Modeling Linguistic Communication in a Foreign Language Learning
Utebaliyeva GY1*, Yesbulatova RM2 and Kazmagambetova AS3
1Professor, Doctor of Philology, Department of language and general educational preparation of foreigners, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan
2Assistant professor, Candidate of Philology, Kazakhstan
3Acting Associate professor, Candidate of Philology, Kazakhstan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Utebaliyeva GY
Professor, Doctor of Philology
Department of language and general educational preparation of foreigners
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty
al-Farabi Ave., 71, 050040, Kazakhstan
Tel: 8 (727) 221-10-00
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Received date: Feb 25, 2016; Accepted date: Feb 29, 2016; Published date: Mar 05, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Utebaliyeva GY, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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One of the aspects of the theory of language acquisition and the theory of linguistic personality is the problem of teaching an adult personality a foreign language. In the development of this aspect, the research data on the biand multilingualism are taken into account. The article proposes a technique for describing the process of acquisition of a foreign language based on a communicative-cognitive model and the technology for foreign language teaching in the context of its functioning. The communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality is aimed at linguistic communication. A verbal conversation that occurs in the process of linguistic communication carries the activity, which is performed by speaking personalities – a subject of the communicative-cognitive activity and a subject of the teaching activity. This type of activity or speech activity of a speaking personality is considered in the context of a dialogue. The authors propose the typology of dialogues and the principles of modeling a linguistic communication for educational purposes. The communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality needs constant research and description as the study of this aspect helps to optimize and improve the process of foreign language acquisition.
Foreign language; Secondary linguistic personality; Linguistic activity; Communicative-cognitive activity; Dialog; Co-operative dialogue; Cognitive monologue
Statement of the problem and research objectives
In today's world, the development of cultural, scientific, economic, and simply human contacts requires knowledge of not one or two, but more languages. The continued interest in the study of languages in Kazakhstan is a guarantee that the biand multilingualism were and remain the relevant aspects of the study of language acquisition theory and the theory of linguistic personality. In the context of these studies, the works aimed at studying the cognitive potential of a linguistic personality, the activity of a secondary linguistic personality acquiring a foreign language are of particular importance. The scope of these interests includes the development of new teaching technologies integrating a variety of techniques, methods of formation of linguistic knowledge, and abundant practice for the subject of cognition.
The research related to the study of the cognitive aspects of the formation of linguistic knowledge, their conscious acquisition by a secondary linguistic personality allow a certain degree of understanding of the mechanism of acquisition of a foreign language and expanding the research paradigm of biand multilingualism, making the data direction integrative. The desire to understand the processes of gaining foreign speech by adults gave impetus to research on the most effective approaches to teaching this age group. Following the authors of the traditional and intensive directions in language teaching, we attempt to resolve the issue of how to help an adult to acquire a linguistic speech at almost the same degree of freedom as if it were his own. We try to consider the process of language acquisition from the viewpoint of the parties directly involved into the process. In this respect, the description of the process of acquiring a foreign language from the point of view of its users and those who directly generate a secondary linguistic personality acquires not only a supersubjective character, but also allows modeling the cognitive and teaching activity with the purpose of explication of these processes for the improvement of teaching methods and their creative use.
To this end, we have developed an integrative theory of acquisition of a foreign language- a theoretical and methodological base of communicative-cognitive model of acquisition of a foreign language and the foreign language learning technology in terms of its functioning. The awareness of the importance and necessity of the Kazakh language, the Russian language, as well as one or more foreign languages in Kazakhstan becomes the basis for the creation of educational technology that would contribute to maintaining interest and motivation to learn languages. The relevance of this study is confirmed by an analysis of the applied aspects of integrative theory of acquisition of a foreign language, description of technology of teaching a foreign language in the conditions of its functioning based on the communicative-cognitive model of acquisition of a foreign language .
Substantiation of the subject and method of research
Investigation of the process of acquiring a foreign language by adult users is based on the substantiation of the communicative-cognitive model of acquisition of a foreign language. Under the communicative-cognitive model of the foreign language acquisition we understand the description of the mechanism of acquiring a foreign language as a set of processes of interaction of all components of the model that determine the perception of a foreign language as a cognitive activity in order to demonstrate the positive impact of the integrative method of stimulating and optimizing the cognitive activity of adult users in the process of their acquiring a target language. The communicative-cognitive model of a foreign language acquisition involves a description of the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality and is the optimal form of explication inaccessible to direct study of latent processes of cognitive activity. Implementing the communicative-cognitive activity is the activity of expressing and providing the thought processes, their structure and dynamics in the process of cognition and communication. This activity is shown based on the linguistic consciousness in verbal thinking at the level of transactions with values and meanings assigned to linguistic signs. The manifestation of communicative-cognitive activity in verbal thinking implies its implementation in the process of external and internal speech.
The communicative-cognitive activity in a foreign language is an active, conscious activity of a secondary linguistic personality aimed at the formation of the conceptual system of a target language in the structure of the communicative competence for the materialization of the entire system of individual knowledge of a secondary linguistic personality and acquiring the new knowledge by means of the acquired language. The communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality is determined by the specific structure (phase and level), the procedural and systemic characteristics of the components of cognition.
The selection of a model as a form of explication of the phenomenon of a foreign language acquisition is determined by the fact that by using the concept model and its description, we are able to explain the inaccessible to direct study latent processes of cognitive activity associated with the human cognition of the condition and processes of formation of the new language skills on the basis of the available linguistic and extra-linguistic knowledge. In this case, the model becomes an analog of the heuristic representation in our minds of the structure of the process under study and the linguistic phenomena [2-4].
Modeling Linguistic Communication
A teaching dialogue
The communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality begins with the linguistic communication. The verbal conversational communication that occurs in the process of linguistic communication carries the activity of the following context: the verbal communication and the verbal impact carried out by the speaking personalities – a subject of the communicative-cognitive activity and a subject of the teaching activity. The researchers define this type of activity or speech activity of a speaking personality as the "discourse" and the dialogue between the two speaking personalities -as a "two-voice discourse" .
From a wide range of definitions of the term "discourse", which has many meanings in linguistics [6-10], we decided on the following interpretation of discourse: discourse is related to the cognitive processes and is associated with the speech production and the creation of a piece of speech work . Because of the cognitive activity of a speaking individual , discourse is a reflection of the cognitive structures in terms of linguistic forms . E.S. Kubriakova, making an analysis of discourse studies, notes that "discourse is a special form of language use, which is carried out in special purposes – "to express a special mentality" ; it is not only the language in action, but also the language as a component of a particular social activity of people as an indispensable component of this activity itself” . As a cognitive set course of social interaction between the participants of linguistic communication, discourse is determined by their common ability to organize linguistically this interaction. In this interaction, the use of language is a procedural activity, "which has all the dynamic characteristics of the activity as such, has the means for its implementation, has its result (text), but most importantly, has the performers and their purposes" (emphasis added by the quote’s author) .
A "two-voice discourse"  or a dialogue is a verbal embodiment of the speaker’s inner speech under conditions of a direct exchange of ideas with the listener; it is an alternating chain of sentences formed by alternation of statements of the two participants of a speech act; it is a so-called "cycle of speech" [16-18]. Thus, a dialogue carried out by the participants of the linguistic communication for the implementation of the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality is the generation of ideas associated with the solution of cognitive or communicative tasks. The dialogue implemented to meet the cognitive and communicative goals of the secondary linguistic personality in the course of communicative-cognitive activity is defined as a teaching dialogue. The main objective of the teaching dialogue carried out to implement the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality is the achievement of mutual understanding and agreement between the participants of linguistic communication (a secondary linguistic personality and a native speaker) in the solution of an academic objective pursuing the cognitive and communicative purposes. The goal-orientedness, as a dialogue parameter, defines the relationship of individual utterances, speakers, and genres of communication , of which we distinguish the following:
An informative dialogue.
A prescriptive dialogue.
The exchange of views in order to take a decision or ascertain the truth.
A dialogue that aims at establishing or regulating the interpersonal relations.
An intellectual dialogue.
It is in these genres that the teaching dialogues are built for the implementation of the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality. The genre names determine the semantic, structural, compositional, and functional content of the dialogue. Thus, an information dialog contains the information on the phenomenon under study. The pragmatic goal of the information dialogue is to solve the problem of information that requires a secondary linguistic personality to provide the most adequate to the task conditions consideration with the minimum of permissible interpretations. As a rule, the content of the information is determined by the theme of the dialogue, information on the studied linguistic phenomena. In this dialogue genre, the explanatory part of the lesson is built, which is aimed at the explication of grammatical material. Organization of the explanatory part of the lesson in the genre of the information dialogue is the best form of presentation of the grammatical material of the subject as the goals (pragmatic, cognitive and communicative) implemented with the help of an information dialogue coincide. The prescriptive dialog contains an algorithm of action for solving the problem, the requirements on what, how, and in what sequence to perform the actions necessary to obtain a positive result. The exchange of views in order to take a decision or ascertain the truth, a dialogue that aims at establishing or regulating the interpersonal relations, and an intellectual dialogue demonstrate the existing and the acquired in the course of the communicative-cognitive activity knowledge and skills, and are executed in the form of exercises and special assignments. All dialogues are pragmatically and communicatively oriented as they are based on the principle of questions and answers, and exchange of utterances.
Linguodidactic principles of modeling linguistic communication
When organizing and conducting a dialogue in the course of the communicative-cognitive activity, the following issues should be considered:
The need for communication of a secondary linguistic personality;
The causal relationships that determine the content of a dialogue;
An original gap in knowledge of a native speaker and a secondary linguistic personality;
The possibility of varying interpretations of the information and knowledge by the participants of linguistic communication.
Modeling the linguistic communication for the implementation of communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality through dialogue should obey certain linguodidactic principles:
The utterances constituting a dialogue should be connected with each other in structural, compositional, semantic, and functional terms, and make a dialogical unity;
An "implicative" connection should exist between the utterances of a dialogical unity : the structure and semantics of the first initiating utterance must determine the form and content of a response utterance;
the relations based on the principle of "stimulus-response" should be established between the utterances of a dialogical unity: each original utterance must produce a response utterance;
The ways of expressing the original utterance must be available to perception, i.e. the communicative intention of the initiator of a dialogue should be presented with the sentences of those structural-communicative types that allow the participants of a dialogue to interpret them adequately to the situation and task conditions;
The response utterance should form an integral semantic plan of a dialogical unity, and the adequacy of the original utterance perception can be judged thereon;
The conversational turntaking should always focus on the changes in the information state of communicants after each utterance;
A dialogical unity must differ with the semantic interconnectedness of its constituent utterances, syntactic isolation, and communicative completeness .
Implementations of the above principles contribute to the preservation of the integrity of the thematic dialogue as a prerequisite for contributing to understanding the language of communication participants. The thematic organization of the dialogue is formalized in a frame scripts that provide the adequate cognitive knowledge processing . The subject of a dialogue reflects the content of that conceptual complex, which is owned and operated by a secondary linguistic personality in the process of communicative-cognitive activity when executing a teaching task. The theme of a dialogue is essential to update the knowledge of the dialogue partners. The mechanism of perception and understanding of the dialogical utterances is based on the comparison of semantic information contained therein with the fixed universal schemes, with respect to which interpretation of an event, situation, or fact takes place .
The most optimal for creating the linguistic of communication is a "dialogical unison unity" of the questionanswer type when utterances of the person who asks and the person who responds are accompanied by the support from the addressee (a native speaker), and expressing the hope that the assumption expressed will receive an adequate response. According to researchers, in the case of unison dialogical unities, a certain ideal of a tolerant dialog partner appears [18,21].
The successful course of linguistic communication contributes to the common memory and common language skills of the subject of communicative-cognitive activity and the subject of teaching activities. It is therefore important to develop common understanding of the strategy, for the purpose of which there should be developed a strict sequence of actions in the execution of teaching problems, the overall explanatory sign system; the adaptation of linguistic material in accordance with the level of proficiency of a secondary linguistic personality to its cognitive style of language acquisition should be carried out. Knowledge must be accessible, "any communication about specific facts, events, and developments carried out by bringing these assistants under the general name, is equally interpreted by all communicants" .
Dialogic form of communication, selectable linguistic communication for the participants the explication of linguistic phenomena as a teaching appointment or acquisition strategy is directly linked to the formation of meaning, which in turn contributes to an optimal understanding of incoming information and adequate conditions of the learning task to interpret it.
To implement the learning objectives for the implementation of communicative-cognitive activity of the secondary linguistic personality selected co-operative type of dialogue .
The obligatory components of the structure of a cooperative dialogue are as follows:
The subject of the cognitive-communicative activity (a secondary linguistic personality);
The subject of teaching (a model of native speaker-a teacher/native speaker);
The discourse of the subject of training, the content of which is determined by the teaching objectives, includes explication of linguistic material and initiating utterances with specific information in a target language;
The discourse of the subject of communicative-cognitive activity, which is a set of utterances (questions and assumptions) in a target language allowing a secondary linguistic personality to formulate one’s own variant of answer/verbal response to the information received;
A cognitive monologue in a target language, which is a comment in a target language that includes reflections on the choice of linguistic means, and utterance of one’s own thoughts associated with the interpretation of what one has heard/read, demonstrates the process of understanding the information received, and contains the answer/solution to a teaching task.
The discourse of a secondary linguistic personality involved into the linguistic communication for the implementation of communicative-cognitive activity is the result of cognitive activity planning, internal programming, internal pronouncing, and external speech generation. Cognitive monologue created in the course of the task performance is a form of discourse of a secondary linguistic personality. On the one hand, a cognitive monologue is a component of internal speech, the language used by the secondary personality in dealing with a teaching task, having cognitive and communicative purpose. On the other hand, a cognitive monologue is thinking aloud on actions taken to address the mental problems of choice token, grammatical forms, correct word spelling. In the process of cognitive monologue, a prepared speech utterance corresponds to the conditions of the task. Making up a cognitive monologue is one of the strategies of mastering by a secondary linguistic personality the style and method of thinking in the target language. We see the ability to make up a cognitive monologue as a manifestation of the consciousness of the teaching process, the ability to live the thought formed by means of the target language. A cognitive monologue statement can be independent and considered as a part of the co-operative dialogue since the formation of cognitive skills to build a monologue going on in the dialogue with the teacher building his teaching activities according to a specially designed program. Cognitive monologue is a contact establishing means between a foreign language speaker and a teacher/native speaker allowing the latter to evaluate whether the interpretation of information obtained by a foreign language speaker corresponds/does not correspond to the original. Cognitive monologue is a manifestation of communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality as a creative constructive activity. The ability to build a cognitive monologue and the speed with which the cognitive monologue occurs during the process of codeswitching and the code-switching itself depend on the amount of knowledge of a secondary linguistic personality, acquired linguistic experience in the target language, which involves a complex of formed abilities to possess linguistic skills, the individual characteristics of a person. The content of a cognitive monologue is also dependent on the quality and strength of the acquired linguistic skills.
Cognitive monologue in the target language in the process of perception and understanding of information manifests itself at the procedural level in the first phase of the cognitive actions as a form of internal pronunciation, then in the form of verbal expression in the target language in the external speech. It contains comments on the choice of the necessary grammatical forms, the rationale for this choice. A cognitive monologue is preceded by the utterances discourseinterpretations, addressed to the subject of teaching activities in the course of co-operative dialogue. Cognitive monologue can be transformed into a dialogue with the teacher (a "unison dialogic unity" of s question-answer type), and take the form of the answers to the questions that allow you to adjust the procedure for selecting a linguistic form. Cognitive monologue in the target language is already a formed and articulated verbal expression as a result of the conducted actions, which were pronounced in a cognitive monologue.
When choosing a co-operative dialogue as a form of presentation of educational material and the method of modeling a communicative-cognitive secondary linguistic personality, the relations between the participants of the linguistic communication will be defined as the pursuit of cooperation, and the degree of participation in the dialogue will be the same, which corresponds to the characteristics of linguistic communication as a basis for the exchange of knowledge-all the participants of the linguistic communication carried out to achieve the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality are the equal participants thereof.
With possessing the ability of generating the internal pronunciation into the external speech in the form of discourse, the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity learns to organize a cognitive monologue, which expands his communication practices.
The arrangement of the discourse-explication of linguistic material in the form accessible for a secondary linguistic personality and the drive of the subject of teaching activity for cooperation must create the best favorable conditions for understanding the incoming information by the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity and provide him with an opportunity to coordinate his actions maximally on the internal programming, to arrange and generate a cognitive monologue in the target language. A cognitive monologue is preceded by the reference signals that are the visual information items that promote the perception of new information, visual images representing the relationship between pieces of information, and the signs associated with the examples. The main purpose of the reference signals is to draw attention of the subject of cognition to the components of information that must:
Provide the necessary hesitation pauses for consideration when formulating a verbal utterance;
Explicate new knowledge;
Assist in connecting the incoming new knowledge with the existing knowledge;
Ensure the correct interpretation of the received information;
Intensify the extraction from a database of the quanta of linguistic and textual information adequate to the task conditions;
Stimulate the memory work;
Remind of the possible options when choosing a desired shape;
Warn about the incorrect option when choosing a desired shape; and
Warn about the need for preliminary consideration when choosing a desired shape, etc.
The reference signals are the visual equivalents of grammatical rules, images, situations and may be in the form of tables, diagrams, flow charts, algorithms, graphics, and other markings that streamline the process of re-encoding information from their native language into the target language and vice versa, to ensure the process of thinking and remembering. The tables and diagrams can be made in different ways. You can make them in color (for example, use the blue color to mark the end of masculine nouns and adjectives, red-feminine, black-neuter, green-for plural). The color scale can be distributed differently: the red color highlight only the most important ideas or exclusions, etc.
The reference signal is a certain code of knowledge, through which the educational information on the linguistic phenomenon is refracted twice in the expanded form:
Based on the information offered in a textbook and with the help of comments and guiding questions of the subject of teaching activity directing the attention of the subject of communicative-cognitive activity to the major and important theoretical concepts and logical connections between these key concepts; a summary in the form of a diagram is drawn up consisting of blocks with the symbolically imprinted information;
Based on the summary-diagram, the comprehension of the information at the level of symbols and its remembering occur.
In the second stage, the subject of the communicativecognitive activity carries out the presentation of educational material about the linguistic phenomena. The reproduction of information is possible in the form of a cognitive monologue, a co-operative dialogue between the participants of linguistic communication as a basis for the exchange of knowledge. After the work on understanding and memorizing the summary-diagram, the schematic image-generalization is "applied" to each particular linguistic or speech fact in the relevant tasks, exercises using a sample of reasoning or a summary-diagram.
We consider the reference signals and patterns of reasoning thereto not only as a means of actualizing in the secondary linguistic personality’s linguistic cognition of linguistic concepts or rules, but also as a kind of simulator for the formation of ability to organize a cognitive monologue. Using the anticipated signals that help to choose a correct grammatical form, the keywords that accurately reproduce the information, the questions that make it possible to correctly interpret the information received and the subject of the teaching activity models and coordinates the communicative-cognitive performance of the secondary linguistic personality in accordance with the aims and objectives of education. The subject of teaching is not only the initiator of stimulating the communicative-cognitive activity, but also a direct participant in the process of deliberation by the secondary linguistic personality of the solutions to the obtained teaching task that extends the pragmatic capabilities of both parties of the linguistic communication.
A negative result in solving the teaching task (this can be a misinterpretation, the wrong choice of linguistic means, a logical failure in reasoning, etc. as the results of uncoordinated actions in planning and internal programming) implemented by means of the target language is the same component of the co-operative dialogue as a positive result. A negative result is a kind of indicator of the intellectual work that is performed by the secondary linguistic personality in the process of solving a teaching task. For the subject of teaching activity, a negative result should be an impetus for the reexplication, i.e. repeated explanations by using the guiding questions, visual supports, prompting stimulating intellectual activity, and activating the memory of the subject of the cognitive-communicative activity. The control of understanding is also carried out in the form of a co-operative dialogue, for which the tasks are compiled in such a way that the subject of the communicativecognitive activity would personally analyze his mistakes and find the right solution, answering the teacher’s questions and using the strategies and algorithms for action.
Neutral dialogue and dialogue-obstruction
We distinguish two types of dialogues-a neutral dialogue and a dialogue-obstruction. A neutral dialogue and a dialogueobstruction demonstrate the communication failures arising from the language barrier, the shortage of linguistic resources in the implementation of actions for planning and internal programming as well as the inability to build a cognitive monologue in a target language.
In the neutral dialogue, the goal of one participant of the linguistic communication appears to be irrelevant with respect to the goals of the second participant. In this case, the largescale processing of the received "Information A" in the target language by means of the native language, its translation, semantic interpretation, including the internal pronunciation of the native language entails the transformation of "Information A" into "Information B". This step of the "Information A" processing is followed by the utterances in native language, which in relation to and from the position of the subject of the teaching activity are regarded as a communicative failure. The further actions of the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity are associated with the comprehension of the received "Information B" and actions aimed at the planning and internal programming of the discourse in the target language. The "Information B" regarded by the subject of teaching activity as inadequate to the teaching task conditions, and the utterances in the target language related to the "Information B" become the second communication failure. Interpretation of the "Information B", the processing and pronunciation in the target language transform it into the "Information C". Generation of the "Information C" becomes the third communication failure. Overcoming the communication failures occurring during the neutral dialogue requires additional time associated with the repetitive "discourse-explication" to the full comprehension by the secondary linguistic personality of the information received and the correct solution of the teaching tasks. In order the time expenditures to become minimum, it is required to adapt a neutral dialogue.
The neutral dialogue can acquire the properties of a cooperative dialogue on the activity segment of an "utterance in native language" if the subject of the teaching activity makes the secondary linguistic personality to translate the utterances into the target language, which will enable the subject of the teaching activity to monitor the correctness of translation and interpretation. Then the further actions of the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity will be directed to the meaningful processing of the "Information A" and the organization of discourse in the target language, which contains "Information A-1" adequate to the conditions of the teaching task.
It is also possible to adapt the neutral dialogue into a cooperative dialogue, and at the level of the "utterance in the target language" to generate "Information B" making the necessary changes and corrections. At this stage of activity, the actions of the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity should be directed to the re-interpretation of "Information A", which can be arranged in two ways: 1) repeating the discourse-explication using different techniques for facilitating the understanding, and providing the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity with the hesitation pauses to implement the necessary actions and manipulations with the "Information A"; 2) identifying the discrepancies in the content of the "utterance in the target language" with the content of the "Information A", and their elimination.
According to our observations, modeling the communicative-cognitive activity using the neutral dialogue type actually leaves the secondary linguistic personality one on one with the new knowledge, which has to be comprehended by means of a foreign language, and all the operations necessary for comprehension and generation of action are to be carried out in the first language, as the ability to exercise them in a target language is not formed. In contrast to the neutral dialogue, the ability to conduct a co-operative dialogue enables a secondary linguistic personality to address fearlessly to the native speakers with the utterances-questions, utterances-clarifications, utterances-requests for repetition, etc., which expands and enriches his speech and communication practices. The ability to make up a cognitive monologue is formed in the communication process, which involves cooperation with the native speakers and others subjects of the communicative-cognitive activity. The communicative cooperation is needed particularly at the beginning of the acquisition of a foreign language since already at the initial stage the cognition of the secondary linguistic personality experiences the repulsion and the distinction between the two language systems in the form of awareness of each of them.
We have designated the third type of dialogue, according to which the modeling of linguistic communication takes place, as a dialogue-obstruction. The dialogue-obstruction arises not only in the multinational groups of foreign students, with permanent possibility to communicate in their native language, but also in groups where the foreign language speakers have recourse to an intermediary language. Unfortunately, the extremely active practice of using an intermediate language or native language for the explication of linguistic phenomena of the target language results in that the linguistic competence formed not by means of the target language does not ensure the transfer of knowledge to the study language. An unordered flow of linguistic information, caused by the confusion of linguistic forms of two/three languages, creates though temporal, but asystemic understanding of the target language and stimulates the erroneous use of language based on the false skills. The absence or very low level of the database of language competence can be seen in the foreign language speakers who have studied the target language at home not with a native speaker or with a speaker who does not possess the professional methods of teaching a foreign language. Unfortunately, we must note the fact that the collection of mistakes of a secondary linguistic personality is formed both due to his incorrect understanding of linguistic phenomena and because of the teacher’s unsuccessful or illiterate selection of methods and techniques for presenting language material. In the dialogue-obstruction, a participant (a foreign language speaker) does not tend to cooperate with the native speakers. The constant communication and cooperation with the native language or intermediate language speakers forms in a secondary linguistic personality a sustained skill of choosing this type of dialogue. When modeling the linguistic communication according to the dialogue-obstruction type, the communicative-cognitive activity of the secondary linguistic personality consists in processing the "Information A" received from the subject of teaching activity in the process of communication with the subject that knows the native language of the recipient or intermediary language (the third party-a participant of the linguistic communication).
During the processing of the incoming "Information A" by means of the native language or the intermediate language, the changes occur in the content of the received information, and under the influence of the created personal interpretations of the subject of communicative-cognitive activity, the "Information A" is transformed into the "Information B". Interpretation of the changed information by another participant of the linguistic communication entails the provision of the "Information B" transmitted also by means of the native language. The discourse-interpretation of the "Information B" by the subject of the communicative-cognitive activity and the subsequent utterances in the native language for the subject of teaching activity cause a communicative failure in conducting the dialogue. The utterances in the target language concerning the "Information B" also cannot be regarded as those that reached the goal because they are not adequate to the conditions of the teaching task set out in the "Information A". This is the second communicative failure. The arrangement of discourse and its presentation by means of the target language again lead to the changes in the information. As a result, the "Information ÃÂ" provided to the subject of teaching activity becomes another communication failure. Due to the communication failures, the communication for the participants of the linguistic communication becomes aimless and the information given as the new knowledge loses its meaning. The dialogue-obstruction is very similar to the "deaf phone" game – all the participants listen and speak, but the information changes its content and form from a participant to a participant and each time is presented as the new information requiring the new processing and interpretation. The reason for that the dialogue-obstruction usually becomes non-productive for the process of acquiring a foreign language is that when processing the received information, the reserves not of the target language, but of the native or intermediary language are activated. Certainly, the role of the native language in the process of understanding the information in the target language is leading with respect to the foreign language, and we share the belief of researchers that that the subject of cognition performs all cognitive operations in his native language. However, according to our observations, the formation of the ability "to think" aloud using the means of the target language extends the capabilities of the secondary linguistic personality in the application of a foreign language for the cognitive and communication purposes. Modeling the linguistic communication according to the co-operative dialogue type allows us to activate in a secondary linguistic personality the ability to manipulate the perception and understanding of the foreign speech in the target language by means of the native language in inner speech, as if leaving them behind the scenes. Interpretation and further processing of the information is carried out by means of the target language with the reporting of the produced actions and thoughts related to the choice of linguistic means in the form of a cognitive monologue.
It is possible to transform the dialogue-obstruction into a co-operative dialogue at the early stage of interpreting the received information through the task to carry out a word-byword aloud translation with the subsequent formation of syntactic structures and analysis of grammatical phenomena. This does not mean a total ban on the use of the native language or intermediate language in the further processing of information. The function of the subject of the teaching activity is to create the conditions, under which the secondary linguistic personality becomes capable of carrying out the teaching task using the target language.
Thus, we have determined that for the implementation of the communicative-cognitive activity focused on the acquisition of a foreign language and its subsequent use, the following activity items are required:
The subject of communicative-cognitive activity, which in turn plays a role/performs functions of the agent and the recipient- a secondary linguistic personality;
The subject of teaching activity - a native speaker (a teacher) also acting as the agent and the recipient;
The linguistic communication of the subjects of communicative-cognitive and teaching activities as a basis for the exchange of knowledge.
When modeling the academic linguistic communication, one must take into account the personal characteristics of the subjects of communicative-cognitive and teaching activities.
Dialogue serves as a form of the knowledge exchange, the basic and compulsory components of which are the discourses of the dialogue participants. We state that a compulsory component is a cognitive monologue of the subject of communicative-cognitive activity. The typology of dialogues, the implementation of which contributes to the modeling of linguistic communication for the purposes of implementing the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality, allows distinguishing the best type of dialogue for solving the applied problems of the integrative theory of acquiring a foreign language. The co-operative dialogue, in our view, is the most effective form of knowledge exchange between the subjects of the communicative-cognitive and teaching activities, which stimulates the activity of a secondary linguistic personality as of the agent and the recipient, allowing it to make the most of its knowledge by means of a foreign language when achieving its cognitive and communicative goals.
As an objective, the authors are planning to proceed with their research on the communicative-cognitive activity of a secondary linguistic personality as well as with the development of the idea of modeling the linguistic communication for educational purposes through a dialogue. The research plan involves the examination of the issue concerning the internal speech of a secondary linguistic personality in the course of acquiring a foreign language and its implementation in the form of a cognitive monologue.
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