null hypotheses stated.
From Table 1, the mean score for the experimental group
( = 59.80) is greater than control ( = 52.79).
Table 1: Estimated Marginal Means for the Experimental and Control Groups.
Table 2 shows that the male students have higher mean score ( = 57.50) than their female counterparts score
( = 54.13).
Table 2: Gender and the Mean Scores.
H01: There is no significant difference between the mean
achievement scores of experimental and control.
From Table 3, treatment has no significant effect on
students’ achievement in mathematics. The implication is that,
there is no significant difference in mathematics achievement
of students exposed to multimedia materials and those in
control, though the means are different, hypothesis one is
hereby not rejected.
Table 3: Summary of ANCOVA of Post-test Achievement Scores by Treatment.
||Sum of sq.
H02: There is no significant difference between the mean
achievement scores of male and female students taught
mathematics using multimedia materials.
Table 4 below provided answer to solution to this null
Table 4: Interactive Effect of Treatment and Gender on Dependent Variable.
||Sum of sq.
Table 4 shows that, treatment has no significant effect on
gender; hypothesis 2 is therefore not rejected. This implies
that, treatment has no significant influence on gender.
HO3: There is no significant interaction effect of treatment
on gender on students’ academic performance.
Table 4 provides solution to the null hypothesis 3. It was
discovered that the interaction effect of treatment on gender
is not significant.
Based on the findings of this study on the effect of
multimedia on the academic performance of students, the
difference occurs between the performance of students in
experimental and control groups. The students in experimental
group had higher mean achievement than those in control. In
other words multimedia aids the teaching of mathematics
than the traditional instruction. Additionally, students’
interest, motivation and participation increased according to
the researcher and experimental group’s teacher observations.
In control group, on the other hand, traditional instruction had
less effect on the academic performance of the students. This
implies that the present of different materials for learning
influence the learning environment which serves as additional
advantage to the teaching of mathematics in an active way. It
has been concluded that students in the control had difficulties
in concretization of abstract topics and this made their
learning process not that encouraging. The materials used in
the experimental group were more attention catching and
enjoyable than the ones used in the control group. For the
experimental group, it has been observed that all students
were active in the learning process which is not so in control
group. The multimedia use improves the learning
mathematics. Though the mean of experimental group was
higher than that of control group in this study but the
difference was not significant.
Some studies indicated the use of multimedia and
technology positively affects students’ attitude, motivation
and attention towards the lesson. In the study where the
effect of multimedia technique on students’ academic success
was analyzed, no significant difference exist between the
experimental and control groups in the web-based studies of
Karadeniz and Akpinar . The situation is also in parallel
with Şahin, Akbaba and Çoruk and Çakir [31-33] studies. Şahin
 stated that students who were instructed with multimedia
are more successful compared to students instructed in
traditional ways which is in line with the result of this study.
Akbaba  reached similar results, he asserted the academic
success level of the classroom using multimedia was higher
than the classroom which did not use. In Çoruk and Çakir 
study, “The Effect of Multimedia on Primary School Students
on Academic Achievement and anxiety” there was no
difference in the result. They highlighted that multimedia
increases student success. In all three studies, it has been
indicated that instructions with multimedia use increased
student achievement. Arici and Yekta , on the other hand,
found no significant difference between but found multimedia
as neutral effective on the academic achievement of the
Akin and Çeçen  observed that student motivation
increased after the implementation of multimedia in the study.
It has been found in research that the use of multimedia in the
learning process does not only increase success level of the
students but create positive changes in the attitudes of the
students towards lessons. Akbaba et al.  stated the use of
multimedia positively affects 7th grade students’ attitude
towards social studies lesson. In the same sense, Yünkül and Er
 found students’ attitudes towards lesson were positively
affected by the use of multimedia as the students in the
experimental group. However, Altinişik and Orhan  found
reverse results as having no significant difference in the
results. Altinişik and Orhan explained the reason of this nondifference
situation as it was students’ first experience of
multimedia use and time limitation. Moreover, Aytan and
Başal  found teacher attitude towards web 2.0 tools were
positive, these tools improve critical thinking and ICT skills,
information exchange feedback process in their study web 2.0
tools effects were investigated. Tomte  pointed out factors
such as: access to the use of internet, community, parents’
influence, peer influence, social media, gaming etc., are
responsible for gender difference in the use of ICT. Abdul-
Raheem  revealed that there is no significant difference
between the mean achievement of male and female students
in both experimental and control group; this was also in
agreement with the findings of this study. The study carried
out by Anyamene  on the effect of CAI packages on the
performance of senior secondary students in mathematics,
history and physics respectively revealed that there was no
significant difference in the test performance scores of male
and female students taught using CAI packages.
According to the results of this study, it was established that
the use of multimedia can improve the learning of
mathematics to a certain level. The experimental group mean
was higher than the control, but the difference was not
significant. Also, there was no significant difference on
achievement using multimedia materials based on gender, but
male was of higher mean score than female. In conclusion,
multimedia technique increased the academic success of
students in mathematics to a certain level.
The following recommendations were made:
• The teachers of mathematics must have adequate
knowledge of computer to be able to carry out the
teaching of the subject with the use of multimedia
therefore; in-service training should be attended to
upgrade their knowledge from time to time.
• Materials with today’s technology for mathematics lesson
should be chosen and developed.
• The technological groundwork of the schools should be
improved and schools should be designed in a way to
present opportunities for multimedia use.
• Multimedia-aided teaching moves us towards the
constructivist approach of learning in which learners plays
an active role, so teachers should be encouraged to teach
mathematics using multimedia.
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