Modern Youth- Information Environment- Postmodern Aesthetics- Artistic
Text: Problems and Prospects of Interaction
Olesina EP* and Stukalova OV
Doctor of Education, “Institute of Art Education and Cultural Studies”, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, 119121, Pogodinskaya Str.
8, Building 1, Moscow, Russia
- Corresponding Author:
- Olesina EP
Associate Professor, Senior Research Fellow
Doctor of Education, Institute of Art Education and Cultural
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, 119121
Pogodinskaya Str. 8, Building 1, Moscow, Russia
Tel: (343) 257-02-27
Received date: March 19, 2016; Accepted date: March 29, 2016; Published date: April 10, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Olesina EP, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The article is devoted to the impact of modern information society through the artistic perception. Authors, who are the professors of Moscow universities, conclude that the interest in literature among young people is quite considerable. At the same time, it is important to note that the main area in which young writers tend to be recognized is the Internet. The main feature of modern social and cultural situation is creation of the global Internet space, providing effective virtual interaction of people, satisfaction of their needs for access to global information resources and services. Revolution in obtaining and storing information has changed the culture and art. Information society is a society in which the popular culture dominates as complex and ambivalent phenomenon. The Internet in modern society is not just a way to communicate, but the center of new culture’s development. The World Wide Web increasingly involves artistic environment, including literary environment. But the loss of skills in-depth perception of the literary text is a very serious psychological problem. Postmodern ideas influence on the gradual loss of the ability to act. Modern students who are accustomed “to live” in a computer, find themselves in a quandary when they are placed in a situation where they have to act, but not talk about action and not to play a computer game, and set realistic goals. The authors show that it is the problem the modern "creative reader" development, they mean the reader, who can take an active readership’s position when the reader can enjoy reading, can give the own interpretation of the text. In the process of education’s modernization, it is important to remember that post-modernism is the reality of social and cultural situation. In this context it is necessary to change the approach to pedagogical work with information and communication technologies.
The popular culture; Modern creative
reader; Global information resources; Neterature; E-book;
Interactive books; Postmodern
The main feature of modern social and cultural situation is
creation of the global Internet space, providing effective
virtual interaction of people, satisfaction of their needs for
access to global information resources and services.
Revolution in obtaining and storing information has
revolutionized the culture and art. Information society is a
society in which the popular culture is dominated as complex
and ambivalent phenomenon. Popular culture is aimed at
gratification the requirements and tastes of mass man, i.e.,
consumer. Signs of mass culture are the average,
commonplace, focus on commercial success. Through the
creation of images, uniting people on the basis of their same
type of experience, such personality is formed, as becomes a
"product of series production".
The aim of popular culture is gratification of the
requirements and tastes of “consumer”. Signs of “mass
culture” are the average, commonplace, focus on commercial
success. Through the creation of images, uniting people on the
basis of their same type of experience, such type of
personality is developed, as becomes a "product of series
production" . Revolution in obtaining and storing
information has revolutionized the culture and art.
Information society is a society in which the popular culture
dominates as complex and ambivalent phenomenon. The
Internet in modern society is not just a way to communicate,
but the center of new culture’s development. Implosion of
aesthetic perception, according to Jean Baudrillard, turns the
real world into the virtual simulacrum. As a result activity is
reduced, the criticality of artistic perception weakens, the
projects are related to the transparency of the boundaries
between the real and alternative worlds spring up .
The modern culture creates an entirely new artistic
environment (virtual reality), the manner of perception
(intertextuality) and way of relating to it (interactivity). Arisen
primarily as a visual culture, postmodernism in art,
architecture, cinema, advertising focused not on reflection,
but on the simulation of reality through experimentation with
artificial reality - videos, computer games . These principles
work with the second reality, those cultural signs that covered
the world of "shell of words" gradually seeped into other areas. Dual focus of postmodern art, which is addressed to
mass and highbrow audience determines its quality such as
hybrid, which is based on double coding, and all the codes
appear in the product as equal . This principle is reflected in
the multi-level organization the art work’s structure. The very
language it expresses the idea of pluralism and commitment
which unites a variety of authors. Postmodern art brings the
irrational, unconscious things to the surface, reveals the
dominant social impulses of the collective unconscious.
Thus, the Internet in modern society is not just a way to
communicate, but also the center of the new culture
development, which features were investigated in the works of
Lyotard JF, Delёz J, Gattari F, Lakan J et al. as well as in the
works of cultural studies of Man’kovskaya N, Bychkov V, Rozin
V, Ahiezer A, Flier A . Unlimited possibilities of cyberspace
allow for huge numbers of people to be not only consumers of
any artistic production, but also the creators of their own
works, that develop the new artistic canons and ideals, to
interact and meditate.
Postmodernism effects on the process of acquiring
knowledge. According to postmodernism’s theory, the world is
the text where the main thing is the exchange of information,
which can be extracted quickly enough, but it is impersonal
and not verified. In addition, the construction of "simulacrum"
and holding "deconstruction" is the main content of the
postmodern text . This is very evident in the gradual
replacement of real communication online communication is a
problem that causes concern not only teachers, but also
psychologists, sociologists and psychologists. In the space of
the Internet there is a replacement of active work by life
illusion. So, the issue of Internet addiction is quite acute. The
virtual communication is a phenomenon of filling life, when
there is an illusion of social activity. Now there are new terms,
such as Internet narcissism, and there was the phenomenon of
facebook-depression. There are studies that prove that the
Internet changes the development of higher mental functions.
In particular, the Internet affects such processes as attention,
intellection, perception and memory. In the era of
postmodernism it is changing the very type of communication
between people . The mastering of speed information flow,
understanding of the world as a space of games can cause
destruction in mind. The danger lies in the fact that culture of
theoretical knowledge rapidly degraded. Influence of
postmodern concepts with their negativity to respect to
traditions of classical humanities impact on the loss of
susceptibility of modern youth to complex theoretical texts.
Students, for example, сan formulate problems and concepts
with more big difficulties . Modern young people are more
competent in information technologies, in reality, but they are
becoming less and less knowledgeable.
Materials and Methods
This loss of skills of in-depth perception of the literary text is
a very serious psychological problem associated with the mass
extinction of the youth artistic and creative imagination,
unlearning creativity and independent thinking, loss of speech
practice both orally and in writing.
Influence of postmodern ideas is seen in a gradual loss of
the ability to act. Modern students who are accustomed “to
live” in a computer, find themselves in a quandary when they
are placed in a situation where they have to act, not talk about
action and not to play a computer game, and set realistic
goals, interact with others students, send them real ideas, reformulate
goals and design action, etc. Scientists have also
noted the danger of inertia, the perception of inferiority, which
are features of modern youth too.
Generally it is connected with the new type of
communication. There were interviewed of 250 students of
Moscow State Pedagogical university. Our pedagogical
observations confirm that only 34% of future teachers
regularly read Russian classic literature; 66% of them prefer
only mass genres (love and criminal stories, etc.). In this case,
the loss of skills of the literary text’s in-depth perception is a
very serious psychological problems associated with the mass
extinction of the youth artistic and creative imagination,
unlearning creative research and independent thinking, loss of
speech practice, both orally and in writing. Scientists have
interpreted this discovery as symptoms of the human face
distortion as the beginning of the person dehumanization.
In terms of interest’s reduction to creative reading the loss
of artistic images’ perception during 3-year period at high
school decreases in 3 times, the level of creative imagination –
in 2 times, including the parameters of originality - in 3 times,
integrity – in 4 times, spatial and temporal functions-in 2
times. In these circumstances, the creative imagination
transforms into a mechanical memory. The extinction of the
creative imagination is accompanied by profound disturbances
in sensory and mental health problems: feelings of loneliness,
anxiety, fear, aggression are increasing; as well as autism, there
are frustrations, as a whole - a negative-depressive attitude.
Scientists have also noted the danger of inertia of modern
youth’ perception, , which is expressed in choice of reading
and reading assessments, and in the life ideals, which are
influenced by many factors . Nowadays network literature
has more and more important significance in the process of
acquiring literary reading. By "neterature" in the broad sense
of the word refers to "the entire volume of literary texts are
available on the web, regardless of their form of presentation
(text, hypertext, hypermedia) and a method of writing
(individual authorship, collective authorship, creating text
using the software)" (Dolgopolov).
Neterature’s fans predict the complete disappearance of the
literature in the classical sense. The most important feature is
the great attention to ordinary people.
Analysis of the development of literature in the Internet
space is based on the study of materials of leading Russian
experts in the subject [9-11].
Russian neterature has begun its existence in RuNet in
1994-1995. In November 1994, there was a "Library of Maxim
Moshkov" - the first full-text Russian electronic library. In the
same year there was a first network literary contest "Tenёta"
(it was also known as "Art Tenёta" and "Tenёta-Runet").
However, despite this official date of birth is considered to be Russian neterature in October 10, 1995, when the it was
started the Roman Leybov’s hypertext project with a laconic
name "Roman"(“novel”). The experiment consisted of the
following: Leibov has wrote the first chapter of "Roman" and
continued to invite everyone for writing. Every person could
attach the own part to any place of the text, so "Roman"
gradually acquired as rather complicated non-linear structure.
In a year of active collective work project consisted of more
than 100 pieces connected by a network of reciprocal links.
Why neterature so quickly gained independence in the
culture, and today claims to be a special place in the literary
process? Of course, it is new, original flow, which is interesting,
first of all, for young people. But, in our opinion, the main
thing is that neterature meets time and trends: dynamic,
citation, intertextuality, interactivity, virtuality. Actually,
neterature’s product fully complies with artistic features of
postmodern aesthetic .
It seems to be clear that neterature is literature in the global
network. But a closer look reveals that the Russians
understand the term "neterature" also means a completely
different form of the creativity.
E-book is a traditional literary work, a new form of
technology, the text of the novel, story, poem, etc. It remains
both in hard copy and electronically.
The debate about the advantages of paper or electronic
books is usually limited by a discussion of the convenience or
At first glance, the e-book is a winner as a compact thing
and the keeper of the entire library. But the situation is more
complicated in reality...
Physiologists prove that the device allows the human eye to
perceive and process information from the recording sheet
better than the screen. Paper does not tremble as the screen
does (although the modern reader screen flicker is minimized),
it does not require adjustment of contrast and brightness, has
no toolbar, and application windows to distract the reader's
The human mind has such a feature as a visual, kinesthetic
memory, the memory of smells that affects the individual
emotional sphere and contributes to the artistic image’s
When we read a paper book, we unconsciously memorize
the location of the data, titles and illustrations on the page, it
helps to remember where this or that idea in this work. The
important points for the text’s perception are the kinesthetic
cues such as smoothness of the paper, the weight of the book
(the glossy pages of the album art, or a children's book with
three-dimensional images). Many people emphasize the
importance smell of ink and even the smell of the dusty pages
of old books. All this factors together create an aesthetic
feeling of belonging book to art. Ergonomics of paper book
allows creating something that it is impossible (at least as long
as possible) in electronicform as aesthetic integrity: the text of
the work, decorating books, paper, font, illustrations are
common artistic and aesthetic product.
It is interesting that on an unconscious level the artwork
becomes the subject, not only the meaning, but the real
friend. The book acquires as fact of personal life. Alina K (22)
noticed that when she was sad, she likes to reread "Neznajka"
(Know-nothing) by N.Nosov, and it is "very important to read
exactly the book that she has read when she was a child, with
a spot of tea and scratched cover. So the book says more than
the text, because it reminds certain events of childhood.
To identify the relevance of any neterature’s genre we
conducted a survey of young people of 14-22 years (seniors
and students). There were interviewed of 378 Moscow
Many young people (87%) said that they read electronic
books, reference books and literary news, even when it is not
clear whether this book is in demand again or not. But if they
want to re-read a favorite book, they read the copy of it that
was in their hands for the first time (the old, tattered and so
Anne Mangen (University of Stavanger, Norway) said that
reading the e-book is reflected in the emotional perception of
art works. So as a result of the study it was found that the
"iPad users is substantially less empathized literary heroes and
memorize the details of the text worse than those who read
from the sheet" .
We can conclude that reading educational and scientific
information is more convenient on electronic media, but
reading fiction - on a paper book.
Literature in Network is a virtual view of literary creation.
Nowadays there are many specialized sites, which can be
divided into two types: a) literary portals (Rulinet.Ru, Stih.Ru,
Proza.Ru and others); b) the literary journals and associations
(free placement sites without works as a combination of
affordable and elite, for example, "Russian rhyme", "Litsovet",
"Notes on the Cuff").
In reality neterature has a number of contentious issues
. Firstly, the problem of the author. Many researchers
believe that neterature is a refuge for scribblers. The lack of an
authoritative review leads to a reduction of the literary
material’s quality. "There are not many professional writers in
modern Russia, I mean that writers who earn money by
literary craft. But the quantity of amateur writers - is abysmal.
It seems that the one of the most reading country becomes
the country of writers" .
According to many authors, mostly the web works are
absolutely non-professional. Probably the network literature is
the shortest way to the reader. It is certainly true, but this path
is very tortuous. It only seems to be simple: Turn on your
computer, go to the Web and read, but a huge selection and
the lack of guidelines prevents to find really interesting texts.
During the survey we found that even among young people
there is not so much network’s readers: "It's a pity to waste
time", "I do not find anything interesting," "I do not like
reading, I prefer writing my own texts" (the examples of
notes). Only a quarter of respondents prefer reading literature
Secondly, the problem is the presence of low-quality works.
According to many authors, in the web the most of the works
are graphomania indeed, although, no doubt, the reader can
find very good texts. However, the search for good art works
may take too much time.
Neterature creates its own cultural environment, based on
the positions of mass culture. The product is considered good
as it has received a large number of visitors’ votes . But,
unfortunately, in this environment, there is an "esprit de
corps" of network writers, praising each other, so it is difficult
to determine the true quality of the text.
Neterature can be considered as a kind of "psychotherapy”
. Actual feature of the Net literature is the complete
destruction of the distance between author and reader, which
imposes certain responsibilities on both parties. Of course, the
network literature is very young, so it has a lot of low-quality
Litblog represents blogs, where authors expose to the
reader the works, and in contrast to the traditional literature,
accept criticism, the views of readers on-line mode in the form
of comments, blog roll, guest posts, just "likes" and etc. The
most important litblog function is dynamic communication. A
striking example of this type of art is, for example, blogs of
Mary Arbatova, Alex Exler's and many other famous writers
. Many of the participants in the survey conducted by the
authors responded that they enter into discussion with the
bloggers, but it turned out that most of blogs is not artistic and
literary, but political and cultural. The reason for this is the lack
of high artistic quality works in blogs, and therefore the lack of
reader’s willingness to discuss with the writer.
Interactive Books (kiberatura) is most unusual for traditional
readers. The main feature of this type of literature is that one
book has several ways for the development of the plot, which
comes to different endings depending on the choice of the
Kiberatura fully meets the needs of modern society:
interactivity, hypertextuality, playing the essence of culture as
text, according to Derrida, this is not an object, but a card that
has "its own road and invisible branch, underground way, etc.”
. Interactive books develop an entirely new active reader,
the reader-participant in the events. Literature in its new form
is no longer a passive mental activity and becomes an active
dynamic process. The use of information technology creates a
possible and varied hypertext. Forms of kiberature are mostly
interactive games. A survey of young people shows that they
consider kiberature as an experiment and a game. Network
literature gives the possibility of collective work, where the
author in the work, game, blog allows readers not only to
express their opinions, but also actively participate in the
creative process. In this case, a literary product is open and
can constantly be changed.
All these aspects had be involved into contemporary
educational process, in particular - with the development of
texts, both artistic and scientific. Of course, complaints and
statement of facts is not a productive way. Obviously, the
problem of modern "creative reader" development is very
complicated. In this process it is important to remember that
post-modernism is a socio-cultural reality. In this context the
teachers can change the approach to the pedagogical work
with information and communication technologies. Certainly,
the positive aspect of the postmodern conception is pluralism
and multiculturalism, openness to different forms and types of
There is no doubt that fiction can play an outstanding role in
the creative development of active modern youth. The main
feature of modern social and cultural situation is creation of
the global Internet space, providing effective virtual
interaction of people, satisfaction their needs in global
information resources and services. Revolution in obtaining
and storing information has changed the culture and art.
Information society is a society in which the popular culture
dominates as complex and ambivalent phenomenon. Popular
culture’s auditory is consumer’s mass. So signs of mass culture
focus on commercial success. Gradually personality becomes a
"product of series production".
The authors acknowledge received support from research
program Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
“Institute of Art Education and Cultural Studies of the Russian
Academy of Education” for the years 2014, 2015. We are
responsible for all errors as well as heavy style of the
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