Integration of Biological Concepts Using Localized Gambling Games in Teaching Elementary Statistics
Nick I Rojas1* and
Sheila Amor S Olonan2
1Nansiakan National High School,
Integrated SHS, Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya,
Nueva Vizcaya State University,
2Nueva Vizcaya State University, College
of Teacher Education, Bambang Campus,
- *Corresponding Author:
- Nick I Rojas
Nueva Vizcaya State University
of Teacher Education
Received Date: December 11, 2016; Accepted Date: July 15, 2017; Published Date: July 30, 2017
Citation: Rojas NI, Olonan SAS. Integration
of Biological Concepts Using Localized
Gambling Games in Teaching Elementary
Statistics. Global Media Journal. 2017,
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Both Science and Mathematics are indeed essential and each subject is considered to be of equally important co-existence. While Biology (as a sub-group of Science) includes a scholarly investigation of life and its marked relation with the environment, Mathematics on the other hand (specifically Statistics), involves processes of scientific measurement, evaluation and quantification of any phenomena in order to substantiate its occurrence. Thus, this study – as anchored on the stated vital association of Science and numbers, was designed to identify if the integration of specific concepts in Biology (Phenotypes and Genotypes) may be accepted as a contextualized lesson in Elementary Statistics – focusing on Frequency and Percentage distribution, and Probability (ratio and proportion). The researcher had devised 2 localized “gambling games”- “tossing coins” and “tossing of dice” in order to explain both concepts in Biology and Statistics. The Math majors and BEEd students of the College of Teacher Education of the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bambang campus during the 2nd semester of SY 2015 – 2016 were considered in the sampling selection of the study. Making use of a self-made evaluation tool (validated by research experts), the respondents were asked to rate the level of acceptability of the contextualized lesson plan. Independent t-test was employed in order to determine significant difference on the respondents’ evaluation and performance between the 2 groups of respondents based on performed learning tasks. Findings of the study manifested that the respondents are collectively “much agree” toward the acceptability of the designed lesson plan.
Integration; Biology; Elementary statistics; Lesson exemplar;
Contextualize; Gambling games; Acceptability
Both Science and Mathematics are indeed essential and each
subject is considered to be of equally important co-existence.
While Biology (as a sub-group of Science) includes a scholarly
investigation of life and its marked relation with the environment,
Mathematics on the other hand (specifically Statistics),
involves processes of scientific measurement, evaluation and
quantification of any phenomena in order to substantiate its
The insufficiencies of quantitative awareness and approaches in
teaching Biology have been observed over the years . Thus,
difficulties in utilizing concepts in Biology as an alternative subject matter in teaching Numerical courses are also evident.
Most often than not, Mathematics and Biology are taught in near
independence of each other . This instructional strategy often
gives the students analogous strands of learning competencies,
however, are unable to comprehend how each subject area
intertwines with each other. Learners find challenges applying
their lesson from one subject to another and most likely could
no blend their knowledge into a unified structure. Emerging
conventional educational ingenuities essentially along coalescing
laboratory processes with mathematical skills, yet it seems
that most curricula focused on a single connection between
systematic knowledge and scientific scheme, from which the
validity of knowledge claims, mediated in terms of their reliability
with data. Collecting data and obtaining results are generally part of science, but are not science itself. We visualize that
the operational use of the complete scientific method will play
a critical role in providing the compulsory underpinning for
the incorporation of math and biology at several professional
altitudes . The American Association for Advancement Science
(AAAS, 2011)  through the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education report suggested the need to concentrate on
the core competencies of quantitative reasoning, modeling, and
simulating complex systems. Undergraduate students should
acquire how to rub in quantitative skills Biological themes and
use quantitative reasoning to interpret data. Hence, students
should be able to develop skills on the use of modeling and in
reconnoitring systems with computational slants .
In response to the 21st century challenges of Mathematics
and Science Education in the Philippines, a designed research
conference was designed by the University of the Philippines
– National Institute of for Science and Mathematics Education
Development (UP-NISMED)  in gratitude of the significance
of globalizing the developments, methodologies and schemes of
concocting citizens who will be able to discourse and unravel local,
national and global problems, as well as function correspondingly
thriving. This is in recognition of an inordinate prerequisite to
altercation notions on how to edify the young in terms of the
knowledge and skills exemplified in science and mathematics,
and at the same time take advantage of available technology.
The conference was themed “Empowering the Future Generation
through Science and Mathematics Education,” and identifies
the following academic objectives: 1) provide a forum to review
issues, exchange ideas and share experiences on the development
of Science and Mathematics education at all levels; 2) discuss
developments in Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) integration to improve learning of Science and Mathematics;
3) exchange ideas on continuing professional development as a
means to sustain the development of high quality Science and
Mathematics teachers; 4) encourage the sharing of knowledge,
skills and experiences of experts working on new strategies to
sustain Science and Mathematics education reforms in teaching
and assessment; 5) strengthen professional networking among
Science and Mathematics educators both locally and globally; and
6) maintain professional contacts to enhance cooperation among
a consortium of international organizations and educational
institutions to facilitate greater dissemination and exchange of
expertise at an international level.
With the above justifications, this study was then developed as
to integrate concepts in biology in a localized learning strategy
incorporating “gambling games” among selected Mathematics
major and BEEd students of the College of Teacher Education of
Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bambang campus during the 2nd
semester of the school year 2015-2016.
As such, this conceptual paradigm was used by the researcher
in order to complete this lesson exemplar based on the main
objectives of the study (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Conceptual paradigm.
The research paradigm was conceptualized based on developing a lesson plan using concepts in Biology (Genotype and Phenotype)
in teaching subject matter in Elementary Statistics (Frequency &
Percentage; and Probability) among the target respondents as a
response to the trends of the 21st Century Education of localizing
and contextualizing lessons. Two gambling games were devised
by the researcher as learning task in order to explain the selected
topics in Biology and Statistics (toss coin and tossing dice).
Objectives of the study
This study was patterned from a lesson exemplar in Elementary
Statistics using concepts of Biology among the target respondents
with the purpose of assessing the acceptability of such instructional
strategy based on the evaluation of the respondents. Specifically,
this study was aimed at answering the following questions:
1. What is the respondents’ level of performance in the
simulated learning tasks?
2. How do the respondents evaluate the level of acceptability of
the designed lesson exemplar in Elementary Statistics using
concepts in Biology?
3. Is there a significant difference in the level of performance
and evaluation on level of acceptability between the two
groups of respondents based on performed learning tasks?
4. Is there a significant relationship between the respondents’
level of performance and evaluation on the level of
acceptability of the lesson exemplar?
The study had employed the importance of descriptivequalitative-
quantitative research approach in order to describe
the selected constructs included in the investigation. As
discussed by Cudia and Tallungan , this approach is necessary
as to qualify and quantify pertinent data in conducting research.
In the study, performance and perceptions of the study were
subjected for descriptive and inferential analyses. A designed
lesson exemplar in the said subject was checked and approved
by the program directors of secondary and elementary courses
and counter-validated by the college dean of the College of
Teacher Education. In order to gauge the learning competencies
of the randomly selected 50 3rd year CTE students (using strata of Mathematics major and 30 BEEd students), two “gambling
games” were devised as learning tasks – one group for “toss coin”
and another set for “tossing of dice”.
The following tables explain the integration of the selected
Biological concepts and how the learning tasks were simulated
Table 1: Genotype and phenotype pairing.
|Pairing or Crossing
|DD x DD=DD
|DD x Dd=(3/4) DD, (1/4) Dd
75% DD, 25% Dd
|DD x dd=Dd
|Dd x DD=(3/4) DD, (1/4) Dd
75% DD, 25% Dd
|Dd x Dd=(1/2) DD, (1/2) Dd
50% DD, 50% Dd
|Dd x dd=(1/2) Dd, (1/2) dd
50% Dd, 50% dd
50% Dominant, 50% Recessive
|dd x DD=Dd
|dd x Dd=(1/2)dd, (1/2) Dd
50% dd, 50% Dd
50% Recessive, 50% Dominant
|dd x dd= dd
As stipulated in Table 1, the concept on Genotype and Phenotype
shows probable combination of dominant and recessive traits
from combinations of mother and father cells. The daughter
cells based on the crossing over of probable traits (DD, Dd, dd)
x (DD, Dd, dd) – which pertains to penotype pairing (36 expected
pairings) shall yield either 100% DD, 100% Dd, 50%Dd, 50% dd,
75% DD, and 100% dd with corresponding phenotypes of either
dominant, dominant (but carrier of recessive) or recessive traits.
Table 2: Simulated Gambling Games in Teaching Science and Statistics.
|A.Toss Coin (60 Tosses)
|B.Tossing of Dice (Probability of Combinations)
(Note: the data are only examples, the respondents’ performance were based on the actual simulated games).
Two groups were given 2 different learning tasks to perform
within 10 minutes. For the group that was asked to perform the
toss coin, students had computed for the corresponding results
of tossing 2 coins with combinations of head-head (HH), head-tail
(HT), and tail-tail (TT). Meanwhile, the other group who did the
tossing of dice were asked to compute the probability of certain
number combinations of throwing a pair of dice (Table 3).
Table 3: Performance Standards in the Simulated Learning Task.
|Participation and Group Dynamics
||95-100% of the group/students
||95-100% of the group/students
||85-89% of the group/students
||80-84% of the group/students
||below of the group/students
|Accuracy of Work
||Beyond expectation, finished task before the given time limit
||As expected, finished task at the given time limit
||With minor errors, finished task at the given time limit
||Answers are incomplete but correct, time limit not observed
||Did not able to meet expectations, time limit not observed
||All manifest eagerness to learn by sharing taught for the completion of the task
||1-2 students were only participants but unable to share significantly in the given task
||3-5 students were only participants but unable to share significantly in the given task
||5-7 students were only participants but unable to share significantly in the given task
||8 or more students were only participants but unable to share significantly in the given task
A teacher-made-validated rubric of evaluation was employed
to identify the respondents level of performance based on the
objectives and expected performance of the institutionalized
subject syllabus for Elementary Statistics. Still, another teachermade-
validated evaluation was made by the researcher to
evaluate the respondents’ perceptions on the acceptability of
the designed lesson plan in teaching Frequency and Percentage
Distribution; and Probability using concepts on Biology (Phenotype
The following performance standard evaluation was developed
by the researcher and underwent an expert validity to measure
the level of performance of the target respondents in simulated
In order to interpret the said scores, the following qualitative
description was then offered (Table 4).
Table 4: Qualitative descriptive.
||Did not meet expectation
Meanwhile, the given scaling was used to interpret the
evaluation of the respondents in the designed lesson exemplar.
The evaluation was based on a validated questionnaire-checklist
with the following indicators: performance standards; learning
competencies; learning tasks; relevance; and mastery and
delivery (Table 5).
Table 5: The validated questionnaire-checklist indicators.
||Very Much Agree
||Very Much Acceptable
In order to elicit the relationship between the respondents’
performance and evaluation, a two-way analysis of variance
was employed in the computed means for the 2 points of
investigation considering the two groups of respondents (based on the performed learning tasks). Hence, independent t-test
was employed to determine significant difference on the level
of acceptability of the designed lesson exemplar based on the
evaluation of the 2 groups of respondents (according to their
performed learning tasks).
Results and Discussions
After gathering the pertinent data, these were tallied and
tabulated and were quantified and qualified based on the
statistical tools used by the researcher.
Respondents’ level of performance
Table 6 manifested that the overall respondents’ level of
performance in the simulated learning tasks is qualified as “very
satisfactory” with the numerical rate of 4.28, from which group 1
(toss coin) had the mean rate of 4.50 (outstanding) while group 2
(tossing dice) gave the mean rate of 4.25 (very satisfactory).
Table 6: Summary on the Level of Performance of the 2 Groups of
||Group 1 (Coin)
||Group 2 (Dice)
|Participation and Group Dynamic
|Accuracy of Work
Detailing the specific indicators that were used to measure
the respondents’ performance, the combined means gave a
mean rate for both participation and group dynamic, and group
learning computed as 4.50 and being qualified as “outstanding”.
Meanwhile, for the indicator along accuracy of work, both groups
were rated as 4.00 with the qualitative interpretation of “very
satisfactory”. The data implies that group 1, who performed the
learning task on “tossing a coin” has higher performance than the
group who did the “tossing of dice”. Hence, it can also be deduced
that for indicators along participation and group dynamic, and
group learning, the student-respondents had shown outstanding
performances on these aspects based on the evaluation given
by the subject teacher (the researcher), and were rated very
satisfactory for their accuracy of answers (the answers perse
were based on the expected outcomes drawn by the researcher
in lieu with the lesson on Statistics).
Giving light to the data presented in Table 4, Nieuwenhuis 
recommended that providing more quantitative slants during
the early training of biologists would improve their ability to
handle mathematical models and consequently their aptitude
to underwrite to and advantage from key approaches within
their pitches of interest. Quantitative aptitudes are critical for
Similar on the concept of integrating Biological concepts in
teaching Elementary Statistics, Barsoum et al.  explained
that basic quantitative skills are established through scientific
explorations that highpoint the close association of mathematics
and biology. Throughout the explorations, students operate data
sets and progress concepts from the data. The group presented
an exploration that aided students calculate genetic distances
and correlate these with geographic distance, using plant
populations to better understand gene flow. Another exploration
they presented is the use of simple geometry (area of a triangle)
to approximate the amount of DNA present in each band from
Meselson-Stahl's classic experiment on semiconservative DNA
replication. Both Nieuwenhuis and the group of Barsoum
presented quantitative techniques in developing learning
toward Biology, on the other hand this study incorporated Biology concepts instead using localized learning tasks in order
to teach subjects on Frequency and Percentage distribution, and
Probability. Hence, the approaches presented by cited authorities
are almost the same instructional strategy being used in the
designed lesson exemplar.
Based on the rates given by the respondents in the level of
acceptability of the designed lesson exemplar in Elementary
Statistics using concepts in Biology had shown the computed
mean of 3.43 – which being qualified that the respondents
are collectively “much agree” on the item-statements used to
describe the indicators for acceptability. This is being qualitatively
interpreted as “much acceptable”. Both groups of respondents
had shown a qualitative rating of “much agree” with the mean
values of 3.48 for group 1 (coin) and 3.38 for group 2 (dice)
respectively (Table 7).
Table 7a: Summary on the Respondents’ Evaluation of the Designed
||Group 1 (Coin)
||Group 2 (Dice)
|Mastery and Delivery
Table 7b: Summary on the Difference in the Level of Performance
between the 2 Groups of Respondents along the Performed Learning Tasks.
(df=6,Crit-t is 2.4469, level of significance is 0.05).
Particularly, among the 5 indicators, learning tasks was given
the highest rate of 3.69 (much agree/acceptable), which would
mean that the learning tasks included in the lesson plan is indeed
much accepted as differentiated learning activities in teaching
Statistics. Related to this indicator is the performance standards,
which was given the second highest rate of 4.58 (much agree/
acceptable), which would as mean that the lesson exemplar is
perceived to have provided a considerable set of criteria in order
to determine the students’ performance in a given lesson. Hence,
this may as well be associated with the data shown in Table 4,
which had determined the respondents’ level of performance in
the simulated learning tasks.
On the other hand, the 3 remaining indicators on the level of
acceptability of the designed lesson exemplar were rated as
“moderately agree/acceptable” showing the mean rates as 3.28
(learning competencies), 3.19 (relevance) and 3.22 (mastery
and delivery). This may indicate an average regard among the
student-respondents on the level of acceptability of integrating
Biological concepts in Elementary Statistics.
In support to the designed lesson exemplar, the Institute's Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians, and the College
Board Advanced Placement Biology Test each acknowledge
the importance of quantitative reasoning and skills for modern
biology National Research Council (NCR) . Meanwhile,
Kitts  suggested that mathematical approaches should be
intensified as integral component of undergraduate biology
education. Even within Biology, the increasing use of large
data sets requires biologists to acquire skills in mathematics,
particularly statistics, and computer science. The goal can best be
manifested by integrating mathematical tools and approaches in
all biology courses. For instance, a molecular forensics program
can integrate the theme across the curriculum by integrating
biology into applied areas that include databank design and a
strong highlighting on data analysis (Table 8).
Table 8: Summary on the Difference in the Evaluation on the Level of
Acceptability of the Designed Lesson Exemplar between the 2 Groups of
Respondents along the Performed Learning Tasks.
|Mastery and Delivery
(df=48, p-values with * is significant at 0.05 level of significance, Crit-t is
Meanwhile, Oriero and Rojas had used localized games in the
vocabulary acquisition skills of selected Grade 8 high students
from which the respondents had rated the simulated games and enrichment activities as very effective. Hence, the respondents
had shown high level of performance in the administered
retention test for vocabulary. Oreiro and Rojas had integrated
the use of localized games in teaching English, which could also
be equated with the learning approach being integrated in the
designed lesson exemplar. Still, both approaches believed that
adding fun in classroom discussion such simulation of localized
learning tasks may definitely promote interests among the
Difference of the respondents’ performance
As gleaned in Table 6, no significant difference is seen in the
performance level between the group of students who performed
the tossing of coin and tossing of dice, which showed the p-value
of 0.5369 and a computed t of 0.6547. Thus, this accepts the
assumption of the null hypothesis, hence, would mean that both
groups of students have the same level of performance in the
simulated learning tasks in the designed lesson exemplar.
The result of the computed difference on the level of
performance between the 2 groups of respondents would
mean that the designed lesson exemplar – integrating Biological
concepts in teaching Mathematics could be qualified an effective
instructional technique. Hence, the simulated learning tasks
along this differentiated learning strategy are as well noted to
yield high performance for both groups on students (based on
performed learning task).
In relation the findings presented in this context of the study,
Barsoum et al.  had revealed in their simulated context
examination the same levels of understanding for students using
the new text and students using a traditional text, indicating that
reducing factual content and focusing on central themes is not
detrimental to student outcomes related to content. They also
found out that those students using the new text exhibited better
retention of the content when surveyed several months later.
The group of Barsoum had compared the effects of two
different learning texts in determining the difference on the
students’ performance, on the other hand, this study had only
investigated variation on the respondents’ learning performance
on the simulated group activities in order to substantiate the
objective of the designed lesson plan, however the researcher
did not compare if such integration is as significant with the
institutionalized learning approach or yet, may yield better
effect on the learning competencies of the students. The study
had also measured significant differences on the respondents’
evaluation on the level of acceptability of the lesson exemplar.
As such, Table 7 reveals that almost all selected indicators for
acceptability level (including the overall evaluations between the
2 set of respondents) except for the indicator along “mastery and
delivery” showed no significant variations. The computed t values
along these points of investigation are below the critical t value
of 2.0106; and all computed p-values are higher than the level
of significance at 0.05. Thus, this accepts an assumption of a null
hypothesis – that there is no significant difference on the level of
respondents’ evaluation about the acceptability of the designed
lesson strategy along the areas which shown no significant
results. Still, this may mean that the respondents regardless of
performed learning task gave the same level of assessment.
However, in terms of mastery and delivery (which pertains on
how the teacher had presented the lesson exemplar among the
set of respondents) was significantly differed between the 2 groups of respondents, which yielded a t- value of 2.9169 and p-value of 0.0362 which nullifies earlier hypothesis in this aspect.
As shown with the computed mean rates between the 2 groups,
those who performed the “toss coin” gave the higher evaluation
at 3.58 over the other group who performed the “tossing of dice”
showing the mean rate of 3.06. This would mean that group 1
perceived that the teacher had displayed exemplary mastery and
delivery of the subject matter and learning objectives, and thus
significantly regarded that the developed lesson plan is “much
acceptable”. Still, on the average rates of the respondents’
evaluation, it had justified that both groups has the same pointof-
view on the lesson’s acceptability level.
Relationship of respondents’ performance and
As justified in the statistical computation on the affectation of the
groupings and selected variables of the study, it showed in Table
8 that there exist a notable relationship on the respondents’
performance on the simulated games and their evaluation on
the presented lesson exemplar. This would then suggest that the
curriculum or any lesson for that matter – a teacher should have
to prioritize the competencies of the learners as to come-up with
the best suitable and educative instructional strategies (Table 9).
Table 9: Relationship on the Respondents’ Performance in the Simulated Learning Tasks and Evaluation on the Acceptability of the Designed Lesson
|Group 1 (Toss Coin)
|Group 2 (Tossing of Dice)
|2-WAY ANOVA (Assuming unequal values of variances)
|Sources of Data
|Performance and Evaluation of Group 1 vs. Group 2
|Performance vs. Evaluation
Conclusions and Recommendations
Benchmarking on the significant results of the study, the following
conclusions were hereby identified.
1. The overall level of performance of the student-respondents in
the simulated games is qualified as “very satisfactory”, from which
respondents who performed the tossing of coins is higher being
described as “outstanding” over the group who did the tossing of
dice with the qualitative description of “very satisfactory”.
2. The designed lesson exemplar in Elementary Statistics (with
specific topic on Frequency and Percentage Distribution, and
Probability) with the integration of Biological concepts (Genotype
and Phenotype) is collectively evaluated by the respondents as
“much agree” and thus, being qualitatively interpreted as “much
3. Respondents’ level of performance showed no significant
variation between the 2 groups based on the performed learning
task. Similarly, the overall evaluation on the level of acceptability of the designed lesson exemplar also manifested no significant
difference between the said groups of respondents. However,
specific indicator for the level of acceptability along mastery
and delivery showed significant difference, which the group of
performing the “toss coin” gave significantly higher than the
other group who performed the “tossing of coin”.
4. Respondents’ performance affects their evaluation on the
presented lesson exemplar in elementary statistics, and thus,
it is vital to note that students’ learning competencies must be
prioritized in designing educational/teaching strategies.
The following recommendations are being enumerated by the
researcher based on the significant findings of the study, from
which she deemed it but just logical to include considering the
global implications of learning both Mathematics and Science.
1. Based on the discovery of Jungk  cited by Feser et al. , there
is an opulent history of interdisciplinary work in mathematics and biology creating stimulating and occasionally unpredicted new
knowledge and discoveries and thus, a differentiated learning
strategy like the presented lesson exemplar in Elementary
Statistics (integrating Biological concepts) may also instil
considerable results in learning both concepts in Science and
2. Still, the researcher firmly believes that incorporating fun in
the acquisition of learning is an effective instructional strategy in
substantiating such technique of integration, contextualizing and
localizing subject matters to be taught in any fields of knowledge
– which simulation of local learning task like “gambling games”
when used positively in the educational curricula, may as well
yield positive results in teaching-learning process.
3. Future researchers may embark on the findings of this study
in developing similar concepts of study in the future. Hence, the
researcher is strongly recommending an experimental approach
as to validate or negate the results presented in this study.
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