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Improvement of the Communicator's Performance on the Emirati Satellite Channels a Comparative Study between the Public Female Audience Attitudes and the Female Journalists 2018

Fawzia Abd Allah Al-Ali* Department of Mass Communication, College of Communication, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE

*Corresponding Author:
Fawzia Al-Ali ,Associate Professor
Department of Mass Communication
College of Communication, University of Sharjah
Sharjah, P.O.Box: 27272, UAE.
Tel: +97165053609
Fax: +97165050688
E-mail: f_alali@sharjah.ac.ae

Received date: January 24, 2019; Accepted date: February 19, 2019; Published date: February 28, 2019

Citation: Al-Ali FAA. Improvement of the Communicator's Performance on the Emirati Satellite Channels a Comparative Study between the Public Female Audience Attitudes and the Female Journalists 2018. Global Media Journal 2019, 17:32.

Keywords

Communication technology; Satellite channels; Journalists; Media performance

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Abstract

The remarkable progress in communication technology, satellites and the available technical and productive techniques provides recipients with the possibility of following these satellite channels and receiving them without time and place constants. This has contributed the increasing rate of acquisition and exposure to their messages. In recent years, the UAE and Arab viewers have become targets of these channels, by providing them with diverse programs.

Introduction

The contents provided by these channels deepens on several factors, which affect the nature of the content they broadcast and the quality of the values they are trying to convey [1]. However, Arab studies focuses on the perceptions and attitudes of the public women audience towards the professional and media performance of these channels and the extent to which the public's views on these channels vary according to many variables, especially the variable of specialization or the nature of the work (both for the public audience and the female journalists) [2].

The researcher assumes that the Emirati Satellite Channels function according to clear professional methods and criteria, which has contributed in improving their performance. Thus, the current study aims at evaluating the media performance of the UAE Satellite Channels to learn about their practices, their commitment to ethical professional rules and the extent to which their media message is conveyed [3]. However, Arab studies focused on perceptions and attitudes of the public women audience towards the professional and media performance of these channels and the extent to which the public’s views on these channels vary according to many variables, especially the variables of specialization or the nature of the work both for the public audience and the female journalists [4]. The researcher assumes that the Emirati Satellite Channels function according to clear professional methods and criteria, which has contributed in improving their performance [5]. Thus, the current study aims at evaluating the media performance of the UAE Staellite Channels to learn about thei practices, their commitment to ethical professional rules and the extent to which their media message is conveyed from the perception of women audience and the female journalists [6]. This study is relevant and timely as it will help in monitoring and understanding the attitudes and perceptions of both media women professionals and their women audiences, and also in evaluating the performance of the UAE Satellite channels in order to monitor and understand their perceptions and evaluation of this performance in light of the accelerated reality of globalization and its cultural, political and social changes and the modern information and technological revolution that created the new media models as a strong competitor [6].

Theoretical Framework

The current study is based on two models of the most prominent scientific models that can explain the process of shaping trends in individuals towards different subjects, including what we are trying to discuss here is the trends of the general public and media women towards the performance of the UAE satellite channels:

• Value model

• The model of submission of others and their impact on the contents of the media or the influence of the third person The third person Effect model [7].

This model is based on the perception that the understanding of the process of forming trends that need to identify the mechanism through which to know the emotional side of the information of viewers towards the subjects and institutions and channels of various in the community, especially when the channels are characterized by modernity where the UAE satellite channels are a new entity to the UAE viewers, Viewers have a similar frame of reference - the previous land and satellite channels that can be used to shape their views in the direction of new channels, as well as their assessment and relative weighting in the UAE community [8].

In general, the importance of the "Value-Expectation Model" is represented in being a theoretical and methodological link in the beliefs and attitudes; as this model provides a scientific organized perspective towards the mechanisms of forming the attitude and amending it over time, based on being considered as Processes that contain several variables that control the individual's final attitude towards the different subjects. The attitude is a Cognitive Summation of the total relative weights relevant to the features of the topic; i.e. the inputs which lead to the outputs, "the individual's final attitude". For instance, the viewers' attitudes towards the performance of the satellite channels may be formed through a number of prominent features: The commitment of those channels to the society ethics, the degree of freedom in terms of presenting significant topics and issues in the Emirati society, satisfying the viewers' needs and the level of their technical and creative progress of programs. The previous features represent the inputs shaped by the viewers in light of their relative importance to them until we reach the outputs; i.e. their final attitudes towards the performance of the satellite channels [2].

Second: Submission of Others' Model and being affected by the Contents of Social Media. The Third-Person Effect: It is a new and innovative model in the study of public opinion towards and an attempt to find out the effects of social media. It is based on Davison’s argument to explain the psychological factors help in shaping the public's knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions by the media [2].

The model of subordination of others to the effects of the media has emerged from a psychological perspective on the difference in the individual to the effects of these means, when is compared to other members of the public. The individual believes that he is unique and different from others [6].

This study is concerned with evaluating the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels, including the Abu Dhabi Channel, which began broadcasting in 2001, and Dubai Satellite Channel, which started in October 1992. Which started in 1996. These satellite broadcast began to emphasize the values of the Arab-Islamic community, in both Arabic and non-Arabic, at the local, Arab and international levels [9].

The aim of satellite channels is to influence the recipients by convincing them to indulge in their programs. These programs are a double-edged sword in which good and evil are involved. They expose the family to social uses negatively or positively. Therefore, the expected effects of the broadcast can be divided into positive and negative effects [10].

In summary, the UAE society is one of the most conservative Arab and Islamic societies where UAE families are working hard to reduce the exposure of their children to Western culture, especially satellite channels. There is censorship of children within the family and at the level of society in general in terms of watching satellite channels and logging on to the internet in a bid to stop them from getting access to contents that are contrary to Islamic law and good morals. No matter its technical potential, can achieve strict control over such an invasion and the industrial development of transmission and broadcasting mechanisms. If satellite programs are left without regulation of some of their programs that are against the values of society will have a negative impact on the viewers and these effects will be reflected in their personalities as they are easily prone to copy and paste what they see and hear from the media [11].

Satellite channels are a means that cannot be judged except through the nature of use. It is a tool and means of media in which good and evil are present. However, it has taken the lead in the contemporary media as it is today the first universal delivery tool. The most widespread and the most extensive and the greatest attraction and temptation to collect between sound, image, light, color and movement, which must be used in the dissemination of virtues and ideals that serves humanity.

In light of the accelerated reality of globalization, its cultural, political and social changes, and the modern information and technology revolution that have created new media models as a strong competitor it becomes pertinent to study attitudes and perceptions of women media professionals and the women audience about the professional performance of UAE satellite channels [2].

Problem and Impo rtance of Study

In light of the above, the problem of this research evolves around identifying the attitudes of both the women audience and the female journalists, in relation to the comprehensive concept of performance which involves several dimensions: moral, social, media and economic. On the other hand, the study will probe into media's perceptions of the effectiveness of satellite channels in influencing the general public, as well as monitoring and measuring the attitudes of the general public and the media about the feasibility and importance of the experience of satellite channels in improving the performance of the media system in the UAE. The importance of this study is to provide an information base on these channels to become a significant reference for the political decision-makers in the UAE.

Previous Studies

The most important findings of Suzanne Al-Kallini study are the positive attitudes of the Egyptian elite toward the components of the media performance of the Arab news channels (Nile, Al Jazeera and Arabic), including: instantaneous transfer of events, boldness in presenting topics, credibility and accuracy in presenting information, Impartiality and objectivity in handling [12].

Nashwa Aqil concluded that the Nile News Channel focuses and news programs on the local issues of Egypt, followed by interest in Arab issues, especially the Palestinian issue [13]. The same study confirmed the decline in the values of immediacy and balance in the news processing of the events provided by the news bulletins. The study delegated the most important pressure faced by the channel's journalists, which included technical weakness, poor training and lack of resources, in addition to professional pressures and daily routines.

This study concluded by pointing out that there are three standard trends among the public towards the Arab TV news casting performance. The first trend praised performance in terms of professionalism, seriousness and breaking the Western monopoly of news coverage. The second trend attacked the performance of Arab satellite channels because of its lack of professional rules, standards, efficiency and credibility. The third trend ranged from praise and criticism to varying degrees.

Adel Abdul Ghafar pointed to the relationship between evaluating the professional performance of the Arab news channels in the elite Egyptian media with important criteria such as performance level, and the extent to which they are committed to applying the principles of social and professional responsibility, as well as the level of administrative competence in each [14].

Waleed Amsha of his analysis of Al Jazeera and the Middle East Television Center concluded that the news presented in both channels is modern and shows a balance in the treatment of international events. The news programs deal with subjects that are immediate, warm and instantaneous, on the principles of objectivity, inclusiveness and balance in treatment [11]. Rahim Mezid's study on Al-Jazeera has yielded several results. The study found that the channel's communicators enjoy an excellent level of experience and that they have a great deal of relative freedom in dealing with Arab and international events. This study also indicates the broadening of Al-Jazeera as a source of information among Arab citizens inside and outside Arab countries as per the questionnaires of public opinion conducted on a number of Arab and international capitals [9].

Comments on Previous Studies

The review of the previous studies reveals that they focused on private satellite channels in terms of methods and feedbacks from watching these channels, but they did not study the analysis and monitoring of their role and impact on the values of the community and supporting the Arab and national issues that are considered a justification for conducting this study.

Many researches in the Arab World have studied the impact of Arab Satellite Channels in relation to their impacts on Arab Citizens phenomenon of satellite channels. In addition, previous studies have confirmed that the Arab channels have helped to improve the performance of the media. Some Arab studies have also been interested in the negative effects of satellite channels on the public, while not paying too much attention to the positive values that can be transmitted by these programs and their impact on the public. The previous case study method in order to provide a database of the phenomenon under study and thus can be understood to the ways through which the private channels in the community.

Research Questions

The Research Questions Include based on the research problem are as follow:

• What is the extent of exposure of the female journalists and the public of women to the UAE satellite channels and what is the difference between them?

• What are the favorite UAE satellite channels for both the woman audience and the female journalists?

• What are the motives of the public female audience and the female journalists' exposure to the UAE satellite channels?

• What are the favorite topics for both the public female audience and the female journalists of their exposure to the UAE satellite channels?

• What are the goals that apply to the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of the public female audience and the female journalists?

• What is the administrative and technical evaluation of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of the public female audience and the female journalists?

• What do women audience think about the commitment of the UAE satellite channels to ethical regulations?

• To what extent do the public female audience and the female journalists think about the positive and negative aspects of the UAE satellite channels?

• What are the suggestions of both female journalists and the public female audience in developing the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels?

Type Methodology of Study

This study is descriptive and quantitatively- oriented. It aims to describe the attitudes of both the public women audience towards the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels. The survey methodology is used to gather information from the vocabulary of the study community, to survey the views, to collect facts and data on the current state of the studied phenomenon, to interpret and analyze it, and to draw conclusions that lead to issuing generalizations and hypotheses on this phenomenon.

Community and Sample of Study:

The size of the sample (200) single and increased the proportion of the general public of women by a large percentage of women media, the percentage of the general public was 65% and the media by 35%. In terms of distribution by occupation, more than half of the sample size was in the general working class, with female employees accounting for 61.9%, followed by female students with 18.8%, police officers with 16.3%, and those who teach very little, 0.4%. In terms of distribution by nationality, the proportion of female nationals amounted to slightly more than half of the sample size by 59.7%, followed by non-locals by 40.3% Women's media represented less than half the sample size by 35%, followed by women's public at 65%. (105 vs. 195).

Results of Field Study

1. Motives of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience's Exposure to the Emirati Satellite Channels (Table 1).

Table 1: Motives of the Female Journalists and Public Female Audience's Exposure to the Emirati Satellite Channels.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience Female Journalists  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency Motives of Exposure to Satellite Channels
There are no statistically significant differences 0.733 4814.5 5 24.1 27 5 22.4 19 Excellence and seriousness of their programs
There are no statistically significant differences 0.644 4760.5 2 33.9 38 2 37.6 32 Dealing with local problems
There are no statistically significant differences 0.163 4426.5 1 51.8 58 1 42.4 36 Dealing with topics of family and society
There are no statistically significant differences 0.2 4562.5 6 22.3 25 6 15.3 13 They improve mind and thought.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.625 4756 3 30.4 34 3 34.1 29 Entertainment and spending leisure time.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.839 4851.5 4 27.7 31 4 29.4 25 Knowing the important news
There are no statistically significant differences 0.628 4803 7 11.6 13 7 14.1 12 Raising the religious awareness
There are no statistically significant differences 0.477 4776 8 9.8 11 8 7.1 6 I do not know

It is evident through the above table that the Motives of Exposure to Satellite Channels for Female Journalists are:

The above table shows that the motives for exposure to satellite channels for female journalists were in the following order:

• To address topics of interest to the family and the community;

• To address local problems;

• Entertainment and leisure;

• Development of mind and intellect;

• Development of religious awareness, 42.4%, 37.6%, 34.1%, 29.4%, 22.4%, 14.1% and 7.1%, respectively.

The Man Whitney test was used to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and the public of women towards the motives of exposure to the UAE satellite channels. There were no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience for the motives of exposure to the UAE satellite channels; where the significant value was greater than 0.05 95% confidence.

In terms of the general public, the motives for exposure to the UAE satellite channels came in the following order:

• Addressing topics of interest to the family and the community,

• Addressing local problems,

• Entertainment and leisure,

• Knowing the important news,

• Development of the mind and intellect,

• Development of religious awareness, 51.8%, 33.9%, 30.4%, 27.7%, 24.1%, 22.3%, 11.6% and 9.8%, respectively.

The Mann Whitney test was used to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and the public of women towards the motives of exposure to the UAE satellite channels. There were no statistically significant differences between the women media and the general public towards the motives of exposure to the UAE satellite channels at a confidence degree of 95%.

It is clear from the above table that the motivations of women media professionals and the general public of women regarding their motives for exposure to satellite channels are interwoven ranging from motivations related to the acquisition of important news, and on topics of interest to society and the family, local problems and the uniqueness and seriousness of their programs, to the ritual motives related to entertainment and leisure, and the company of the family and friends to watch these channels, which is realistic, as the increasing role and importance of these channels in the lives of the locals and residents of the UAE, so that it represents an important source to satisfy their diverse needs.

There has been a degree of consistency between the motives of female journalists and the public female audience with regard to the motives of entertainment and leisure, as well as the knowledge of important news, the treatment of local problems, the excellence of programs. This generally indicates that there is a high degree of consistency between both the ritual and instrumental motives of both female journalists and the public female audience regarding their motives for exposure to UAE satellite channels.

2. The Extent of Commitment Shown by the Emirati Satellite Channels towards Some of the Ethical Regulations from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience (Table 2).

Table 2: The Extent of Commitment Shown by the Emirati Satellite Channels towards Some of the Ethical Regulations from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience Female Journalists Ethical Regulations
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency
There are no statistically significant differences 0.46 4657 1 47.8 54 1 45.1 37 Adhering to the ethical regulations of the media profession.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.765 4818.5 3 31.9 36 3 31.7 26 Being interested in public participation in their programs.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.444 4684 5 26.5 30 4 23.2 19 Having credibility in news reporting.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.695 4801.5 6 23 26 5 22 18 Adhering to the principles of honest media competition with other channels.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.573 4722.5 2 40.7 46 2 39 32 Respecting the values, ethics and traditions of the community.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.15 4466.5 4 31 35 4 23.2 19 Respecting the audience's mentality.
There are statistically significant differences 0.049 4407.5 8 11.5 13 4 23.2 19 Their programs and news do not violate viewers' privacy.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.128 4523.5 7 19.5 22 6 12.2 10 Their news are accurate and objective

3. The above table shows that the commitment of the UAE satellite channels to some ethical regulations from the point of view of the female journalists:

4. Female journalists have seen that the most ethical rules that ensure the media channels are committed to the ethical regulations of the female journalists by 1%, followed by respecting the values and ethics of the community and traditions by 39.0%, interested in public participation in programs 31.7%, followed by, 23.2% respect the public's mentality 23.2%, to violate its programs and news privacy of viewers, 23.2, adhere to the principles of honest competition with other channels 22.0% characterized by accuracy and objectivity 12.2%.

5. The public female audience felt that the most important ethical regulations that the UAE media channels are committed to adhere to are the ethical regulations of the female journalists (47.8%) followed by respecting the values and ethics of the local community and its traditions (40.7%). 9%, respect the public's mentality by 31.0%, have credibility in the transfer of news by 26.5%, followed by adhere to the principles of honest competition with other channels by 23.0%, followed by the news is accurate and objective 19.5%, followed by the violation of its programs and news privacy Viewers by 11.5%.

6. To study the statistical differences between female journalists and the public female audience towards the commitment of the UAE satellite channels to some ethical controls, the researcher used the Man Whitney test. The results were as follows: there are statistically significant differences between female media professionals and the general public about the commitment of UAE satellite channels with a number of ethical controls, concerned with the participation of the public in its programs, for violating its programs of public taste and public morals. This is at a significant level above 0.05 and 95% confidence level. There is no statistically significant difference between female journalists and the general public UAE satellite with some ethical controls, adhere to ethical controls for the media profession have credibility in the news, is committed to the principles of media honest competition with other channels, violated their programs public taste and morals, respect the values and ethics of the local community and its traditions, respects the mentality of the public, characterized by news accuracy and objectivity.

7. The Positive Aspects of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience (Table 3).

Table 3: The Positive Aspects of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience Female Journalists  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency Positive Aspects
There are no statistically significant differences 0.467 4673.5 4 31.9 36 4 38.1 32 Openness of the life of the Emirati Audience towards Abroad.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.454 4652.5 2 48.7 55 1 56 47 Discussing local issues effectively.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.072 4283 1 53.1 60 3 41.7 35 Maintaining the cultural and historical heritage of the society.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.21 4491 3 32.7 37 2 42.9 36 Focused on local journalists
There are no statistically significant differences 0.213 4534 6 22.1 25 5 31 26 Linking the Emirates and their Population
There are no statistically significant differences 0.287 4579.5 5 31 35 6 25 21 Increasing the knowledge of the local community.

It is clear from the above table that the positive aspects of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of female journalists came in the following order:

• To discuss local issues effectively;

• Local journalists;

• To promote protection of the cultural and historical heritage of the community;

• Linking the UAE and its population to increase the knowledge and information of the local public by 56.0%, 42.9%, 41.7%, 38.1%, 32.7%, 31.0%

As shown in the previous table, the positive aspects of the UAE satellite channels, from the point of view of the general public, were as follows:

• The protection of the cultural and historical heritage of society;

• Effectively discussing local issues;

• Increasing the knowledge and information of the local public.

• Linking between the emirates and its inhabitants by 3.1%, 48.7%, 32.7%, 31.9%, 31.0% and 22.1%.

The Mann Whitney test was used to study the statistical differences between female journalists and the public female audience towards the positive aspects of UAE satellite channels. There were no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards these aspects.

There are no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the most important advantages of the following UAE satellite channels: the discussion of local issues effectively, and focused on the local journalists, interest in protecting the cultural and historical heritage of the society.

8. The Most Prominent Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public female audience (Table 4).

Table 4: The Most Prominent Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public female audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public female audience Female Journalists  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rates Frequency Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels
There are no statistically significant differences 0.546 4708.5 1 38.5 42 1 48 36 They pay attention to entertainment more than serious subjects.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.849 4867 5 16.5 18 5 17.3 13 Helping to distort the national identity.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.729 4819 4 21.1 23 3 21.3 16 Inculcating Western behavioral patterns from society.
There are statistically significant differences 0.042 4314.5 3 29.4 32 4 18.7 14 Distorting the image of multiple categories of society such as women and youth.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.87 4860.5 2 35.8 39 2 41.3 31 Imitating the Arab and foreign channels blindly.

It is evident through the previous table that the most prominent Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists:

• It is clear from the previous table that the most prominent disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of women media came in the following order:

a) care about entertainment and more than the serious subjects;

b) Arab and foreign channels are blinded.

c) The distortion of the image of multiple groups in society such as women and youth.

d) helps to distort the local national identity by 48.0%, 41.3%, 21.3%, 18.7% and 17.3%.

• There were no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience.

• As shown in the previous table, the most prominent disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of the public female audience were as follows:

a) Inculcate Western behavioral patterns of society 5 that help to distort the national identity. In terms of 8.5%, 35.8%, 29.4%, 21.1%, 16.5%.

In order to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and the general public of women towards the most salient disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels, the researcher used the Mann Whitney Test. The results were as follows:

• There are statistically significant differences between female journalists and the general public about the main disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels. "They pay more attention to entertainment compared to serious topics" at a level above 0.05 and a confidence level of 95%.

The results also show that there are no statistically significant differences between female journalists and the public female audience about the most important negative aspects of the UAE satellite channels. They introduce topics that are incompatible with local traditions, promote Western and strange ideas about society, help to distort national identity, instill patterns of behavior that are strange to society, distorting the image of multiple groups in society such as women and youth, falsely imitating other Arabic and foreign channels.

9. Evaluating the Aspects of the Satellite Channels Performance from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public female audience (Table 5).

Table 5: Evaluation of the Performance of the Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience     Female Journalists      
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency Performance Aspects of the Satellite Channels
There are statistically significant differences 0.024 4092 1 46 52 4 32.5 26 Quality of photography
There are no statistically significant differences 0.917 4825 4 31.9 36 2 35 28 Good preparation of programs
There are no statistically significant differences 0.222 4449.5 2 39.8 45 3 33.8 27 Method of presentation
There are no statistically significant differences 0.839 4791 3 36.3 41 1 37.5 30 Proficiency of the local male and female announcers
There are no statistically significant differences 0.864 4806.5 6 25.7 29 5 28.8 23 Employment of visual and digital effects.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.122 4448.5 7 21.2 24 8 13.8 11 Montage
There are no statistically significant differences 0.697 4742 6 25.7 29 6 25 20 Graphics
There are no statistically significant differences 0.065 4301 5 30.1 34 7 20 16 Direction

10. The above table shows that the performance aspects of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of female journalists:

The Mann Whitney test was used to study the statistical differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards assessing aspects of the performance of satellite channels. There were statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the following aspects:

• Quality of photography

It is clear from the previous table that the evaluation of the aspects of the performance of satellite channels from the point of view of female journalists came in the following order:

a) Proficiency of local male and female announcers

b) Good program preparation

c) Presentation method

d) Quality of photography

e) Graphic recruitment

f) Output

g) Montage 37.5%, 35.0%, 33.8%, 32.5%, 28.0%, 825.0%, 20.0% and 36.3%.

As shown in the previous table, the assessment of aspects of the performance of satellite channels from the point of view of the general public of women came in the following order:

a) Quality of photography

b) Submission method

c) Proficiency of local male and female announcers

d) Employment of visual and digital effects

e) Graphics

f) Direction.

These figures were as follows: 46.0%, 39.8%, 30.1%, 25.7%, 25.7% and 21.2%.

The researcher used the Mann Whitney test. The results were as follows:

• There are statistically significant differences between female journalists and the public female audience towards evaluating the following aspects in the performance of satellite channels: Quality.

• There is no statistically significant difference between the media and the general public towards evaluating the following aspects in the performance of satellite channels: good preparation of programs, presentation method, and the proficiency of local male and female announcers, And the use of visual and digital effects, editing and graphics, and the intervals between programs, direction and programming.

11. The extent of support shown by the UAE satellite channels for the Emirati national issues from the point of view of female journalists and the public female audience (Table 6). It is clear from the above table that the support of the UAE satellite channels for UAE national issues from the point of view of female journalists:

Table 6: The Extent of Support Shown by the Emirati Satellite Channels towards the Emirati National Issues from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience Female Journalists  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency National Emirati Issues
There are no statistically significant differences 0.286 4508.5 2 36.6 41 3 32.1 25 Arab Issues
There are statistically significant differences 0.025 4104 4 31.3 35 1 51.3 40 Global and Humanitarian Issues
There are no statistically significant differences 0.259 4513.5 5 29.5 33 5 24.4 19 Local Political Issues
There are no statistically significant differences 0.781 4792.5 7 14.3 16 7 14.1 11 The problem of population structure in the Emirati Community.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.097 4325.5 3 35.7 40 4 26.9 21 Problems of family, divorce and marriage in the Emirati community.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.241 4548 6 20.5 23 6 15.4 12 Problems of youth ; such as unemployment etc.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.149 4356 1 52.7 59 2 46.2 36 Local social problems

• Global and humanitarian issues

• Local social problems

• Arab issues

• Family problems, divorce and marriage in the UAE society

• Local political issues

• Youth problems such as unemployment etc.

• The problem of the population structure in the UAE society. The rates were as follows: 51.3%, 46.2% 32.1% 26.9% 24.4% 15.4% 14.1% 20.5%,

• Arab issues,

• Family problems, divorce and marriage in the UAE society

• The problems of Emirati women in the UAE,

• The problem of the population structure in the UAE society. The percentages were as follows: 52.7%, 36.6%, 35.7%, 29.5%, and 14.3%. For studying the statistical differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the extent of support shown by the UAE satellite channels to UAE national issues, the researcher used the Mann Whitney test. The results were as follows:

• There are statistically significant differences between female journalists and the public female audience regarding the support of UAE satellite channels to the following issues: global and humanitarian issues are at a significant level of 0,05 and a confidence degree of 95%.

• There are no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience about the extent to which UAE satellite channels support the following UAE national issues: Arab issues Local political issues, the problem of the population structure in the UAE The problems of the family, divorce and marriage in UAE society, youth problems such as unemployment and local social problems. 12. The Positive Aspects of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience (Table 7). It is evident through the previous table that the positive aspects of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists: From the above table, the positive aspects of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of women's media came in the following order:

Table 7: The Positive Aspects of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Working Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public Female Audience Female Journalists  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency Positive Aspects of Emirati Satellite Channels.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.886 4869 4 30.6 34 4 35.5 27 The openness of the UAE public to the outside world.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.064 4279 1 45.9 51 3 36.8 28 Discussing local issues effectively
There are no statistically significant differences 0.393 4622.5 2 42.3 47 2 40.8 31 Maintaining the cultural and historical heritage of society.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.447 4660.5 3 33.3 37 1 43.4 33 They focused on local journalists.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.136 4471 5 27.9 31 5 21.1 16 Linking the Emirates and its population.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.09 4414.5 6 27.9 31 6 19.7 15 Increasing the knowledge of the local audience.

• Local media journalists accounted for 43.4%,

• The concern of protecting the cultural and historical heritage of society by 40.8%,

• (35%),

• Linking the UAE and its population by 21.1%,

• Increasing the knowledge and information of the local public by 19.7%. As Shown in the previous table, the positive aspects of UAE satellite channels from the point of view of the general public were as follows:

• To discuss local issues effectively (45.9%),

• To protect the cultural and historical heritage of the society by 42.3%,

• (33.3%),

• The openness of the UAE public abroad by 30.6%,

• Linking the UAE and its population by 27.9%,

• Increasing the knowledge and information of the local public by 27.9%. In order to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and the general public of women towards the positive aspects of the UAE satellite channels, the researcher used the Man Whitney test. The results were as follows: There were no statistically significant differences between women media and the general public towards all aspects mentioned.

13. The Most Prominent Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience (Table 8): It is clear from the previous table that the most prominent disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels from the perspective of female journalists:

Table 8: The Most Prominent Disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journalists and the Public Female Audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Female Journalists Public Female Audience  
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency The most prominent disadvantages of the Emirati Satellite Channels.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.847 4871.5 6 13.7 14 4 15.4 10 Presenting subjects that do not conform to local traditions.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.07 4436.5 4 23.5 24 5 15.4 10 Promoting Western ideas that are strange to the society.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.242 4531.5 1 39.2 40 1 36.9 24 Paying attention to entertainment   more than the serious subjects.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.898 4889 7 10.8 11 6 12.3 8 Helping in distorting the national identity.
There are statistically significant differences 0.003 4136.5 3 26.5 27 7 10.8 7 Instilling patterns of behavior that are strange to the society.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.227 4593 5 22.5 23 3 18.5 12 Distorting the image of multiple categories of society such as women and youth.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.253 4549 2 36.3 37 2 33.8 22 Imitating the Arab and other foreign channels blindly.

• It is clear from the previous table that the most prominent disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels from the point of view of female journalists came in the following order:

a. Entertainment and entertainment more than serious topics 36.9%;

b. Arab and foreign channels blindly receive 33.8%;

c. Promote Western and foreign ideas about society (15.4%),

d. Help to blur local national identity (12.3%), and

e. Instigate Behavioral patterns alien to society. 10.8%.'

• As shown in the previous table, the most prominent disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels from the perspective of the general public were as follows:

a) Entertainment and entertainment more than serious subjects (39.2%),

b) Inculcate behavior patterns alien to society by 26.5%, (4) promote Western and foreign ideas about society by 23.5%,

c) Distort the image of multiple groups in society such as women and youth 22.5%,

d) With local traditions 13.7%,

e) help to blur the local national identity by 10.8%.

In order to study the statistical differences between female journalists and the public female audience towards the most important disadvantages of the UAE satellite channels, the researcher used the Man Whitney test. The results were as follows:

• There are statistically significant differences between female journalists and the public female audience about the main disadvantages of the following UAE satellite channels: Behavioral behavior peculiar to society at a significant level above 0.05 and 95% confidence level.

The results also show that there are no statistically significant differences between women and the general public towards the most important negative aspects of the UAE satellite channels: They introduce topics that are not in line with local traditions, promote western and foreign ideas about society, care about entertainment and entertainment more than serious topics, National identity, distorting the image of multiple groups in society such as women and youth, falsely imitating other Arab and foreign channels.

14. Factors of Developing the Professional Performance of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the Perspective of the Female Journals and the Public Female Audience (Table 9).

Table 9: Factors of Developing the Professional Performance of the Emirati Satellite Channels from the perspective of the female journalists and the Public female audience.

Statistical Significance Level of Significance Mann Whitney Public female audience Female Journalists Factors of Developing  the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels
Order Rate Frequency Order Rate Frequency
There are no statistically significant differences 0.171 4435 1 56.8 63 1 49.4 40 To be more concerned with preserving the Arab and Islamic identity
There are no statistically significant differences 0.783 4821.5 3 37.8 42 2 42 34 To be concerned with the introduction and treatment of societal problems
There are no statistically significant differences 0.738 4816.5 7 22.5 25 5 34.6 21 To be more interested in monitoring Arab and Islamic issues
There are no statistically significant differences 0.44 4648.5 2 44.1 49 3 40.7 33 To address all age groups and social groups
There are no statistically significant differences 0.032 4253.5 434.6 32.4 36 7 19.8 16 To be more concerned with women's issues
There are no statistically significant differences 0.299 4597 5 28.8 32 6 23.5 19 To take more care of the quality and appearance of broadcasters.
There are no statistically significant differences 0.312 4595 6 26.1 29 4 34.6 28 To allow broader participation from the audience in their programs

The above table shows that the professional development factors of the UAE satellite channels from the female journalists' point of view:

• Among the most prominent suggestions made by media professionals for the development of professional performance in the UAE satellite channels is that they should pay more attention to the preservation of the Arab-Islamic identity (49.4%), to take care of addressing social problems (42.0%), Allow 34.6% of the public to be more involved in the programs, 34.6% are more interested in monitoring Arab and Islamic issues, 23.5% are more concerned about women's issues and their appearance. 19.8%.

• With regard to the public female audience's suggestions for the development of professional performance in the UAE satellite channels, they focused on demanding that they should pay more attention to maintaining the Arab and Islamic identity, 56.8% should take care of addressing all age groups, 44.1% 32.8% should be more concerned about the quality of the broadcasters and their appearance, 28.8% should allow wider participation of the public in their programs, 26.1%, and be more interested in monitoring Arab and Islamic issues, 22.5%.

• The Mann Whitney test was used to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and women's general public towards the professional development factors of the UAE satellite channels. There were statistically significant differences between women journalists and the general public about the following negative aspects:

a) In order to study the statistical differences between female media professionals and the general public of women towards the factors of developing the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels, the researcher used the Man Whitney test. The results were as follows: To be more interested in preserving the Arab and Islamic identity. To address all age groups and social groups, to take more care of the quality of the broadcasters and their appearance, to allow wider participation of the public in their programs.

Results of the Study

• The results of the study showed the overlap of the motives of the exposure of both the female journalists and the public audience of women with regard to their motives for exposure to satellite channels between motives related to access to important news and to address topics of interest to the community and the family and local problems and to distinguish programs and their seriousness. To the ritual motives related to entertainment and spending leisure time, and the family and friends' tradition to watch these channels is realistic, as there is an increasingly significant role played by those channels in the lives of the locals and the residents of the UAE, which became an important source to satisfy these diverse needs.

• A degree of compatibility is shown between the motives of each of the female journalists and the public female audience in terms of the motives of entertainment, spending leisure time, knowing the important news, solving the local problems, having distinguished and serious programs, dealing with topics that are important for the family and the society, developing mind and thought, raising the religious awareness, which generally refers to the existence of a high degree of compatibility between each of the ritual and the instrumental motives for each of the female journalists and the public female audience in terms of their exposure to the Emirati Satellite Channels.

• Results of the study showed that there are no statistically significant differences between each of the female journalists and the public female audience towards the descriptions that apply to the following satellite channels: distinguished from other Arabic Satellite Channels, committed to the development of the national identity, seek to maintain the Arab Islamic identity, being characterized by undoubtedness and dealing with critical issues about the society, most of their programs are imported from abroad, promoting strange cultures and concepts about the UAE society. Moreover, it is shown that there are statistically significant differences between each of the female journalists and the public female audience towards the following advantages:

• Being committed to present the Emirati Heritage and History, presenting serious contents within their programs, and revealing the other aspect of the public female audience's opinion.

• Results of the study showed that there were not any statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the extent of the UAE Satellite Channels' commitment towards some of the ethical regulations, they pay attention to the audience's participation in their programs, their programs do not violate the public taste and the public morals at a significant value above 0.05 and a degree of confidence of 95%. Moreover, it is shown that there were not any statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the extent of commitment shown by the Emirati Satellite Channels to some of the ethical regulations, being committed to the ethical regulations of the media profession, being characterized by credibility in transferring news, being committed to the principles of honest competition with other channels, their programs do not violate the public taste and the public morals, they respect the values, ethics and traditions of the local society, respecting the audience's mentality and their news are characterized by accuracy and objectivity.

• The study concluded that there are statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience regarding the support of satellite channels for the following UAE national issues: global and humanitarian issues. The level of significance is greater than 0.05 and 95% confidence level. It also concluded that there are no statistically significant differences between female media professionals and the general public regarding the support of UAE satellite channels for the following UAE national issues: Arab issues Arab issues Local political issues, the problem of the population structure in society UAE, family problems, divorce and marriage in UAE society, youth problems such as unemployment and local social problems.

• The study concluded that there are no statistically significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the positive aspects of the UAE satellite channels.

a) Linking between the emirates and its citizens

b) increasing the knowledge and information of the local public - at a significant level of more than 0.05 and 95% confidence level.

c) There is no statistically significant difference between the female journalists and the public female audience about the most prominent advantages of the UAE satellite channels. Discussing the local issues effectively and they focused attention on local journalists and the concern to protect the cultural and historical heritage of society.

• The study of statistical differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the most negative aspects of the following UAE satellite channels: Entertainment and entertainment more than the subjects of proficiency at a level of more than 0.05 and 95%.

• The study also concluded that there are no statistically significant differences between female media professionals and the public of women towards the most important negative aspects of the UAE satellite channels: They introduce subjects that are incompatible with local traditions that promote Western and strange ideas about society that help obliterate local national identity, Society, distorting the image of multiple groups in society such as women and youth that mimic other Arab and foreign channels blindly.

• The study found that there are statistically significant differences between female journalists and the public female audience towards the factors of developing the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels. It has been shown that women are more interested in women's issues at a level that is more than 0.05 and 95% confidence degree.

• The study also concluded that there are no significant differences between the female journalists and the public female audience towards the factors of developing the professional performance of the UAE satellite channels as follows: To care more about preserving the Arab and Islamic identity, to take care of all age groups and social groups, to take more care of the quality of the broadcasters and their appearance, to allow wider participation of the public in their programs.

• The study recommends conducting more research and studies regarding the impact of satellite channels on different sectors of the public, especially the public female audience. The researcher recommends conducting studies on how the work of the channels and the factors influencing the directions of the channels, and emphasizes their commitment to the values of their communities and ethics and It also recommends the establishment of media codes of honor for satellite channels and recommends conducting studies on the audience and trends of specialized satellite channels. The study calls for the development of information policies related to the work of satellite channels.

References

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