Issues of National Development in the Kazakhstan Press in the 1950s and Early 1960s
Sadykov S1*, Alimzhanova A2, Kabylgazina K3, Mykatayeva K3 and Uzbekova G2
1Department of Mass-Media, A. Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University, Kazakhstan
2Department of Printing and Electronic Mass-Media, AL-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sadykov S
Doctor of sciences philology
Professor, Department of Mass-Media
International Kazakh-Turkish University, Kazakhstan
Received Date: Jul 31, 2018; Accepted Date: Aug 02, 2018; Published Date: Aug 10, 2018
Citation: Sadykov S, Alimzhanova A, Kabylgazina K, Mykatayeva K, Uzbekova G. Issues of National Development in the Kazakhstan Press in the
1950s and Early 1960s. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:31.
Copyright: © 2018 Sadykov S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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With the end of the World War II in the USSR, the most important task was the restoration of the war-ravaged economy in a large part of its European territory and ensuring the development of industry and agriculture. An important place in this business was assigned to Kazakhstan, which was exceeding the prewar level of industrial production, in very difficult conditions. The economic growth of the post-war years and the development of industry in Kazakhstan - all this had an impact on the consciousness of people. Also it could not help but affect the growth of the national selfconsciousness of the Kazakh people. During the same period, there was an increase in Kazakh intellectual potential in the process of developing the system of public education and raising the educational level of the population of the republic. Soviet ideology and official propaganda in the 1950s again recalled to the class approach in assessing historical personalities and events in the life of the Kazakh people. This shows that long ago the Soviet-Party nomenclature transformed Marxist-Leninist doctrine into a dogma, once again. The Soviet press were a handy party and were called upon to conduct the ideas of decision-making bodies. It propagandized the official policy aimed at internationalizing the life of the USSR people. On the one hand, the press opposed the infringement of the national identity of ethnic groups and, as it were, protecting their sovereign development without regulation and restrictions, on the other hand, preached the idea of forming a communist super nation in the distant future, the beginning of which is the Soviet people.
National self-awareness; Official
propaganda; The soviet press, Development of education;
Cultural level; Virgin lands; Dogmatism; The soviet people,
Kazakh intelligentsia; Internationalism; Kazakh press
Problems of national development, their development in
journalism have long attracted the attention of foreign, Central
Asian, Kazakh scientists studying the theory and practice of the
media. Despite the fact that in recent decades it has been one
of the priorities in academic circles, discussions of politicians,
public figures, workers of culture and art. Although the issues
related to the growth of people' self-awareness and the search
for a national idea are becoming particularly oblique in the
context of the new geopolitical realities and threats of the 21st
century. They are both topical for the countries of the
European Union, and the CIS, and the Middle Eastern states,
and the countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America.
Globalization has turned this problem into the world one.
Certain issues of interrelations between people due to
complexity, drama and confusion on the one hand, and on the
other hand, related to the processes of the current moment,
based on the priorities of a particular political conjuncture,
attracted and still attract the attention of social scientists,
including the theories of journalism.
Certain information on the subject of this article is
contained in the works of Western and Russian specialists.
These are, first of all, the works of previous studies by different
They investigate despotic nature, the subordination of civil
and other freedoms, the life of nations and ethnic entities, the
entire socio-political system, the ruling power. The imperial
essence of the Soviet state is considered critically, its national
doctrine, which was reduced to assimilation of small nations to
large, the ethnic identity leveling of people and on the basis of
Russification, to the violent formation of a super nation of the
Certain information of interest to scientists is contained in
the writings of Soviet researchers. Thus, their work with rich
factual material remains vulnerable from a theoretical point of
view, since the ideological orientation and political
engagement of that time set the task of demonstrating the
success of a multinational power. And even when in the USSR,
during the period of perestroika rethinking, were made
attempts to adopt a new approach to the analysis of the
history and modernity of a multi-ethnic society, the authors
could not break out completely from the captivity of
stereotypes of totalitarianism.
In the context of this article, studies of scientists from
Central Asia and Kazakhstan, developing questions of the
history and theory of journalistic science, are of some interest.
Here we should mention the works of several studies
conducted by different authors [17-28].
They studied the problems of the formation of the
development of the periodical press, audiovisual mass media,
substantiated theoretical and practical problems of journalism
of the region, studied the peculiarities of the creative heritage
of well-known Kazakh, Uzbek and other journalists.
These researches are carried out taking into account
national interests and illustrate the stages of development of
journalism in Central Asia of the twentieth century to this day.
However, it should be noted that authors did not have the task
of special consideration of issues of national identification.
That is why the analysis of the role of the Kazakh press and
Kazakh publicists in covering the issues of national
identification and self-identification through the prism of the
mass media is the first attempt in this kind. History teaches
that social values cannot be outside a particular culture,
outside of national subjectness and the national environment.
They cannot be subordinated to the imperatives of national,
and therefore, local, civilization life in history. This is also true,
as well as the fact that all the modernization processes in
history have always been fueled by the values of national
identity, have grown from the depths of the national spirit,
culture and history.
The Soviet model of the national state had a decisive
influence on the formation and subsequent decisive
deformation of the system of the Kazakh national press, as
well as the coverage of issues of self-identification in it.
Despite the complexity of historical conditions, Kazakh
journalism and journalism of the Soviet period was able to
identify the Kazakh ethnos from the standpoint of universal
humanistic, rather than class and ideological values. The
necessity of scientific comprehension of the accumulated
material determines the relevance of this work.
Materials and Methods
The subject of this research is an integral part of the
research projects of the theory and practice of journalism in
the Republic of Kazakhstan and is included in the plans of
research works of HA Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish
Theoretical propositions, conclusions and recommendations
contained in the study can be used in the further study of the
problems of media theory and practice, as well as issues of
improving national policy, interethnic relations and the role of
the press in developing the topic of national identification and
national identity of the Kazakh people.
The materials of the study, its conclusions and
recommendations can be used in preparing general and
special courses on theory and practice of journalism in
Kazakhstan, political science, history and other social science
disciplines. The results of the research can contribute to
enhancing the scientific study of a number of issues of the
development of national journalism, highlighting various
problems of the state structure of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The use of the materials of the study can also provide some
assistance to journalists-practitioners in covering the problems
of national policy, developing new ideas and approaches in
covering the issues of national construction in the Republic of
Methods of research
The main research methods were theoretical analysis and
synthesis, comparison and generalization, the study of
professional experience of journalists of newspapers and
magazines, observation. In the scientific work, the following
research methods were used to solve the set of tasks: general
methods and techniques (analysis of publication of
newspapers and magazines, on the problems of the republic's
media, synthesis of abstraction, generalization, probabilitystatistical
methods); methods of empirical research:
(observation, comparison, description, measurement); a
systematic approach in conducting historical and philological
and logical analysis, generalization and analysis of journalistic
experience. The technique of experimental and experimental
work was developed; journalistic experiment was conducted;
Training and methodological support of the educational
process of professional training of future journalists was
developed, aimed at forming the creative abilities of future
journalists and the competence of graduates.
Methodological and theoretical basis of the
The methodological basis of the work was the Constitution
of the Republic of Kazakhstan, laws and normative acts of the
Republic of Kazakhstan on the activities of the media. The
theoretical basis of the study was the works of scholars of
Kazakhstan and abroad on the history, theory and practice of
Realization of results
Materials of the research are used in the educational
process in the preparation of bachelor's and master's degrees
in "Journalism" and "Political Science" at K.A. Yassawi
International Kazakh-Turkish University, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University and Kyzylorda State University named after
Korkyt-Ata and others.
In the 1950s, along the whole country, a movement for the
construction of cultural and educational institutions was
launched on the resources of collective and state farms, as a
result of which 1,048 clubs and cultural houses were built,
1,150 "red corners" and the Red Yurts were organized. The
librarianship also received active development: new public and
mobile libraries, book-issuing points, etc. appeared.
Against this backdrop of the growth of the educational and
cultural level of the Kazakh population, popular poetic
creativity continued to develop, which always played a special
role in educating the national feelings of the Kazakh people.
Since ancient Kazakhs - both old and young - gathered in the
evenings near their akyns (poets) and listened to their song
stories about the past, about heroes, about good, evil, rituals,
traditions, etc. Especially popular were songs of heroic and
historical content, ritual, every day and labor songs. They
reflect different aspects of Kazakh life, their ideas about
nature, society and man. Different genres, these songs occupy
a central place in Kazakh folklore and are the basis of many
forms of literary creativity.
In this regard, we recall that the Kazakh folk song originated
in the 15th century along with the heroic epic. In these folk
songs, the true events are told, their exact place and time are
mentioned, the people who participated in them are
mentioned. A kind of genre in which people kept the memory
of long-gone generations, also genealogical legends of
Shezhire (a family tree), which contained a story about the
origin of the Kazakh people, its tribes, their connections, and
migrations, which was his unwritten history.
It is difficult to overestimate the artistic value of all this folk
art. It contains instructions and teachings, which are presented
in a bright and imaginative form, facilitating their
memorization and giving them credibility. It played a huge role
in the education of the Kazakhs and the formation of their
national consciousness and mentality.
It should be specially noted that in the postwar period, the
development of Kazakh literature began to develop actively. In
particular, the "Creative Biography of Abai", "The Kazakh Epic
and the History of Literature", "Kazakh Democratic Writers of
the Early Twentieth Century", "Essays on the History of Kazakh
Pre-Revolutionary Literature" and others were published.
All of this as a whole created a foundation that allowed the
Kazakh people to become more aware of their own
characteristics, their own identity and national traits.
Therefore, it is understandable that the Kazakh intelligentsia
aspires to comprehend the role of the well-known
personalities of its people in its fate and history. Moreover, the
ideological taboos that were introduced in the 1930s during
the war years were removed and their names were used by
official propaganda, and images of great ancestors inspired the
Kazakh people in the fight against fascism.
But in August 1945, the Central Committee of the
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Kazakhstan adopted a
resolution, which referred to the need to correct the mistakes
contained in the first generalizing work on the history of the
Kazakh SSR from ancient times to the beginning of the Great
Patriotic War, written and published in 1943, The prominent
Soviet historians evacuated to the republic took an active part.
The resolution specifically noted that it is necessary to avoid
the idealization of the past.
By the end of the 1940s, the command and administrative
system in the USSR was already actively managing the literary
and directing the literary process in the right direction for
itself. So, in 1949, a decade of Kazakh literature was held in
Moscow and in 1954 the 3rd Congress of Writers of
Kazakhstan. At these forums it was once again pointed out that
the republic's literature should develop based on the Marxist-
Leninist methodology and guided by the principles of party
spirit and nationality, using the method of socialist realism.
In the second half of the 1940s and in the 1950s, a number
of prose works were created, including the second (1947), the
third (1952) and fourth (1956) books of Auezov's novel "Abai’s
way ", Mukanov's novels "Syr-Darya", Mustafin's "Millionaire"
and "Karaganda", Musrepov's "Awakened Land" and others.
Particularly intensively developed during this period were such
genres as a novel and a story.
Naturally, in all these works, the communist idea was a red
“thread”, the fidelity of socialist ideology was asserted, the
triumph of Lenin's national policy, the achievements of the
Soviet government in building a new life, how the life of the
Kazakh people was being transformed, etc., was narrated.
Officials from literature strictly monitored the "purity" of
writers' thoughts; therefore, one cannot speak of any kind of
independence and friend, except for the party-class approach
in reflecting reality.
At the same time, after the victory in the war with a new
force, they began to talk about the leading role of the Russian
people in the life of the Soviet state. To a certain extent, no
one denied his leadership, but when statements were made
about equality and friendship between the people of a
multinational country, against this background this began to
sound a certain dissonance. At the same time, many
functionaries from among the local nomenclature and this
sought to wrap in favor of their own career growth (1945). And
all those who fought in the past or had an armed clash with
him were ranked as those who should not enjoy the respect of
The well-known bi (the head of the tribe), commander,
statesman Yedige (14th-15th cc.), who fought against the khan
of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh, who is prominent in the
galaxy of outstanding sons of the Kazakh people, got into this
list. In 1409 he surrounded his army Moscow and collected
from it a tribute. These actions were regarded as hostile to the
Russian people (1995). As a result, the dastan (poem) "Yedige
batyr" ("Brave Yedige"), esteemed by the Kazakh people, was
forbidden to read for centuries. In turn, the fighters for the
liberation of Kazakhstan from tsarist Russia Kenesary, Nauryzbai and their followers, oddly enough, were declared
It was exposed at a closed meeting of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party (“Bolsheviks”) of
Kazakhstan on October 23, 1951, at which Academician Kanysh
Satbayev was accused of idealizing the stranger heroes to the
people and in that he did not recognize after 1945 the fallacy
of the legend about Yedige that was published in 1927 under
his editorship and with his preface (1989).
A special reluctance by the Soviet-Party nomenclature of the
national heroes of Kazakhstan, as well as of other republics,
began to manifest itself as a result of the fact that the CPSU
proclaimed the thesis about the formation of a "new historical
community of people - the Soviet people". In this connection,
the mention of the national heroes of the past has become
appreciated by the ideologists of the Soviet system as a
manifestation of national limitations and the desire to elevate
their people over others. If before the names of famous
people - Edige, Kenesary and others - could appear in
published poems, fiction, scientific works, now they were
mentioned only on the occasion of any significant dates and as
characters from legends rather than from the history of
The Communist Party firmly held the country and the life of
the people in its hands and carried out economic and social
transformations at its own discretion and understanding.
Despite the fact that in the 1950s they were very ambitious,
however, the main drawback of the party, which did not
adequately assess the consequences of its activities, was also
Especially brilliant in this field is N.S. Khrushchyev. Being a
man not only very energetic, but also uneducated, he relied on
his peasant intuition in all matters, did not like it when he was
objected and vigorously manifested his discontent, if
something was not how he wanted or understood. For him,
the main thing was to transform, reorganize, and change
everything radically. And the ideological tool, which is
obedient to this work - literature, art, journalism - was already
available to him.
Therefore, when the decision was made to develop virgin
and fallow lands of Kazakhstan, the huge journalistic army of
the Soviet Union started talking about what it would give to
the country and Kazakhstan, how the life of the Great Steppe
would change, but no one thought about what it all could to
lead, what troubles it can turn out for the Kazakh people.
The development of virgin lands left its imprint on the
development of national consciousness and the selfidentification
of the Kazakh people. On the one hand, the
development of virgin lands not only stimulated social
transformations in the republic, gave life to new, previously
unripe areas, but also ensured a large increase in the
production of grain, meat, milk, wool, etc. But on the other
hand, these obvious, seemingly, the benefits turned out to be
a problem for the Kazakh people, which grew up to the
national one. It was expressed, first of all, in the fact that the
number of Kazakhs became less than half the population of the republic. In addition, for centuries cultivated cattle and
nomadic way of life, the Kazakh people had to move to a
settled way of life.
It is not necessary to be a psychologist to understand the
obvious: a blow was struck at the national self-awareness of
the people. A huge mass of people, deprived of the usual
forms of existence, had to learn from others now. Researchers
in the field of social psychology have long established the
existence of varying degrees of gravitation of individuals of
different nationalities to specific types of industrial activity.
This can be explained by the fact that it is affected by the
natural environment, the availability of minerals, and climate,
and social, economic, scientific development, and the
historical past. All this is postponed both in the consciousness
of the people, and in its genetic memory.
But it does not follow from this that there is some kind of
predetermination in this matter and that, according to Yu.V.
Bromley, for example, Koreans gravitate to gardening and
cultivation of onions (n.d.). Do not be wise to understand that
this is their "attraction" in the years of repression was almost
the only possible activity for them. Similarly, one should not
blame the Kazakhs for being apathetic and negligent in other
than livestock, work.
Probably from the point of view of the Latvian, the
Ukrainian, the Belorussian the German, etc., it is an undoubted
blessing. But for the Kazakh this was tantamount to violence,
for him it's like a person who values his freedom, is
condemned to life imprisonment. It remains to judge and
judge: whether it is good or evil. After all, the solution of the
national question is expressed not only in the alignment of
parallel structures, but in enabling each nation to live in the
way it wants.
Turning to what is written in Leonid Brezhnev's book
"Tselina", it states that "the Kazakhs in general,
overwhelmingly, met with enthusiasm and approval the party's
decision to plow the feather grass steppes" (1980). And further
it notes: "The rise of virgin lands for the Kazakhs was a difficult
task, because for many centuries the Kazakh people were
associated with cattle breeding, and here many and many had
to break all the old way of life in the steppes, become grain
growers, machine operators, specialists in grain farming"
The development of virgin lands became a difficult stage in
the life of the Kazakh people. In the period of 1954-1960, in
the republic, 25 million 484 thousand hectares of land were
put into agricultural turnover. In the Kazakh steppe, about two
million people settled. A new type of inhabitants was formed,
a new generation appeared - virgin lands. Basically it's
Russians, Ukrainians and some others. They deeply let the
roots in here, along with the Kazakhs felt themselves the
owners of this land.
The writer and publicist A. Zhaksybayev writes that the
development of lands was very expensive for the Kazakhs. It
was impossible to resist this process. In these areas the
Russian language began to predominate, the radius of the
Kazakh language narrowed. One after another Kazakh schools were closed. Local residents were forced to send their children
to Russian schools. In the five northern regions all regional and
district Kazakh newspapers were closed, only one newspaper,
‘Tyn olkessi’, was published in the local language (1994).
The Kazakhs also participated in the virgin epic. They
mastered their land, the land of their ancestors. In the
beginning, it was difficult for them to find a common language
with people who came from different parts of the USSR. All
this changed the life of the Kazakhs. It did not do without the
power of the authorities. The everyday, simple cares of local
residents of the steppe acquired at times dramatic shades.
Meanwhile, the press of the Soviet Union and Kazakhstan
widely covered the development of virgin and fallow lands of
the republic. For example, in Komsomolskaya Pravda, a series
of target strips dedicated to young virgin lands was published.
In Pravda was published an essay by I. Shukhov "Conquerors of
Virgin Lands". In it, the author, speaking of Soviet people as
people of one fate, held the idea that they can conquer any
heights and poles, accomplish military and labor feats. And
now, on new lands, they, as at the front, are "in a
comprehensive offensive to the virgin land in all 93 new state
grain farms of Kazakhstan" (1954).
In a number of virgin areas, where there were no
publications of their own, district newspapers were
established. So, if in the 1950s, were created 41 regional
newspapers, then out of this number 32 of them began to
come out directly with the beginning of the development of
virgin lands. Only 3 of 32 editions were in Kazakh (1981).
Together with the entire Soviet press, they talked about the
labor enthusiasm of the virgin lands. In the newspapers were
opened the headings "On virgin lands", "Letters of new
settlers", etc. They were published materials, which talked
about the labor of newcomers, about how they overcome
difficulties and adversities. In order to strengthen the
propaganda work and give the movement a wide scope, the
press began using time-tested forms of mass work, such as onsite
editorial offices, public correspondent points. Through the
efforts of the editorial offices of the five republican
newspapers of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, combined
numbers and exchange lines were being prepared.
The press disseminated the advanced experience of the
foremost people in agriculture, mobilized the workers of
agriculture and livestock farming for the early fulfillment of
national economic plans. In a word, it once again in practice
proved its indispensability as an effective ideological tool of
the command and administrative system.
The virgin lands were given great attention to literary and
art publications of Kazakhstan. Thus, in the republican journals
“Zhuldyz” and “Prostor” appeared journalistic articles, essays
by Kazakh writers and publicists S. Mukanov, S. Shukhov, M.
Auezov and others. Subsequently, the publishing houses of
Kazmembas, Kazakstan and others prepared and published
collections of articles and essays "The Soviet Man-
Internationalist" (1963), "They are the Pride of Kazakhstan"
(1960), "The Song of Life" (1961), "On the New Frontier"
(1961) and many others.
The heroes of these works were different people who
manifested themselves in a variety of situations. The main task
facing the artists of the word was to show the heroism of
work, to paint a picture of the steppe transforming by the
efforts of the representatives of different people. And it must
be said that writers and publicists did not spare their strength
and talent to fulfill this, as it was said, party order.
An image of a Soviet man was created, which is determined
to implement grandiose plans to conquer nature. But, as is
known, when it is necessary to realize the installation and
create a portrait of a contemporary, it is difficult to solve this
problem without idealizing it. And here we have already used
time-tested methods and methods of socialist realism-the
search for a new man, the display of how his formation and
growth takes place. And this is already impossible without its
idealization, without the use of such a device as creating a
halo of romance. This method is effectively used in his early
literary works, such as "Makar Chudra", "Old Woman Izergil"
and others still the founder of the method of socialist realism
M. Gorky. Developing these traditions, Soviet writers
continued to romanticize time and people. There was even a
special term - the romance of everyday work.
On this basis, new myths were already being created,
without which it was impossible to support their own party
ideas and the enthusiasm of the masses. This emotional
upsurge needed constant recharge. And the mass media were
called to transfer this energy to the masses. They found new
heroes who successfully mastered virgin lands despite all
adversities and difficulties. Especially a lot of material was
given to reporters in 1955, when virgin soil tested people for
strength. These publications, in which the creative workers of
the editorial offices tried to put all their pathos and optimism,
instilled in the virgin people a certainty that life would
gradually improve, and that for this it was necessary to work
and work without regretting the forces and time.
In new, not yet inhabited territories in most cases it was
exactly so. And as a result, successes and achievements came
about, which the press spoke about and widely propagated.
But there were also failures. The media did not talk about
them much, preferring to mention them casually and to talk
about them as individual shortcomings. And the press did not
say absolutely anything in cases when it was a question of
obvious deception, the desire to report on imaginary
successes, to create the appearance of well-being.
The press did not say anything about the unrest that
occurred in the republic in 1960, when rumors spread that the
northern virgin lands would be cut off from Kazakhstan and
transferred to the RSFSR. Whether the press could write
something about this, if the situation in the country had
already deteriorated. The country was experiencing an acute
shortage of food. Before the introduction of the card system, it
is true, did not come, but in the early 60's, an acute deficit was
almost all food products. People had to wait in huge queues
for several hours until the stores brought bread, which was
released strictly in accordance with the norm and bought up
literally in 1 hour.
All this took place against the backdrop of events that began
in the USSR after the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU. The
wind of changes in the country began almost immediately
after the death of Stalin since mid-1953. The person of L.P.
Beria was arrested and then shot. People were returned from
camps; ideological bonds were weakened. The departure from
the Stalinist hard line certainly gave some positive results.
Already the first adjustments to the spiritual and cultural
policy of the country led to the revival of socio-political
thought in Kazakhstan.
Measures were taken to eliminate the dictatorial methods
of governing the country. The optimization of the dominant
social system, initiated from above, and the expansion of
"socialist democracy," led to the manifestation of activity on
the part of society. And, first of all, on the part of the
intelligentsia, including the creative one in the republic,
attempts were made to correct the excesses committed in
previous years, when a number of writers, scientists and
journalists were accused of propagating bourgeois
nationalism, idealizing the past of the feudal-patriotic society,
So, the writer Auezov, and academician Satpayev returned
to Kazakhstan, who were forced to leave the republic after the
decision of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of
Kazakhstan "On the mistakes of the Institute of Language and
Literature" was adopted and some scholars began to criticize
everything, which was related to the pre-revolutionary past of
Kazakhstan and those who spoke about it. At that time,
Auezov's novels "Abai", "Abai's way" for allegedly embellishing
and idealizing aul-nomadic life in them, propaganda of "anti-
Russian, reactionary-conservative and Pan-Turkic views of the
patriarchal past" were subjected to sharp attacks (n.d.). It even
went so far that in the Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of
the Kazakh SSR an article by Nurushev was published "Until
the end of the eradication of bourgeois nationalist distortions
in the study of Abai's creativity," in which he wrote: "Auezov
was subversive in the field of artistic literature and literary
criticism. He idealized the past, praising the leaders of the
Alash-horde, slandered Soviet reality, preached hatred for the
great Russian people and reached direct attacks against Soviet
In a campaign against the writer and others who spoke in his
defense, the tone was set by the press, which directed the
criticism of flaws, in ideological work, not on improving the
case, but on "beating" one or another person ... "(1977). As a
result, the republic was forced to leave the academician KI
Satpaev, who was subjected to persecution, who wrote about
the novel "The Way of Abai": "In the breadth of the circle of
topics, depth and skill of their artistic development, the novel
represents an exceptional phenomenon in the literature of the
revived Kazakh people and law occupies an outstanding
position in the literature of the Soviet Union people"(1989).
But ironically, it was the Russian writers AA Fadeev, NS
Tikhonov, LS Sobolev, B Gorbatov, VV Ivanov and some others
who helped the Russian writer to avoid reprisals against M.
Auezov. He settled in Moscow, where he worked at the
philological faculty of Moscow State University and taught literature of the USSR people. As Leonid Brezhnev writes in the
book ‘Celina’, this forced stay outside the republic was the
result of actions "imposed by some demagogy" in his will to
"look, as they say, holier than the pope" (1980).
Attacks were not only individuals, but also a whole literary
trend. So, in the 50 years there were discussions about the
origin of the Kazakh epic. At the time, the opinion was
expressed that not all works of oral folk art correspond to
socialist ideology and therefore are of an antinational nature
(n.d.). In a memorandum to the department of fiction and art
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of
Kazakhstan it was noted: "The purpose of the discussion is to
determine the historical character, ideological essence and
artistic merit of the Kazakh heroic and social epos; resolution
of the most controversial issues in this field of literary
criticism; demarcation of popular and antinational variants of
poems ... "(n.d.).
Therefore, it was intended to hold discussions among a
broad scientific community with the participation of scientists
and Soviet-Party workers from Moscow, Leningrad, Tashkent,
Frunze (n.d.). However, the exchange of views was replaced by
an indiscriminate criticism of those whose position differed
from the official party point of view. As a result of these
"scientific discussions" the Kazakh epic was divided into
"reactionary" and "people's". It was resolved to consider the
poems "Yedige", "Orak and Mamai", "Shora Batyr", "Bazar
Batyr", "Er-Sain" reactionary, and the assessments given to
them in the works of M Auezov, A Margulan, B Kenzhebayev, S
Mukanov and others to recognize non-Marxist and deeply
erroneous. People consider the poems Alpamys, Er-Targin,
Koblandy-batyr, Kambar Batyr, Kozy Korpesh and Bayan-sulu
Of course, not everyone in Kazakhstan thoughtlessly and
uncomplainingly followed these party lines. Among the Kazakh
intelligentsia were those who defended the preservation of
national identity and its manifestation in the way of life of
their ethnic group. But such position ran counter to the idea
that culture, art, literature, and all life should be national only
in form, and in content-socialist. It was in this way that the
Soviet system strove to introduce the communist worldview
everywhere, to change the mentality and people way of life. It
is necessary to transform the national spiritual principle, to
contain and suppress in them the free manifestation of
national self-awareness and national thinking.
This was necessary to achieve the main goal - to level out all
national differences already in the most vital way of the
people. The Soviet state, in fact, was a multinational state only
in composition, but it was not so in its policy. Any desire to
preserve national identity was seen as an attempt to isolate
itself. And the party leadership interpreted it as a
manifestation of nationalism. The ideological basis of this
policy was the officially adopted idea of a single Soviet people,
within which there should not be national differences.
This policy was carried out in Kazakhstan. There were
objective reasons for this: as Leonid Brezhnev writes, in the
second half of the 1950s huge masses of people moved to the republic, multinational collectives developed (1980), which
could not fail to put before the state and society an alternative
- or create conditions for preservation of national identity, or
create a unified new community. And Kazakhstan became a
republic that began to move in this direction.
The Kazakh intelligentsia in those years thought about the
need to create prints that would go beyond the strictly sociopolitical
press. This periodical would allow us to comprehend
the life processes with artistic, journalistic and satirical means.
Many representatives of national literature and journalism
have repeatedly talked about this and in the second half of the
1950s, new journals appeared-the satirical Ara-Shmel, the
The task of the monthly satirical magazine "Ara" - "Shmel",
which began to be published since March 1956 in Kazakh and
Russian, was the struggle against the plunderers of socialist
property, with liars and swindlers, bribe-takers, bureaucrats,
careerists. The magazine regularly published feuilletons,
satirical stories, cartoons and cartoons. The mastery of such
satirists as S.Adambekov, O. Aubakirov, Zh. Altaibaev, S.
Kenzheakhmetov, K. Iliasov and others grew in the journal.
A major role in children's upbringing was played by the
republican magazine Baldyrgan, which began to be published
since July 1958. It printed stories and poems in the Kazakh
language. There were many materials devoted to the native
land, its nature and the animal world. The magazine was
supposed to instill in children love for the motherland, nurture
in them the feeling of the native language. These publications -
each depending on their specifics - influenced the formation
or growth of national identity.
The Communist Party observed very closely how the
republic's press development is developing, what its pages are
full of, what their ideological content is. Overstepping the
boundaries of party institutions immediately found a strict
assessment by the governing bodies.
This was the result and consequence of the policy pursued
by NS Khrushchev. On his instructions, the ideologists of the
CPSU, headed by Mikhail Suslov, were engaged in developing a
program for the "prosperity and convergence of nations."
Today, many political scientists, speaking about it, say that the
"flowering" meant inculcating Russian culture to non-Russian
people, and "rapprochement" means their merging. His ideas,
NS Khrushchev, many of which were later, after his removal
from power, were assessed as a manifestation of voluntarism
and subjectivism, and consolidated in the Third Program of the
CPSU, which specified the specific time frame for building
communism in the USSR. About that it was pure water utopia,
people whispered and then. At present, there is no need to
prove all the contrariness of these plans - life itself has proved
this. But in the late 1950s - early 1960s, the party apparatus
seriously engaged in their implementation.
Now it is impossible to answer the question: did the first
person of the state realize the absurdity of his programs or not. After all, more or less sane person understood that his
ideas not only did not eliminate contradictions, the solution of
which provides development, but, on the contrary, creates
them. He called specific deadlines, but could not specifically
answer a specific question: how? For example, speaking of a
new social community-the Soviet people-he asserted that a
single communist nation would grow out of it, but when and
how it would happen, he could not say anything concrete. The
main slogan of that time was: "The Soviet people are the
builder of communism."
The Soviet-Party press, declaring the ethnicity self-worth, in
fact unconsciously sought to level them. This was especially
manifested during the periods of the accomplishment of
significant events. For example, the development of virgin
land, the World Youth Festival in Moscow in 1957, the launch
of the world's first artificial earth satellite, Yuri Gagarin's flight
into space, etc.
However, the growth of the national consciousness of all
nations and nationalities of the Soviet Union forced people to
think about what it is - the "flowering and convergence of
nations"? And the conclusions of many intellectuals from the
republics were directly opposed to the Party's program
settings. It must be stressed here that representatives of the
intelligentsia of different nationalities never denied all the
positive things that their people achieved through cooperation
and mutual assistance, but none of them agreed or supported
the idea of a "full merger of nations", which essentially means
assimilation, absorption by the more numerous nation of
Therefore, the Soviet-Party press, she realized it or not, was
talking about the flowering of nations, about the growth of
their economy, their achievements in science and culture,
nurtured in them a sense of national dignity, reflected on their
national identity, helped identify themselves. And this meant
that the idea of creating a communist super nation could
never be realized.
Thus, the period when N.S. Khrushchev headed the state,
which by the end of his reign was called the great decade, was
woven from contradictions, questionable experiments in all
spheres of life - industry, agriculture, culture, art, literature.
According to our opinion, the only thing that can rightly be
attributed to him is the exposure of Stalin's tyranny and the
restoration of relative democracy and freedom, thanks to
which this historical segment was defined as the "thaw" time.
But at the same time the Soviet system imposed a uniform
standard on all people and all cultures. This unification has
acquired such character that small people have almost
completely lost their ethnic identity and divorced from the
roots of their culture, turning into a faceless mass of the Soviet
people. It is clear that such "internationalism" did not suit
other nations, including the Kazakh, for which the processes of
the 1950s and early 1960s created a threatening situation in its
national development: it became a minority in its national and
state education, and above him hung the threat of slow
Existence of nations and national states causes presence of
the powers threatening their independency and freedom,
striving to control over them and using their national wealth
for their own benefit. That's why the Kazakhstan Mass Media
in order to provide further development of the sovereign state
- the Republic of Kazakhstan - should significantly enhance
mental awareness-building, develop in the citizen’s firm will
and conviction in holiness of the independence of the state
which may ensure the progress of the Kazakh ethnos.
Multinational composition of the Kazakh society implies the
possibility of emergence of interethnic contradictions. They
should not advance into the international dissention and
conflicts. In this issue a special role by the printed media is
played. It was called upon to deliberately approach the issues
of international relations, consider them as one of the most
significant factor of sustainable development and prosperity.
Approval of journalism as ‘the fourth estate’ greatly
depends on its interrelation with the other branches of
government. With these purposes it is necessary to start the
operation of the Mass Media Community Council at the
President of the Republic of Kazakhstan on a regular basis. It
should be supposed to govern by the best interests of the
nation, but not to be a place where people accuse each other.
For national conscience and identity, a great role is played
by the national language. Its loss will inevitably lead to the
threat of losing the national identity. Development of the
Kazakh independent state created all the conditions necessary
for its development. The press takes an active part in this
process. The quality of the Kazakh language print media should
be further increased and its thematic should be diversified in
order to ensure its competitiveness with the Russia language
print media of Kazakhstan and Russia.
The journalism of Kazakhstan Is called upon to actively
discussing the problems cramping the consolidation of the
sense of community, national and state identity. At that one
should find the most reasonable ways for unifying people, for
formation of their sense of the common goals and interests of
all the people living in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
It is necessary to understand that state identity is an
important factor and catalyst of development of national selfconscience
and national identity. It is not less important for
the print media to develop respect towards the national
identity of the other people alongside with the coverage of the
issues connected with the national Identity of the Kazakhs.
In the journalistic declarations of the Kazakh print media
over the researched period one may observe the dynamics
and evolution in the development of the article themes. The
perspective and position of the authors towards this issue at
each stage of development of the Kazakh journalism
underwent changes which provided an opportunity to better
understanding and comprehension by the Kazakh people of
their national identity and their place in the world community.
Despite the difficulties of the current periods, the
Kazakhstan journalism experiencing rises and declines, has
accumulated rich positive experience which provides it with
the opportunity to function quite efficiently and comply with
the modern standards. It is still popular among the mass
The transformation of media text into the Internet
significantly changes its structure. This leads to the emergence
of completely new formats of presentation of information, the
priority place among which is the genre of "multimedia
article". This young and very voluminous genre embodies all
the existing expressive possibilities of journalism, unites the
efforts of a whole team of universal journalists, is created
through the latest information technologies, increasing the
value and effectiveness of information for a modern active
audience. The effectiveness and necessity of implementing a
multimedia article for any convergent edition is obvious. This is
to strengthen and develop the topic of national identity and
national identity of the relevance of multimedia journalism.
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