Gender-Based Portrayal as Media Form in Society
Souraya El Badaoui*
Mass Communication Faculty, Cairo
- *Corresponding Author:
- Souraya El Badaoui
Mass Communication Facutly
Tel: 20 2 35676105
Received date: Februaury 16, 2016; Accepted date: June 13, 2016; Published date: June 23, 2016
Citation: Souraya El Badaoui. Gender-Based
Portrayal as Media Form in Society. Global
Media Journal. 2016, 14:26.
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This paper aims to explore how traditional media form the perception of gender role and attributes through the TV social drama. Methodologically, the analysis is based on data sample that consists of 200 Egyptian students in both national and private universities. As a crucial method of collecting and analyzing the selected data, a questionnaire was designed based on specific criteria. Among these criteria is to consider the social diversity in the Egyptian society as mirrored in the data population, namely the two socially different types of education institutions. The overall finding of the analysis suggests that there is an underlying impact of the regular exposure to traditional media on portraying a social image of gender, particularly women.
Social power of media; Gender-based analysis; Egyptian social diversity;
TV drama; Feminism and sociology
As a recognizably distinct field of academic research, gender
studies dates back to at least the 1960s in Anglo American
countries, emerging within the disciplines of psychology,
sociology, linguistics, and anthropology, among others.
Insights from these disciplines provided a formative basis for
the establishment of gender studies in mass communication,
primarily from the 1970s onward. Until the 1980s, it has generally
assumed that media studies of gender would have its central
focus on the interrogation of images of women in the media.
However, as the twentieth century came to a close, gender
researchers became increasingly interested in analyzing the ways
in which men and male sex roles were portrayed, and began to
explore how communication systems and processes contributed
to the construction of different forms of masculinity [1,2]. From
another hand, there is little dispute about the assertion of the
significant role that the mass media play in the transmission
of dominant cultural values, especially in the perpetuation of
images of gender difference, roles and gender inequality. Given
that the media construct and utilize gender stereotypes to
maintain gender inequality, it is important to examine the ways in
which such powerful institution, i.e. traditional media represents
or forms the gender-based role in society.
In this regard, there is evidence that exposure to TV social drama
and different advertisements featuring women as sexual objects
produces stronger acceptance of gender-role stereotyping and of rape myths among male undergraduates [3,4]. Consistently,
survey research indicates that more regular exposure to TV genres
such as soap operas and music videos-which typically deal with
sexual content and sexual feelings or impulses; Media Report
to Women 2001-is associated with more stereotypical sexual
attitudes, with dysfunctional beliefs about relationships, and
with greater acceptance of sexual advances, especially among
women and adolescent girls . Likewise, Ward  has found
that, regardless of exposure levels, young women exposed to
prime time TV images depicting men as sex-driven and women as
sexual objects showed stronger endorsement of such stereotypes
than did women exposed to control clips. Other experimental
results support these findings, showing that women exposed to
sexual and sexist media content manifest stronger endorsement
of stereotypical attitudes about sex than do women exposed to
nonsexual content [6,7]. In a similar vein, research drawing from
priming and schema theories [7,8] has demonstrated that even
viewers’ interpretation of ambiguous stimuli and impressions
about real-world men and women interactions may be affected
by the nature of the TV content just watched.
The general theory that the new media is somehow "gendered"
encompasses many possibilities. For instance, the Internet may
appeal differentially to men and women because of stereotypes
signaling that computer technology is more appropriately male
than female [9-11] Some theorists argue that male values have
been institutionalized in the technology through its creators,
embedding a cultural association with masculine identity in the technology itself . In the terminology of Green, Owen,
and Pain (1993), the technology may be "gendered by design."
A weaker variant of this claim is that content on-line tends to
favor male interests and styles independently of any intrinsic
properties of the underlying technology.This paper consists
of six sections. After this introductory section, the theoretical
framework adopted in the present study is outlined in section
1. This is followed by the research questions in section 2. Then
section 3 describes the methodological aspects and criteria that
were set out as analytical bases. After that, the results of the
study are presented in section 4, followed by a deeper discussion
in section 5. Before listing the references, the conclusion is
outlined in section 6.
Theoretical Framework: Feminist, Gender
and Media Studies
Some of the earliest media research in the field of gender studies
looked at the ways in which sex role distinctions-or the false
belief that women and men are innately different-are portrayed,
for example in the press, television, women magazines, and film.
Much of the gender research has been grounded in assumptions
about individual acquisition of gendered attitudes and behaviors,
and the ways in which socially constructed gender roles can
negatively impact on individual life chances, especially in terms
of one’s sense of self-worth, social perceptions of women,
and women career prospects. Here it has been assumed that
portrayals of women in the media that depict them as mentally
and physically less able than men, or where their beauty, sexuality,
or domestic service are the aspects that are the most highly
valued in them, will hold women back from achieving individual
(career, wealth, personal) success.
Early research in media studies, especially on television
social serials, showed that women were rarely portrayed and
that, when they were, such portrayals tended to be heavily
stereotyped. There has been a growing interest in the field of
gender studies in making global comparisons around, to take one
example, the extent to which women appear as news reporters
and news subjects so as to judge the extent to which women
voices are making a contribution to democratic political systems
. Additionally, more-specifically-focused forms of feminism
have emerged recently for instance, in the US, examples include
Latina, black, and Asian feminist theory. Elsewhere, various forms
of Islamic feminism have developed both within and outside the
Middle East and elsewhere [14,15].
On the other hand, psychological theories of development
explain how people gain knowledge about gender roles. Gender
schema theory emphasizes the dominant role of gender in not
only grasping but also processing knowledge and beliefs and
guiding behavior in a given culture. Bem’s gender schema theory
explains how girls and boys exposed to cultural definitions of
maleness and femaleness-embedded in discourse and social
practices-will identify with them. Within this rubric, “female’’ and
‘‘male’’ are biological terms, whereas feminine and masculine are
cultural constructions. Gender schema theory points to cognitive
structures that are historical, contextual, and persuasive and
illustrate the significance of gender stereotypes.
Bem’s sex role index assesses degrees of masculinity, femininity,
and androgyny, yet gender in this theoretical perspective rests
on society insistence on a gender dichotomy. Bem’s gender
schema theory provides a useful starting point when considering
gender identities-both performed and within media discourse-assist
in sense making. It serves as means for understanding how
gender is learned, presented, and perceived and how female/
male relations are structured through gender-role stereotypes in
However, media audience may also play a crucial role in sustaining
such typecasts by favoring stereotypical information and/or by
selecting information stereotypically. When it comes to drama for
example, media users clearly show different information seeking
behaviors depending on their socio demographic characteristics
such as sex, age, psycho-social context and level of education.
For instance, sex differences in T.V drama preferences have long
occurred and been observed internationally.
The range of issues currently under scholarly scrutiny represents
such developments in feminist thinking both inside and outside
the academic field, reflecting the wide array of media, topics,
and theoretical and methodological approaches that now
shape the field of gender and feminist media studies research.
These include discussions around the growing sexualization of
media representations of women and girls, post-feminism ,
representations of men (including gay men and transgender
individuals) in the media the gendering of war and conflict
, girl culture, cosmetic surgery, cyber-feminism and new
communication technologies, transnational feminist media
studies, sexual violence and media .
The above mentioned theoretical background in mind, the present
study tries to answer an overarching research question, that is: to
what extent the can media form social attitude portray a mental
image of male and female as a social actor? This question could
be divided into the following research questions:
1) What gendered roles and attributes that could be
constructed fromstudents’ perceptions due to watching
TV social serials in Egypt?
2) What are the social underlying factors that have formed
the mental image of students of male/female’s social roles
3) How could such portrayal be interpreted in the light of
diversity of the Egyptian society?
Answering the above mentioned RQs required a sample of 200
media students from both governmental and private media
college. A questionnaire was designed so that the social diversity
in the Egyptian society as reflected in the data population is
considered through these two different education systems
in addition to other social and cultural features as detailed in Table 1 below. The data under analysis was recruited in three
levels of comparative base:
|Sample characteristics (200)
|18 to <20
|20 to <22
|22 to 25
||Place of residence
Table 1: Sample characteristics.
• The first level concerns with the TV social serials among
Egyptian students and its effects on their perceptions of
gender roles and attributes.
• The second level measures the effect of student’s gender
and its effects on Egyptian students perceptions of gender
roles and attributes.
• The third base was the different social and cultural context
depending on the criteria of place of residence, i.e.: Cairo,
Upper Egypt, and Bottom Egypt (Table 2). The study then
includes variables that measure crucial aspects of how
students consume TV social serials, as long as gender
construction is modeled as a function of various media
habits and activities. A first set of indicating variables are
included to explain the source from which one receives
most of his/her gender-related constructions. A second
set of indicating variables are devoted to measure the
gender attributes and roles which already constructed in
Egyptian students perceptions and attitudes.
|Gender-basedroles and attributesin traditional media
|Caring for home affairs
|Beauty and richness
|Mobilise public opinion
|Expressing her opinion withoutfear of shame
Table 2: Social roles and attributes according to gender and type of media.
1. Exposure to TV social serials: the variables for levels of
viewing and follow-up for Egyptian social serials were
calculated, and the highest degree in the scale got the
value of 6 and the lowest degree was 2.
2. Sample socio-economic level was measured through:
monthly income, Type of College (Governmental or
Private), and Travelling outside (Arab countries or Arab
and Foreign countries or no). The highest degree in the
scale had the value of 8 and the lowest degree was 3.
3. Men and women attributes: a 7 degrees scale, where degree
no.1 represented the absence of the attribute, and degree
no. 7 represented the strong presence of the attribute.
To determine the general direction of the dimension,
measures for the positive and negative dimensions of men
and women attributes were collected according to Bem
scale, and that was at the level of personality attribute
(e.g, but not limited to) independence, sincerity, love
of risk, capacity for decision-making, impulsive, vanity,
chaotic and reservation, or at the level of social attribute
(e.g cooperation, diplomacy, activeness, adaptation to
changes, ability to control, adulation and affectation),
at the level of psychological attribute such as kindness,
happiness, mood swings, jealousy and emotion.
4. Students perception derived from TV social serials about
women compared to men, sentences were divided on a
Likert scale measuring social, political, cultural, economic
aspects, both positive and negative, in order to obtain the
• Positive social dimension depicted in Egyptian TV social
serials. It included 8 sentences such as reinforcing the
ability of Egyptian women to demand and get their rights just like men; they establish the equality in Egyptian law
between men and women to get their rights. The overall
average for these sentences was calculated.
• Negative social dimension related to Egyptian social TV
social serials, it has included 18 sentences, for example,
show unwillingness of women to get their rights compared
to men, they are not able to prove themselves as men do,
it does not respect women like men and insult them which
encourages sexual harassment, it represents women in
contrary to the tradition of the Muslim world.
• Positive political dimension related to Egyptian TV social
serials, it has included 3 sentences like: serials support
women opportunities to win the election as men, women
are able to manage the state as men, and women had
contributed to the liberation of Egypt.
• Negativepolitical dimensions related to Egyptian TV
social serials, it has included 3sentencesincludingthat
the leadership position is for men notwomen, passionof
women inmanagementpositionscompared to men, and
womenare subordinate to men, even if they are ministers.
• Positive cultural dimension related to Egyptian TV social
serials, it has included two sentences which are that TV
social serials depicts women as of a fine thought, and the
woman has ruled fairly throughout history.
• Negative cultural dimension related to Egyptian TV social
serials, it has included 4 sentences; the drama supports
the idea that women are irrational and in a less religious
level, the woman coddles man for he is freer than women
and the natural place for a woman is her home.
• Positive economic dimension related to Egyptian TV social
serials, it has included one sentence stating that women
are able to support their families.
• Negative economic dimension related to Egyptian TV social
serials, it has included two sentences linked to idea that
projects submitted by women confront more difficulties
than those submitted by men and that drama shows that
it is unacceptable for women to obtain a higher income
TV social serials and students attitudes and
perceptions of gender roles and attributes
In the context the Egyptian TV social serials representation of
Egyptian men and women, it was found that students assign
negative roles for each of the father (85.5%), wife (65.5%), spouse
(90.5%), divorced man (88.5%), separated man (80%), working
women (63%), son (56.5%), daughter (72%), and politician
(61.5%). While positive roles were associated with mother (91%),
divorced woman (56.5%) and separated woman (69%). By using
chi2 test a relation was found between exposure to the Egyptian TV
social serials and the role given to divorced women, they always
suffer from the social accusations of being failing (62.7%) of those
who are exposed to TV social serials in an average rate, whose
number is (59) (chi=10.832, df=4, Asymp. Sig=0.029). It was also
found that (70%) of students which are exposed by an average
frequency to the Egyptian TV social serials are more aware of the
role of the son in a negative context and are more stubborn with their parents than students who are highly or lowly exposed to
Egyptian TV social serials (chi=9.061, df=4, Asymp. Sig=0.048).
Those three categories are those sacrificing themselves and
victims of circumstances at the same time. For mothers (whether
the father played his role or not), divorced women and separated
women were mostly responsible of the family "family sponsors",
moreover, it is related to the value of "mother" in the Arab and
Islamic societies. However, using the Chi square test between
the exposure frequency to the Egyptian TV social serials and
roles given to men and women, it was observed that there is
no significant difference between exposure frequency and the
nature of the over mentioned roles related to gender, which may
mean that the insights and perceptions of students are affected
by multiple sources including media as they are effected by real
experiences, cos most of the students are not married (only 7%
of the students are married).This can be due to the students
reluctance from exposing to traditional media roles which
moved recently away from presenting authentic traditional roles
of men and women versus their own self-referral and personal
experience with models of father, husband and so on.
All the above mentioned relations could be explained in the light
of Egyptian TV social serials tendency to present the issue of
polygamy to the Egyptian audience, depending on the husband
financial and personal capability, satisfaction of women, their
submission to the desire of men, bearing him in order to raise
their children and live according to the Egyptian proverb that says
"in the shadow of a man is better than a wall shadow", which
goes alongside with the Egyptian TVsocial serials methods of
socialization mixing traditions with false interpretations of religion
consecrate the idea of the subordination of women to men and
the importance of his presence in their lives to ward off suspicion,
even if he abandoned his financial and family responsibilities.
Such male-oriented tendency could be explained in light of the
Egyptian community legacies of socialization and somehow
to the media norms and genres which are dedicated to linking
feminine nature of woman "with sacrificing" her life, herself and
her money to raise her children, as well as the subordination of
the daughter to the mother. Hence, the ability to rebel against
these roles and to live independently of the family or the spouse
or children reflects women strength of character, her sense of
equality with men, and boldness in decision-making.
As for the negative roles of the working women, it could be
explained in the light of the inferiority perceptions of their
capabilities and potentially in light of their "body image" marketing
women in the traditional media. This may reflect the cultural
structures for certain categories of Egyptian society, which rejects
a woman going out of the house and her modern role especially
with the proliferation of harassment either from the same sex
or from men, in contrast to what is being strengthened by the
traditional media of content of roles and attributes associated
with women in terms of taking care of home affairs, obedience
and children raising.
On the other hand, the study showed respondents agreement
on the role of male and female student, which varied between
negative and positive. They are turbulent (43% versus 61.5%
for the female student), but ambitious (42% versus 26% for the female student). This may be related to the pre- formed image of
the female students compared to that of males in reality in terms
of her interest in the scientific knowledge gain, her superiority in
many areas over males, her belonging to a cultural environment
which may distinguish between boys and girls in patterns of life
and the way of upbringing which encourage the notion of "girls
stick in house while boys have the right to go out and back". In
addition, the female students high ambition compared to the male
student may also be related to the nature of the Arab and Islamic
culture which link between spending money and men, it may also
be associated with the emotional and illogical way of thinking
in addition to the "dreamy vision" of issues due to lack of direct
experiences in reality as well as the lack of well awareness of this
community problems. In contrast, the male students ambition
may collide with the rate of unemployment and poverty, as well
as some of the excesses of the community prevalence of bribery
and mediation. The high rate of riots adoption among male
students compared to the female students could be explained in
the light of the active role they may play in the demonstrations
or marches that – lately-plague universities, specifically in Cairo
University, which had witnessed security forces' intervention
which left behind deaths and injuries plus smashing many of the
infrastructure capacities within the university since the beginning of
the school year in September (2013) and till it’s end in May (2014).
All the above mentioned results indicate that TV social serials contribute to, and even support, the stereotyping of women
and men roles and attributes among the Egyptian society. Man
is always associated with negative perceptions because of his
negligence of home affairs. However, he is seen as intellectually
superior and capable of perfect planning. Perceptions here
may be associated with life experience of students more than
advertising. However, they consider women as always responsible
for home and children.
It is worth noting that gender roles and attributes in respondents'
perceptions TV social serials are not different at all, which means
that those roles emerged from the societal environment of Egypt
and handed down through generations in visual spaces and then
moved to the self-awareness and found their applications and
activation on the ground. Table 2 shows the roles and attributes
of both women and men in the respondents perceptions.
Cultural context behind students’ perceptions of
gender roles and attributes
The cultural context in the study has been adopted from Bem's
scale  for societal and culture environment affecting individual
perceptions and attitudes toward different gender roles and
attributes depending on all around social and culture norms and
traditions. The current study applied Bem's scale through dividing
its sample depending on their belonging to three different cultural
environments in Egypt as follows: The Cultural environment in
Greater Cairo region, which includes three governorates. It could
be best describedas"the city crowding and conflicting ethics. It is
a cosmopolitan city with very different cultures.
1. The Cultural environment of Upper Egypt, whichincludes8
governorates, it is characterized by being conservative,
Tribal fanaticism, where men is in the foreground and
women comes after with an exception of mother authority, who always manages the large family. Tribal environment
is characterized by religiosity and commitment to the
customs, traditions and common practices.
2. The Cultural environment of Nile Delta, whichincludes16
governorates. It is more of an open culture, where women
help their husbands in all work domains.
Using Chi-square test, it was shown that there is no relationship
between the cultural context of the respondents and the
frequency of drama or advertisements exposure. However the
following indicators can be drawn:
• Respondents who belong to the cultural environment of
Greater Cairo are less exposed to the Egyptian drama, and
more favorable of the television advertisements and more
exposed to the new media.
• Respondents who belong to the Upper Egypt environment
more exposed to the Egyptian drama, and more favorable
to the television advertisements, and less exposed to the
• Respondents who belong to the Nile Delta environment
are less exposed to Egyptian drama, and more favorable
of the television advertisements and more exposed to the
Thus, it is clear that there is a similarity between Greater Cairo
with Nile Delta respondents, in terms of traditional and new
media exposure status.
TV social serials and the perceptions
gender roles and attributes
Regarding gender roles and attributes, it was found that there
is no difference between respondents in different cultural
environments, regarding their perceptions of gender roles and
attributes. For example, regarding the attributes; respondents
agreed on relating power to men, especially in Upper Egypt, then
came those of Nile Delta, and finally greater Cairo.
Socio-demographic variables and their effect on
students attitudes and perceptions of gender-based
roles and attributes
This study sheds light on some socio-demographic variables
that might affect the relationship between TV social serials
and respondents attitudes and perceptions of gender roles and
attributes as follows:
A relationship was found between the university type, the
exposure frequency to mass media and respondents perceptions
of gender roles and attributes. In addition, the governmental
respondents agreed more than the private respondents on the
modernization of women.
The results also showed that the public universities' respondents
had stereotypical images of gender than the private universities
respondents with respect to certain roles of men and women and
their attributes, both in the traditional media or new. This may
be due to the fact that governmental universities respondents are more conservative than private universities' students who
seem to more liberal. It is also clear that the governmental
universities are the most affected by the Arabic serials, where
it allows –According to them- the presentation of women rights
which makes it easier for women to gain them, they also refuse
that serials underestimates women and does not respect the mas
compared to men, or that drama reflects the stereotypical role
of women inside the house. It is clear from the foregoing that
the Egyptian serials affects more the governmental universities
respondents more those of private ones, although there is no
significant relationship between the university type and the
exposure frequency to Egyptian serials, however, governmental
universities respondents are more exposed to Egyptian serials
than the private universities respondents.
The governmental respondents' way of thinking is more realistic
as they are more able to provide a close critical point of view. This
may be due to differences among students of Cairo University
compared to students of private universities, for the overall
education level is higher for some reasons such being the main
faculty, students higher grades, and their keen on education and
excellence as a result of the low socio-economic level compared
to the average private universities respondents.
The results also showed that governmental universities
respondents' awareness is high compared to private universities
respondents regarding that the declination of the role of women
in their house, her association with caring and the focusing on the
female body as a source of beauty and pleasure are associated
with TV serials.
As per men, study results showed that governmental universities
respondents are more aware of the private universities
respondents that portraying the Egyptian husband within the
suppressive traditional men, who treats his wife cruelly and
controls her behaviors, and that the polymer of the Egyptian men
are linked TV serials.
While the private universities respondents were different from
the governmental universities respondents on the issue of
focusing on the women appearance, where 50% of them saw
that it is linked TV serials, in addition to believing that the women
ability to the crowd is linked to traditional -not the new- media
as agreed by the public universities respondents, and that a men
ability to express his opinion openly without fear is associated
with TV social serials.
It was associated with three options: those who have not traveled
at all (123), those traveled to the Arab countries only (55) and
those who traveled to Arab and foreign countries (22).
The previous results altogether clarify that travelling respondents
are more open minded. They reject stereotypical images of
Respondents who traveled to foreign countries perceive men
and women roles may differ from that of other respondents. The
living conditions and culture of foreign communities are favoring
of the principle of sharing the household chores, so traveling to
foreign countries may bring women out of their traditional form
on the levels of both self and society.
Further, the phrase that the Egyptian husband is the master (Si
Al said) who treats his wife cruelly and controls her behavior
was linked to TV social serials in the minds of the respondents
who traveled to Arab countries and respondents who did not
travel, much more than those who traveled to Arab and foreign
Divorce of first degree cases in the family
It was found that divorce is not effective on the attributes and
roles granted to both men and women in relation to the Egyptian
TV social serials because the university respondents’ perceptions
are static. It could be argued that respondents’ perceptions about
gender are formed in the light of the integration of a variety of
factors like perceptions of father and mother roles which were
linked to experienced reality with their loved ones.
The community helps shaping the respondents' perceptions of
the other sex, for example the case of divorce may affix women
with negative roles and attributes, it may lead to deal with her as
being illiberal, and spontaneity victim of the men.
The predicted effect of exposure to TV social serials objectified
gender models and actual gender-perceptions among Mass
media, as students demonstrated in the current study. There was
a connection between the exposure frequency to Egyptian TV
social serials and certain attributes and roles related to women
in particular. The study results showed that respondents who
are highly exposed to TV social serials support the role of TV
social serials in presenting women rights. Hence, we can say
that respondents who are poorly exposed to TV social serials
build their beliefs of roles and attributes of women within the
framework of life experiences and slightly from stereotypical
image of the Egyptian TV social serials.
Moreover, the present results showed that life experiences and
direct contact with both men and women has almost no effect
on students’ perceptions of gender roles and attributes thus
perceptions, judging and points of view are formed through non-personal
experiences in which men and women always different
and disagreed with reality.
It is also noticed that there is a separation between women and
men striving toward achieving more self-benefits in favor of family
benefit as well as the linkage between sacrifice and subordination
with women more than men. Such connections had been noted
in, Zaharna, Rassem El Gammal [19,20] work, they link between
the above roles and attributes and the nature of the traditional
cultures of high Context, which are associated with some
traditional values, such as tendency toward the collective in terms
of the interests of the family over the self-interest, strengthening
ties among its members, evaluating others in the context of his
origin and his social relationships, narrowing individual freedom
and its relation in favor of the collective freedom, the high index
of disparity in power and influence, the presence of high levels of
concentration of power, with the rising of the index of ambiguity,
uncertainty and insecurity, which generates dependency
toward the powerful other, high Index of masculinity in terms of
discrimination between men and women and some limited roles to one sex at the expense of the other [21-25]. The mother place,
for example, is in home while the father place is "outside home."
It is a collection of speeches and traditional values that need a
renewal and without opposing the nature of religious beliefs. This
should be done in light of social, economic, cultural and political
developments which are taking place in Arab societies, especially
in the wake of the Arab Spring revolutions. With this in mind, it
is important to apply the concept of "Re-branding the gender"
within the state. The state also should use all internal changes
at the level of community institutions especially societal and
media institutes to re-market the new image of men and
women that suits the new roles associated with each of them
The predicted effect of exposure TV social serials objectified
gender modelsand actual gender-perceptions among Mass
media students were demonstrated in the current study. As
demonstrated, there was a connection between the exposure
frequency to Egyptian TV social serials and certain attributes and
roles related to women in particular in terms of social, political
and economic aspects.
The study results also indicated a predominance of traditional
roles, "inherited and customary" of men and women, which
is associated with their biological and cultural nature in the
Egyptian society, where men care for their jobs, women are busy
with home affairs, raising children, shopping and sit down with
friends of the same sex.
In this context, it is recommended to employ the Internet in a
right way to change and strengthen the positive perceptions of
gender roles and attributes in the Arab and Islamic societies.
This could be best achieved through renewing the speech
associated with each of both men and women, with help of the
developments that exist on the ground.It was also found that
self-image in Upper Egypt is more negative than in other cultural
environments; women have many negative social attributes.
With all the above problems in mind, we recommend paying
attentionto thoselimitationsandfocuson showingthe modern
role of womenin the renaissance of Upper Egypt away from the
current image which is associated with the traditional roles. This
will contradict all traditional; we have for example female deputies
in the 2010 Parliament who were roles and attributes from Upper
Egypt andelected bymen. Women also are involved inmany
developmental projects, wherethey learn and empowered.
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