Information and Communication Space as Human Society Development Factor
Associate professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Public Relations, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Russia
- Corresponding Author:
- Nevostrueva AF
Associate professor of the Department of Foreign Languages and Public Relations
Research Polytechnic University
614990, Perm, Komsomolsky Ave., 29 Russia.
Tel: +7 (342) 2-198-119
Received date: March 01, 2016; Accepted date: March 20, 2016; Published date: April 04, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Nevostrueva AF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
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Global Media Journal
Dimensions of social meaning of the problem of the origin and development of information and communication space from the point of view of historical development of human civilization have been classified in the article. Changes that effect creation of channels of spatial communication as well as forming of new configuration of information and communication space have been analyzed. Special role of these changes in the life of human society such as the origin of speech, first forms of communal life, elementary forms of world view and later religious thought and other have been highlighted. Forming of state entities, written language, laws have been analyzed not only from the point of view of spatial changes but are filled with social meaning that defines new content of communication processes. The author uses existing experience of social restoration of global history gained by the sociology to reveal contradictory features of the first period of maturing of information and communication processes that unite human society. The author proposes own idea of specifics of mainstream of changes related to civilization-scope shifts of social meaning of conditions of human community living
Human community; Information society;
Information and communication space; Primitive society;
Ancient World; Antiquity; The Middle Ages; Religious thought;
Recent years such definitions as information society,
information space, globalization and their synonyms have
been widely used in scientific discourse, social and official
speeches, mass-media, Internet. It is a logical situation. It
reflects the greatest civilization-scope shifts not only in Russian
reality but in global community. Researches of new
characteristics of space of contemporary civilization and its
content are the trend of many branches of social and liberal
arts, that were called spatial turn [1-4]. From the turn of the
XXI century this topic is an object of scientific analysis of
Russian scientists [5-7]. These changes are caused by growing
trend towards globalization of the contemporary world. At the same time, it is the result of attention to contradictory
character of changes that cover all dimensions of people's life
and change the way of interactions in global community of
Most scientists, professional politicians, representatives of
authorities, and majority of young scientists and researchers
growing in new social and political situation logically link these
changes with global trend on globalization of all spheres of
social and economic, political and cultural life of states on the
base of a certain unification and changing of ideas of life
standards and the meaning of life in today's society.
Objective factors of human life include numerous features
that have been cementing the base of being in all times. They
give the possibility not only to survive but actually use the
advantages of contemporary civilization for personal
development. In is no accident that one of fundamental
human rights – the right to live that had matured in the course
of bourgeois revolutions of the XVΙΙΙ-XΙX centuries in the XX
century had transformed into today meaning of this
constitutional right – the right of a person to worthy life. This
definition is fixed today in fundamental documents of state
structures that contain elements of the concept of forming of
the new type of society that is social state. All actual authority
institutions and institutions of civil society are being tuned on
the new goal-setting for their activity – development of the
necessary conditions for development of a person. A person
has a choice now. A person is really free in his choice that is
defined by his values (moral) and world view concepts. One of
the key components of today social state is information and
Our hypothesis presupposes analysis of information and
communication space as an attribute, integral feature of social
space, i.e. the type of space related to the origin and
development of mankind that includes all the variety of forms
of human being. Unlike the physical space of the world that is
sometimes called native environment and the space that has
been changed as a result of the impact of human activity –
anthropogenic the concept of social meaning of information
and communication space for our research denotes not only
changes that undergo in geographical landscape, its dramatic
changes, but first of all from the point of view of fundamental
novelty under the conditions of development of human consciousness itself, creation of qualitatively new premises of
self-development of a personality, material base that promote
renewal of society as a whole as well as social consequences of
this development and influence.
Social essence of communication space is inseparably linked
with the mankind since the days it started to distinguish itself
from wild nature. Since it started to create new living
environment filled with other content that is principally
different form wild world. Space with gradual historical
changes remained the main factor of provisioning necessary
conditions of living of primitive people and was a general
background. According to one of the founders of famous
French historical school École des AnnalesFernand Braudel
“space being the source of explanation that covers all the
realities of history” . Even antique philosophic schools
consider space in the sense of dichotomy (dual unity); they
thought of space as “space as the characteristic of material
objects allowing them to have a certain position; and space
that is the thing all materials objects are contained in” .
This research allows broadening the limits of the idea of
genesis and future way of development of information and
communication space as important factor of living of human
society, forming internal sources of progress as well as creating
objective premises for the increase of complexity of this space.
The author tried to give scientific definition for the essence of
definition of information and communication space covering
not only its attributive dimensions, but getting closer to social
content of this concept.
Genesis of information and communication
Primitive people together with wild nature existed in real
physical space. The origin of speech was revolutionary
breakthrough that distinguished a man from nature in the
course of productive activity. The new space having social
(communal) content – information and communication space
– has been forming in this way. As Peter Ludwig Berger and
Thomas Luckmann noted, “the language constantly provided
man with necessary objectifications and set the order these
objectifications and everyday life got meaning and sense” .
Internal unity of language reflected a certain unity of
communication, created objective conditions for the main
form of human interactions – the dialogue. This fact in turn
caused the other feature of communication – understanding of
an Alien. “Sense and subjectivity are being formed in tense
space of “double mirroring” as projection of my “self” on the
other culture: I see myself, I recognize myself in Alien and Alien
sees himself in me... in this tensed space of double mirroring
the subjectivity is being formed. Assessments, senses,
perception of Alien penetrate this sphere and every sense in it
has hybrid character, it is oriented to both sides” . Works of
scientists of different branches of science: sociology,
philosophy, philology, anthropology, culture study, history have been dedicated to the problem of the origin of human speech,
covering the problem from positions of scientific schools and
From the point of view of sociology the most important
results of the key historical factor – “understanding of Alien” –
was creation of the first specific human communication
channel. It helped to form conditions for aggregating
information about the outer world and sharing it with
descendants. Oral form of information had been developing
into the base of communication. Broadening of conscious
reality – social space of the outer world was the strong factor
of development of such feature of human conscious as
intellect. The second signaling system that manifests itself in a
certain action. As a founder of semantics, German psychologist
and linguist Karl Ludwig Bühler said “Each phraseological and
non-phraseological expression may be interpreted as human
action because each statement is related to other conscious
actions of a man. It has its place in the raw of actions and it is
action itself” .
Scientific hypothesis of the secret of the origin of Homo
sapiens, of the importance of historical moment, when
primitive people started to use fire to cookis also important.
According to scientists of Perm, this fact was the turning point
from closed loop of existence of living as “hunting-eatingsleeping”.
Primitive man got the source of development – free
time, that “became the base for creativity aimed at creation of
something new that had no analogues in wild nature” In some
part this hypothesis may be proved by recent discovery in
physiology of brain. Scientists discovered separate gen of
human brain that control spatial orientation. Norwegian
scientists, couple Edvard Ingjald Moser and May-Britt Moser
and American scientist John O'Keefe were awarded Nobel
Prize in 2014.
From the point of view of sociological science information
and communication space in primitive society was prerequisite
of development of tribal form of organization of social life
based on blood relationship. The unity was also supported by
the rules of community, first moral imperatives and adequate,
more complicated forms of world view. Animism that is
personification of wild nature, fetishism that is attributing
supernatural features to things, totemism that linked a person
to a certain animal and magic that was the capability of some
people to affect wild nature and people with come rites and
invocations. Spatial view of reality had determining influence
also on organizational forms of tribal life. Based on the analysis
of totem system of Australian aboriginals David Émile
Durkheim noted: “social organization was an example of
spatial organization that was a sort of tracing paper from the
first one. These was no such differences up to differentiation
between right and left sides that being not typical for human
nature at all were not highly probable product of religious and
thus collective ideas” .Closed character of economy of
tribal organization of primitive society led not only to forming
special lingual space but created spatial boundaries of their
habitat being objective reality of isolation and self-sufficiency.
Specifics of development of information and
communication space of the period of Ancient
The period of Ancient World was the new civilization-scope
stage of development of the mankind. The origin of new stated
that had been developing as river civilizations required
significant human resources for building colossal hydrotechnical
constructions that objectively supported
development of economy based on slaveholding. To
understand social essence of information and communication
space it is extremely important to study the origin of written
language that broadened geographical (physical) frame of
space and created the new quality of human interaction. That
was “invention of alphabetic writing and its application for
fixing oral creative work” that caused the shift from the
highest stage of barbarism to civilization . Written
language gave the possibility of the new form of abstraction -
representation with the help of symbols when “a certain idea
is caught (perceived) by the course of communicative
interaction between... interpreters” . Written sources
became independent of author and play a certain role in the
process of “production of space that acts as the field of activity
of productive forces of different societies that created their
space” . Abstract communication is being added to specific
one, forming together with knowledge sphere of moral
education of a man.
We do not idealize the role of written language and written
sources. Because they are not numerous. Creation of
information sources required significant expenditures. At the
same time development of the new forms of information as a
definite “mental images” that had mythological base created
respective spatial social environment that had abstract,
imaginary character. In this sense understanding of
figurativeness of reality that Carl Gustav Jung called
“archetypes” by a person of Ancient World had key
importance. They represented “collective unconscious”. The
part of unconscious that “...is not the result of personal
experience but was inherited from ancestors. Archetype is
‘psychical organ’ that grows in man's soul as a flower” .
Along with mythological forms of perception of living social
space Ancient World gave the mankind scientific approach to
understanding of outer world – philosophic. Antique world
with its two main hypostasis: classic antiquity of the Ancient
Greece and late antiquity of the Ancient Rome basing on the
ideas of universal harmony (symmetry) created new space that
had not only specific geographic coordinates but social
parameters. They are related to forms of state organization,
economic, every day, family and other relationships. They are
in essence “the idea of being, universal, substantive, divine, by
no means pantheistically shapeless but given and realized in
plastic forms” . Still space had yet abstract character. M.M.
Bakhtin analyzed the content of antique literature and noted
that the literature of that period “... needed vast spaces, land
and sea, different countries. The world of these novels is great
and diverse. But both the scope and diversity have absolutely
abstract character” .
One should note that even in the scope of antique society
the key parameters of existence of state and philosophy of
actions of “necessity” - ethics had been developing and
codifying. It formed moral behavior of a man in social space in
a specific way and main ideas of morality, good and evil,
freedom, responsibility and justice.
Content and essence of information and
communication space of the period of The
The new stage of development of European civilization that
French Encyclopaedist called The Middle Ages originated on
the base of change of economic relations when the main value
was not possessing slaves but land ownership and labor of
partially free peasants bound to this land. But economic
separation, isolated character and self-sufficiency of selfsustained
households, competition between them led to
breaking unite state organization and to the beginning of
feudal disunity with dominating principle of “the way of
everyone against everyone” .
In this uneasy situation the new global religion Christianity
started to act as the unifying factor. Simmel proposed
important idea about the role of religious thought in the life of
the Middle Ages society: “The fact that from time to time the
fight against this unity of society started, that the freedom of
individual was avoiding it, that even in the most tight and
naive relationships this unity was not realized in such a selfobvious
way – that was the reason of raising it into human
conscious as special form and special value of being. Unity of
things and interests that had initially united us in social sphere
finds its’ clear and independent of any substance expression in
the idea of divine – in the most perfect way in monotheistic
religions... deep essence of the idea of God is in that very fact
that diversity and contradictory character of things find
relation and unity in it...” .
These were monotheistic religions where the idea of
primacy (domination) of spiritual improvement and
development of moral behavior in society have been
developing. Thereby the foundations of the new social essence
of information and communication space of The Middle Ages
person were laid. The idea of historical development via the
new predestination of society was stated in works of the most
prominent ideologist of Christianity Augustine of Hippo. The
postulate of two spheres of being – The City of God and the
City of Man and approaching the first via improvement of the
second proposed by him in V century became the base of
Christian rules of state and human living before development
of philosophic concept of Thomas Aquinas in XIII . The
institution of church became the main instrument of
preserving information and communication in Western
Europe. The “ideal of global Divine right and truth as general
norm of social relationships” had been implementing .
At the same time Catholic Church especially after official
Great Eastern Schism in 1054 and entrenchment of power of
the Pope set extremely tight rules of human life and social
space aimed at achieving the primacy of spiritual over the body. Change of ideological reference points caused the
process of simplification that covered all the spheres of human
life. For example the new type of a town had developed that
changed the antique city. Castle towns that were built not to
live in but to defend, to survive. Citizens of Western Europe
paid high price because the new type of diseases started to
spread – socially provoked diseases. These were related to the
way of life and standard of living and led to mass epidemic
diseases that sometimes had the scope of pandemia covering
territories of many countries and the whole continents
(plague, cholera, smallpox).
Fundamentally different approaches had been forming in
Eastern branch of Christianity in Byzantine Empire that gave
the beginning to orthodoxy. Originated and maturing in the
space of Hellenistic state orthodoxy inherited antique culture
and was more tolerant to everyday life of a man.
The primacy of state over church, deification and unlimited
support for state authority personalized in the monarch,
availability of religious ceremonies and religious books in slavic
was one of the reason of accepting Christianity by Kiev Russia
in 988. Church valued its unity with state because “orthodox
tsar who was regal head of all orthodox worlds was considered
as significant attribute of Church. It was a symbol of
conquering of the world by the Cross, builder of the kingdom
of heaven on the earth” .
Cultivating the main features of mentality of Ancient
Russian people that had been matured during the previous
period was extremely important for Orthodox Church of Kiev
Russia. Communal economy in the territory of Eastern Europe
promoted collectivism that meant capability and readiness to
help others; high degree of patriotism and heroism –
resoluteness and readiness to sacrifice personal prosperity and
even life for keeping the community and later Motherland
Social meaning of information and
communication space of Renaissance
In the middle of the second millennium the religious world
view became an obstacle for development of human conscious
due to its dogmatic character and tight ideological and
structural framework of church organization. Attempts to get
beyond the limits of dogmatism created the new spiritual
atmosphere in society that was called the Reformation. It
caused origination of different branches of Protestantism that
led the base for overcoming limitations of social space of a
man and entering the period of Renaissance. Literature played
a special role in that period because it filled information and
communication space with new ideological content. That may
be proved by great work of Dante Alighieri La Divina
Commedia. Still based on traditional trinity: Faith, Hope and
Love the author transforms its foundation. A Man enters the
place of God. Thereby the most important idea of humanism
made its way. The idea of necessity of personal freedom of a
man from feudal dependency, revival of the principle of social
justice for people irrespective of their position in social
hierarchy. Feudal organization of economic and social life contradicted forming new relationships on the base of
development of capitalist relations in a city and later in
agriculture that required the market of free manpower.
Information and communication space by XV got a new
impulse due to the effect of two key factors: social
development of towns and invention of book printing. Towns
in their fight for economic independence of seignior and state
became the source of forming the foundations of civil society
which the process of maturing of individual freedom was
reflected in Development of conditions for individual
development. Availability of the system of educational
institutions created favorable prerequisites for spreading the
ideas of Enlightenment. Raising the role of intellectual work,
arts and culture.
At the same time the new features of future society were
growing in controversial situation. Along with progressive
features the space of towns led to separation of a person from
society. Social differentiation led to pauperization
(impoverishment) of a part of citizens of towns. Significant
lowering of the standards of living, growing such features of
city life as beggary, vagrancy, prostitution, alcoholism that was
an object of criticism of intellectuals [27-30].
Extremely tensed social space was torn not only by
difference in the level of social prosperity and spontaneous
protests of plebs of towns but by attempts of growing
bourgeoisie to use the situation for gaining more autonomy of
aristocratic and monarch authority.
Printed book was the new channel of information that
prompted changes of communication space in that social
reality. Typography was invented in 1454 by Johannes
Gensfleisch and this period was the beginning of its spreading
over the Western Europe. It was the key point of the new
attitude to reality. Stressing the value of invention of
typography Anthony Giddens wrote: “Even in communities
with low literacy printed materials as well as the capability of
producing and interpretation of those are indispensable tool
of administrative and social coordination” .
Printed word along with forming its own information and
communication space “gave impulse to development of
individualism and the will to self-expression in society. It
promoted forming of habits to private property and other
factors of individual closeness” . Even today research of
communicative features of printed media is one of the most
demanded topics. Not only of sociology, but the other
Starting from XVI development of global civilization was
determined by European hegemony. Broadening global trade
and the progress of technology laid the foundation for the new
era of global policy in which “occasional short and diverse
contacts between civilizations were replaced by continuous
overwhelming one-way effect of the West on all the other
civilizations” . Thereby the new configuration of global
information and communication space started to develop.
We may draw some meaningful conclusions of analyzed
material. Firstly, information and communication space is the
result of evolution of living nature. It is integral attribute of
social reality. Secondly, the logic of genesis and further forming
of information and communication space is closely connected
with complication of social life. From the tribe of human
beings to state. Thirdly, even in antique society attempts of
philosophic grounding of information and communication
space were made. As social phenomenon that fills the space of
human life with ethic meaning in its specific way. Fourthly,
being the derivative of activity of human society information
and communication space starts to effect the vector of its own
development. Promoting meaningful prerequisites of
evolutionary changes in human life that was manifested in
main directions of European civilization.
Analyzed material allows revealing logic character of genesis
of communication and information space of human
civilization. It was not only important factor of maturing of
human community, but also promoted it with the sense of
social essence aimed on development of a person, moral
relationships between people and gradual movement of the
mankind to its unity.
At the same time we understand that our attempt to solve
this problem does not cover it in all the depth and complexity
of social processes of long-term historical development. It is
necessary to continue research from the point of view of
forming specifics of further national differences of global
information and communication space influence of internal
sources of its development. Theoretical development of such
concepts as “space”, “information”, “communication” and
others is necessary.
The author expresses his gratitude to Doctor of Philosophic
Sciences P.K. Sterledev, Doctor of Philosophic Sciences V.Yu,
Chernykh, Doctor of Historical Sceinces M.G. Suslov, and
Doctor of Sociological Sciences V.N. Stegnia for assistance in
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