Knowledge and Perception of Social Media Advertising among Students of
Kogi State University, Anyigba
Israel O* and Oguche EN
Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Social Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
- *Corresponding Author:
- Israel O
Department of Mass Communication
Faculty of Social Arts, University of Nigeria
Received Date: Apr 24, 2018; Accepted Date: Apr 30, 2018; Published Date: May 10, 2018
Citation: Israel O, Oguche EN. Knowledge and Perception of Social Media Advertising among Students of Kogi State University, Anyigba. Global
Media Journal 2018, 16:30.
Copyright: © 2018 Israel O, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Global Media Journal
The development and subsequent acceptance of internetbased social media has brought development to all facets of human endeavor including advertising. This has made advertisers to present their products on social media, where they could meet their prospective target market. This study was based on knowledge and perception of social media advertisements, among undergraduate students of Kogi State University, limited to two departments namely Mass Communication and Theatre Arts. The aim of the study is to assess the purchase habits of students who use social media, as a result of accessing such advertisements on social media. Objectives include ascertaining awareness of social media advertisements, examining the influence of such advertisements and the challenges in such advertisements. The literature reviewed conceptual, empirical and theoretical materials on social media, advertising and marketing, as well as knowledge and perception by the audience. The population of the study derived from the two departments under study was 1575, while sample size was 158. Structured questionnaire was instrument of data collection, while descriptive data analysis technique was used to present, analyze and interpret the data, using SPSS 20 and a reliability test was conducted showing high positive correlation of 0.912**. After data analysis, it was among others, found out that many of the respondents have access to social media, but not many buy products advertised on social media and due to challenges of poor data and epileptic networks, social media advertisements suffer setbacks. It was recommended that manufacturers should ensure that they gain feedback from their audience to enable them plan how to meet their targets.
Online marketing; Social media; Product;
Consumer patronage; Purchase; Advertising
The advent of social media has brought several possibilities
for information exchange and communication between
individuals and publics on various spheres of human
endeavors. It is a tool through which an individual to
communicate with other people all over the world about an
organization, product or service. Internet-based social media
has been around for a very long time. The word ‘social’ means
exchange of thoughts and ideas among parties, individuals and
the groups as members of the society. Media is a system of
communication and interaction between peoples of different
thoughts and views, while social media is the interaction
among people which they create, share, and or exchange
information and ideas in several communities and networks. It
allows creation and exchange. The difference between social
media and traditional media lies in the quality, frequency,
reach, accessibility, usability, immediacy and performance.
Social media technologies can be in different forms such as
magazines, internet forum, weblogs, social blogs, social
networking, pictures, teleconferencing, and social
bookmarking, among others. Advertising on social media gains
attention through website traffic, as well as linkages with
social media sites. It creates contents with the aim of
attracting readers’ attention, while keeping them abreast of
the information. Examples of social media advertisements
include ads placed on Twitter, Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn,
Yelp, Foursquare, Instagram, YouTube, Blogs, among others.
The internet-based social media creates the opportunity for
transactional process of communication between marketers
and consumers and gives abilities to customize messages.
Following the major shift from traditional media to second
generation of internet-based applications, example, Web 2.0 in
the last decade, or what Shih calls the fourth revolution, users
generate, transmit and control communication, holds great
promise to significantly improve marketing efforts with viral
marketing campaigns . This innovation presents
opportunities for social relationships building, not only among
peers, but also between marketers and prospective
consumers. Recent studies show that the corporate adoption of social media by the fastest growing US corporations is now
at record pace . This is because branded social marketing
and campaigns provide additional melting points to foster
consistent interaction between the consumer and the
messages passed by marketers. This constant linkage deepens
consumer–brand relationships, helps marketers explore more
ways of meeting consumer demand and satisfaction, since the
functions of marketers have become easier through
persuasion of consumers to engage with online content.
Messages passed across to the consumers change their
thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, and experiences from
these interactions and form a set of associations with the
brand in consumer memory. There are several strategies
marketers can use within the social media landscape for
branding such as placing paid display advertising, participating
in social networks as a brand persona, developing branded
engagement opportunities for consumer participation within
social networks, and publishing branded content (known as
content marketing or social publishing) in social channels,
using the unique selling points . Brands may utilize social
media marketing as an integrated component in a marketing
communications campaign, as a continuous corporate
communications channel or as a series of micro publicity
specifically designed for digital exposure.
In addition, social media has an interpersonal aspect in that,
normative and informational influences may work for, or
against the brand or product, depending on consumer
engagement  Consumers informatively and strategically
select the brands they discuss on the pages of social media to
construct positive or negative images. Also, marketers care
about these brand choices because a brand commitment
connects an individual to stable set of self-meanings, which
leads to purchase behavior. Self-expansion theory suggests
consumers communicate with and about brands due to
overlapping identities and para social relationships with the
brands. Patronage of brands depends on the relationships
attached to such brands by consumers. Brands can suffer if
consumers feel the relationship is not consistent with the
consumer's identity. Information about relationship brands is
processed at a higher level of abstraction on the minds of the
consumers and its difference can lead to low patronage from
However, the differences between the different types of
social media have become increasingly merged. For example,
Kailani and Kumar argue that Twitter, as a combination of
broadcasting service and social network, classes as a "social
broadcasting technology". In response to this change,
advertisers are moving away from the traditional media to the
new media, particularly social media, where they meet their
audience easily. An increasing number of scholars have sought
to study and measure the impact of social media. Tactics such
as advertising within a social network have not been analyzed
professionally. The new generation of advertising makes it
possible to achieve data mining technologies and enable
advertisers to customize messages in their advertisements to
be in tune with the user’s choice .
In today’s technology-driven world, social media sites have
become an avenue where middlemen can extend their
marketing campaigns to a wider spectrum of consumers. Chi
 defines social media marketing as a “connection between
brands and consumers, while offering a personal channel and
currency for user centered networking and social interaction.”
The tools and strategies for communicating with consumers
have changed greatly with the advent of social media;
therefore, businesses must learn how to use social media in a
way that is consistent with their business plan if they have to
maintain their markets. This is especially necessary for
companies striving to gain a competitive advantage.
With the increased growth of online social media use
worldwide, social networking websites (SNWs) have become
one of the most prominent features in the Web 2.0 era.
According to Kaplan and Haenlein , social media is defined
as “a group of Internet-based applications and technological
foundations of Web 2.0, and that allows the creation and
exchange of User Generated Content.” Mahmood et al. 
define SNWs as a web-based service that allows individuals to
construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded
system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a
connection, and view and navigate their list of connections
and those made by others within the structure.
The landscape and nomenclature of these connections may
vary from site to site. Simply put, SNWs enable users to build
personal profiles, publish information, facilitate discussion,
share networks, experiences and knowledge within a definite
system . Users of these SNWs are not only passive content
consumers but also active content contributors. As such, given
their ever-increasing popularity and reach, SNWs have shown a
great potentials in terms of influencing the way people mingle,
entertain, consume information, do shopping and make
decisions, which, in turn, have more and more driven
marketers to develop marketing approaches that would allow
them to shape and monitor users’ online communications on
SNWs as well as engage them with their brands more willingly
Internet saturation in Nigeria is very high. Internet users in
Nigeria were 28 million in 2013 and increasing enormously
over the years. Most of them are active in business purposes.
One of the benefits of internet is that it helps businesses to
reach consumer all over the world, so that they can select,
survey, and purchase products and services from businesses
around the world, without travelling to the locations. An
important agent of consumer socialization are the social
networks which provide a necessary space for people to
communicate through the Internet by using social media.
However, there is only a small number of studies on social
media advertising and how consumer perceive on its value in
Nigeria, especially among students of tertiary institutions.
Against this backdrop, it becomes necessary to assess
knowledge and perception of social media advertising among
undergraduate students of Kogi State University, Anyigba. This
was achieved through ascertaining their level of awareness of
social media advertising, whether it triggers them to buy such products advertised and the challenges in social media
Aim and Objectives of the Study
This study aims at boosting effectiveness of social media
advertisements among youths.
The objectives include:
• To examine the level of awareness of social media
advertising among students of Kogi State University,
• To find out the influence of social media advertisements on
buying of goods among students of Kogi State University,
• To examine the challenges in packaging and accessing
social media advertising.
Social Media Advertising and Internet
To consider social networks as marketing tools an advertiser
must understand every aspect of it. For better understanding
of the meaning of social media, there is need to first define
web 2.0 - a term that describes a new way in which end users
use the World Wide Web, a place where content is
continuously altered by all operators in a sharing and
collaborative way . “It has much more to do with what
people are doing with the technology than the technology
itself, for rather than merely retrieving information, users are
now creating and consuming it, and hence adding value to the
websites that permit them to do so” . Web 2.0 has evolved
from simple information retrieval to systemic interoperability
and partnership to achieve greater results .
Kaplan and Haenlein , define social media sites as “a
group of internet-based applications that build on the
ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and
allow the creation and exchange of user generated content.”
Rahim et al.  cited O’Reilly’s definition: “social media is a
broad term that describes software tools that create user
generated content that can be shared.” However, there are
some basic conditions necessary for a website to meet the
requirements as a social network website. First, the site must
contain user profiles, secondly, it must have content, a method
that permits users to connect with one another and post
comments on one another’s pages as well as join virtual
groups based on common interests such as fashion or politics
The phrase ‘social networking sites’ is often used
interchangeably with social media. However, social media
differs because it allows participants to unite by generating
and exchanging personal information profiles and inviting
friends and colleagues to have access to those profiles .
Therefore, social media is the atmosphere in which social
networking takes place and has improved the way in which
consumers gather information and make buying decisions.
Marketing communications practitioners are swamped with new ideas and technologies that usually provide great
expectations but do not live up to their exaggerations. In an
era when the media is segmenting its audience and advertisers
are critically questioning the cost and effectiveness of older
media, particularly among younger generation, there is high
surge in social media use by advertisers. For example, Nielsen
estimate there are 210.1 million US, 76.6 million Japanese, 121
million Brazilian and 80 million Nigerian consumers who
accessed social networks and blogs in December 2015 alone.
In Australia, the Internet reaches a potential audience of over
11 million users of which more than 70% use a social network;
Facebook has over 8 million registered users and Twitter has
800,000 registered followers. Moreover, the McCann tracker
study found that active users of blogs grew from 54-77%
within two years. The number having written a blog increased
from 28% to 45% and also notably people watching video clips
online jumped from 32% in 2006 to 83% in 2008 . Kaplan
and Haenlein  further suggests the transition of social media
to a significant marketing communications tool is due to a
combination of technological drivers such as bandwidth;
economic drivers such as user access to more tools to develop
User Generated Content (UGC); and social drivers such as the
generation of IT savvy youth recently become consumers with
purchasing power. However, the social media are no longer the
domain of Generation Y; older generations are heavy social
networkers with Facebook’s largest demographic now women
aged 55 and older. If the maxim that advertisers will ultimately
follow target audiences is something to uphold, then social
media’s appeal to unrestrained and difficult to reach audiences
should somehow translate into commercial success for
marketers and social media operators.
Indeed, social media’s influence promises some sort of
marketing communications innovation. For instance, global
brand Pepsi will not be advertising during the Super Bowl,
instead opting for a digital social media campaign they say will
“help their customers better understand what Pepsi stands
for”. By contrast, Pepsi’s main competitor, Coca-Cola, will run
two spots during the Super Bowl, yet these advertisements
will direct viewers to social media sites linked to its charitable
activities. Consumers searching online for information about a
product, or brands, not only gain access to corporate
marketing materials, they now also have access to product
reviews, opinions and commentary from other consumers .
Social media is also building a business opportunity for
driving purchasing behaviour with research by EDI 
showing that a large group of consumers surveyed relied on
various types of social media websites as much as company
websites for product and brand information and that nearly
half of those made a purchase decision based on what they
know about the product. Nevertheless, although social media
applications are controlled by users, trend data is not yet
convincing with respect to who is generating, and accessing
information . Consumer’s interaction on social media has
become crucial to marketers, considering its center place in
the current world. One stream of research suggests the
existence of a “loyalty ladder” in social networking sites that
splits users into categories such as: “lurkers” (those who are
reticent to contribute to sites); “tourists” (those who post comments but demonstrate no commitment to a network);
“minglers” (those who post with no regularity or frequency);
and “evangelists/insiders” (those who are enthusiastic, expert
and regular in their contributions).
Consumers’ Sentiment toward Marketing (CSM) is a factor
considered by researchers to measure how well costumers will
perceive social media marketing. CSM is defined as a concept
which refers to the general feelings that consumers have for
marketing and the marketplace . An individual’s
perception of the overall marketplace plays a key role in
whether or not they are motivated to partake in consumption
activities . In order to birth a successful marketing
campaign via social media, a consumer must be open to the
innovations through technology. Consumer technology
readiness is defined as “people’s propensity to embrace and
use new technologies for accomplishing goals at home and
work” This is important for advertisers to remember when
marketing on social networks because if their intended target
market does not use social media, is not familiar with it, or
perceives it negatively, then their social media marketing will
be unrewarding. Analysis of technology readiness can
determine if marketing via interactive advertising would be a
good fit for an advertiser’s target market.
Social media has advanced from simply providing a platform
for individuals to staying in touch with their family and friends.
Now it is a place where consumers can learn more about their
favorite organizations and the products they sell. Marketers
and retailers are utilizing these sites as a new way to reach
prospective consumers and provide a new way to shop.
Technology related developments such as the rise of powerful
search engines, advanced mobile devices and interfaces, peerto-
peer communication vehicles, and online social networks
have extended marketers’ ability to reach shoppers through
new touch points . Social media advertising has numerous
variables to creating optimistic and pessimistic perceptions
among the teeming audience. These include product
awareness, advertising value, in formativeness, entertainment
Product awareness is considered one of the major pillars
of consumer-based brand equity . It consists of consumer
knowledge of brand benefits, slogan, features, tag line and
other elements. Bampo et al.  describe building product
awareness as the way of ensuring probable customer in the
certain categories. Product awareness is the information about
the particular products a company offers, especially compared
to those offered by its competitors. It is measured through
tracking studies and surveys and creates familiarity among
consumers about the product which includes both brand recall
as well as brand reorganization.
Advertising value is a benchmark for advertising efficacy
and may serve as an index of customer satisfaction with the
communication strategies of an organization. It is defined as “a
subjective evaluation of the relative worth or utility of
advertising to consumers” . A value can be described as a
specific conduct or state is personally-psychologically or
socially-culturally preferable to a converse in an individual’s
conviction to a converse mode of conduct or an opposite end state of existence. Social networking sites emerged as one of
the most powerful means for advertising across the globe.
Social media may serve as a means for many marketing
activities including customer relationship management,
customer service, buyer research, lead generation, sales
promotion delivery channel, paid advertising channel, and
branding. Regardless of the goal, information about the brand
must be pertinent to the consumer if you want the consumer
to engage with a brand in self-relevant ways . As noted,
marketers categorize social media as a branding channel first
and foremost , as such, branded social media activities can
be used to increase brand awareness and brand liking,
promote customer engagement and loyalty, inspire consumer
word-of-mouth communication about the brand, and
potentially drive traffic to brand locations on and offline. These
branded social activities rely on social networks and may
involve activities such as continuing business-to-consumer
dialogue, socially published branded content (e.g., white
papers), engagement experiences (e.g., Office Max's Elf
Yourself), and the social presence and participation of a brand
The 2013 Social Media Industry Report noted that marketers
may seek increased opportunities to rendering target
audiences to the brand message, increased traffic to brand
Web sites, improved search rankings, and more loyalty among
consumers . Customer engagement is another common
objective; a study in 2012 found that 78% of marketers report
using social media to enhance customer commitment.
Customer engagement is behavior-based, extends beyond
purchase, and has a brand or firm focus. Customers may
engage along five characteristics including valence (value),
form (type of resources utilized), scope (temporal and
geographic), impact, and customer goals for commitment.
One of the main motivations for social media is the
exchange of information. Given the information-orientation of
the social media, it is very useful for the users of these social
media to be interested in informative advertising sites. The
cited literature relates perceived information value of
advertising to consumer’s overall attitudes towards
advertising. It also said that perceived information value
towards advertising is important for attitudes towards
traditional advertising. Social media has existed for years but
has recently become one of the most influential sources of
advertising and news updates due to the launch of the
Internet platforms on Twitter and Facebook which provide the
chance for social networking. Outlets of social media include
blog sites such as Word Press and Blogspot, micro blogging
such as Twitter, online magazines through sites content
communities such as YouTube, and Flickr.
Entertainment of advertising information is significantly
related to advertising value . A high degree of participation
and pleasure during interaction with social media leads to
concurrent subjective perceptions of positive effect and mood
of the individuals. People’s feeling of enjoyment associated
with advertisements play the greatest role in accounting for
their overall attitudes towards them. Social media users like
advertisements that engage them, such as playing games to win ring tones. Social media has come a long way as a
marketing channel. This is because it gives everyone a global
platform from which to be heard. When you Tweet or “like”
something on the social media, the entire world is your
audience. Entertainment send out its full ability to satisfy
individuals needs for escapism, enjoyment, diversion or
emotional release .
The irritation variable serves as a negative indicator, as for
the informativeness and entertainment variables are positive.
Obviously, social media is a well-oiled marketing machine,
ideal for letting individuals know about something new, finding
out what people liked or do not like about a show, or simply
creating buzz for a product that could use a little extra backing.
But somehow, consumers are less likely to be persuaded by
advertising as they perceived it as unpleasant, infuriating or
Survey research design was used for this study, while
structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The
population of the study was derived from the undergraduate
population of Kogi State University, Anyigba, fixed for 22, 850
for the 2016/17 academic session. This study was limited to
the Faculties of Arts and Social Sciences, while Theatre Arts
and Mass Communication departments were selected
respectively. This is because they are both four-year courses
and use same calendar. There are 855 students in mass
communication department, while Theatre Arts department
has 720. This brings the total population to 855+720=1575.
Out of this total sample size of 10 percent was selected from
each of the departments as follows:
Therefore, the sample size is 158.
The selection of 10 percent sample size was in the
recommendations of Nwanna Ogbuoshi [20,21] that for a
population of many hundreds, a ten percent sample size will
suffice, to achieve representativeness in the study. Descriptive
data analysis was used to present and analyze the primary
data, while face validity was used to check the authenticity of
the instrument by distributing three copies for assessment and
corrections by four senior lecturers in both Mass
Communication and Theatre Arts departments. The reliability
of the instrument was tested using Pearson’s R correlation
coefficient, with SPSS 20 producing a result of high positive
correlation of 0.912**.
Data Analysis and Discussion
From the population and sampling, there are 158
respondents in all. These respondents were administered
questionnaire, while all were retrieved. The respondents were
of both sexes of male (56%) and female (44%). This is because
the administration of questionnaire was faceless, giving equal opportunities to both sexes to participate. Their age brackets
were between 15 and 45, with most concentration on
between 15 and 39 (82%). Concerning their levels of study,
22% were in 100 level, while 25% were in 200 level. Also, 30%
were in 300 levels while 23% were in 400 level in both
departments of Mass Communication and Music (Table 1).
Table 1: Awareness of Social Media Advertising.
|Use of Social Media
|Frequency of Using Social Media
|Twice a day
|3-5 times daily
|Twice a week
|Once a week
|Awareness of Ads on Social Media
|Knowledge on Products Ads
|Categories of Products
The above table is a summary of awareness level of social
media advertising among the respondents. All the respondents
use social media but use them at different frequencies. While
46.2% use social media up to 3-5 times in a day, others use it
twice daily (33%), twice a week (5.1%), once a week (8.2%)
and sparingly (7%). The implications of this is that a bulk of the
respondents use social media more frequently than others,
but at different pace, depending on what they need to use it
for at a particular time. Those who use it sparingly may be
doing so because they may not have smart phones in which social media applications are inbuilt and made easier to access
or they are residents in places where power supply is epileptic.
Awareness of social media advertisements is a common
thing for all social media users, as indicated in the table, where
all the respondents agreed that they are aware of social media
ads. This is because advertisements are played on social media
in order to create more awareness to the millions of
prospective customers. In addition, 65.2% of the respondents
agree that they are aware of the products advertised on social
media and have knowledge about them before such ads are
placed, while 34.8% declined having such knowledge.
This depends largely on their frequency of access and
whether they deliberately look for ads and social media. There
are several categories of products advertised on social media,
namely; stationeries, edible products, equipment, agricultural
products and others. In the table, majority of the respondents
(58%) went for others because they may not determine when
such ads are placed on their social media pages.
However, some of the respondents (12.7%) went for
stationeries, some (10.8%) went for equipment, edible
products (8.9%) and agricultural products (9.5%). The choices
made by those who chose the stationeries may not be far from
the fact that they are students and need stationeries to cope
with their studies, but those who chose agricultural and edible
products may have done so according to their occupation or
parents occupation, which may make them look for such
information from social media ads.
Access to social media is capable of creating awareness
about needs not met hitherto by the audience. This was
confirmed by the research conducted by Kai and that social
media has become a place where needs are met, where
satisfaction are derived for such needs and where goals and
Based on this findings, the respondents awareness rate of
social media advertisements have become veritable tools for
meeting up their specific and general needs in the society. In
another remove, social media can be useful for identification
and recognition of needs longed for by the users or audience.
This is possible through identification with the ads played and
with the products, thereby making the audience and users to
buy with informed decisions.
According to Mitchell , perceived enjoyment can have
an important influence on the adoption of a self-service
technology. Prior research has shown that enjoyment to be a
key element for consumers’ online surfing and even shopping
behavior. Hassanein and Head  found that the level of
enjoyment derived from using social networks is the strongest
positive influence on users’ attitudes or intentions with regard
to social networks. This was corroborated by Chu  that
promoting social media advertisements can go a long way in
recognition of needs to be met by the teeming users, hence
many users go on social media to seek for those needs through
the advertisements displayed thereon (Table 2).
Table 2: Influence of Social Media Advertising on Students’ Perception in Kogi State University.
|Whether Social Media Ads triggers buying habits
|Frequency of buying advertised
|Once a month
|Once in a While
|Satisfaction with Ads on Social Media
|Feelings about Products advertised on social media
From the analysis in the table, it could be deduced that
most of the respondents (73%) do not buy products because
such products have been advertised. In other words, only
about 27% agree that they buy products based on the ads they
access on various social media. This may be as a result of their
strong decisions about products purchases attitudes such as
sensual, impulse and habitual purchases. According to Hill,
Foster and Chirs , most consumers decide on products based
on informed choices and information provided by previous
users of the products advertised. This means that
advertisements may not achieve their aims but act as
reminders on the existence of the products, while leaving the
prospective consumers to make informed decisions, habitual
purchases, impulsive buying and sensual purchases. In
addition, in frequency of purchases of advertised precuts, only
34.2% of the respondents said they buy sparingly, meaning
they do not always buy based on the advertisements provided
unless the need arises. To this set of respondents, products
seen on social media ads are the last resorts, after all other
options have failed.
Medium characteristics and antecedent beliefs as well as
perceived risk play critical roles in consumer decision-making
and behaviors Prior research has indicated that the probability
of consumers’ choosing a channel increases significantly if
their confidence in that channel is high and the perceived risk
is low. For example, several studies have illustrated the impact of perceived risk on consumer online purchase decisionmaking
and behaviors [7,23,25]. Again, 29% of the
respondents buy such products once in a while, based on the
information they get from the social media about the
products. It should be noted that apart from direct advertising
on the various pages of social media, there are organizations
pages on social media where people are allowed to air their
views on the use of such products. In this case, such pages are
accessed by the users who are told to like them for
information about their products. In this case ht influence of
such messages will be higher than the pop-up ads on the
prospects walls. Only 12% and 13% buy products advertised
either once in a month or always, respectively, while another
12% seldom do so. There are other sources of accessing such
information apart from social media. This is in line with the
postulations of mediamorphosis theory that social media did
not come up as counteracting the existence of the
conventional media, but as complements to them in the
societal roles. The place of social media ads are also
corroborated by the conventional media which are always
accessed by the teeming audience (Table 3).
Table 3: The Challenges of Social Media Advertising.
|Challenges of Social Media Ads
|Taken for granted
|Expensive to run
|Poor Internet access
|All of the above
|Message Package and Appeal
Several challenges are adduced against social media
advertising, according to Table 3. These include the fact that
social media advertisements are taken for granted by the
users, such that they do not pay attention to such side pop-ups
on their social media pages, as indicated by 13.9% of the
respondents. Also, 11.4% was of the opinions that social media
ads are expensive to run considering that some of them need
special advertising agencies to cover such messages and
promote the needed products, while 30.4% of the respondents
complained about poor internet access hindering them from
accessing such messages. In this case, most of the users may
not endeavor to wait to play some videos used as ads on social
media basis since their data may not be enough or poor
network access at a particular time. However, 32.3% of the
respondents opted for the ‘all of the above’ which meant that
all the problems adduced are related to social media ads, both
to the manufacturer and the prospective consumers.
According to the metamorphoses theoretical postulations, use
of technology for business purposes can boost sales if the
factors militating against such use are tackled . Social
media advertisements are predicated on the belief that
prospective consumers can only identify products that meet
up their immediate needs for esteem, hunger, association and
appeal, at a particular point in time. Therefore, advertisements
should targets the audience by identifying with the problems
that may hinder such messages, while promoting the products
for acceptance by prospective consumers. In developing
societies, such as Nigeria, social media advertisements may
not carry everybody in the society along. For this reason,
products advertised on social media have the youth as targets.
This means that most universal age products may not be
advertised on social media, since most old people may not
have access to such technological innovations. This goes with
the findings by Hill, Foster and Chirs that most social media
messages have specific targets in social media since the
attitudes of the young age determines the contents of social
On message package and appeal by the social media ads,
most of the respondents (55.1%) were of the view that the
message appeals used on social media advertisements do not
lure them to buy such products, unlike the 44% who agreed to
have such appeals. This analysis shows that both the
respondents who chose the yes and no options may have done
so because they have their personal experiences about using
social media and focus on the products advertised on them.
Some virtual brand community research focused on the
concept of social characteristics and group norms as an aspect
that greatly influences online groups’ buying behaviour. The
nature and culture of social media groups affect the ways
members of such groups interpret and attach meaning to
brands and products . Group norms represent the set of
common goals, standards, and values that the group members
follow. Social identity refers to the values and beliefs that
influence group related behaviour . Members of a strong
social group will more likely to have group intentions to accept
advertising in online communities . For instance, if a
Facebook group is centered on luxury brands, then ads
pertaining to high-end products are more relevant to members
of the audience. Some members consume ads more easily by
accepting the meanings in which they contain, while others
interpret the ads by attaching meaning to the brand
represented based on their own experiences .
Conclusion and Recommendations
This study shows the relationship among perception,
knowledge and advertising based on social media messages by
students of Kogi State University, Anyigba. Social media
advertising affects most of the students who use same on a
daily basis. Also, the understanding of consumer’s interaction
with social media and how it could be exploited for advertising
purposes is still limited as seen in this study, and as a result, it
may not be designed to meet their potentials of satisfying the
consumer and generate business value. In addition, consumers
gain a new role with the advent of social media, since they use it by themselves, hence, appealing to them will be by being
informative and persuasive instead of dwelling on
entertainment and spamming that irritates users, as some of
social media advertisers believed as the way to attract
attention. Based on the findings, the following
recommendations have been made:
• Manufacturers intending to use social media for
advertisements should ensure that most products
presented to the audience be based on youth, since most
users of social media are of youthful age.
• More awareness can be created on how effective to use
social media advertisements can be for products sale and
buying habits among prospective consumers.
• Care should be taken by the advertising agencies to create
rooms for feedback from the users of social media upon
which their ads are placed. This is to ascertain whether
such information get to the targets audience.
• Market research should also be carried out by
manufacturers to find out the real target markets in order
to know the kind of messages meant for them.
• Government, through the Advertising Practitioners Council
of Nigeria (APCON), should ensure more regulations
guiding the social media advertisements and products. This
will guide against the misuse of such messages by the
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