Myth-Creating as a Way to Develop Modern Mass Conscience
Kudriavtsev VI*, Davletshina AM, Ivanova EV, Tsiplakova YV and Cherepanova ES
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russian Federation
- Corresponding Author:
- Valentina Ivanovna Kudriavtseva
Ural Federal University, Mira Street, 19
Ekaterinburg, 620002, Russian Federation
Received date: March 11, 2016; Accepted date: March 29, 2016; Published date: April 06, 2016
Copyright: ©2016 Kudriavtsev VI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
Presently myth-creating has to be viewed as a versatile characteristic of the conscience, which consists of creating non-explanative vivid descriptiveness. The aim of present article is to analyze the mechanisms of mythcreating, which define certain essential coordinates for the modern humans by developing the personal experience and influencing his conscience through the system of contemporary mass culture. In the article we analyze the changes in the myth-creating process – the myth is created, translated and maintained through technical and informational means. Myth-creating becomes the defining factor of the symbolic space development and the way of influencing mass conscience.
Myth; Mass culture; Myth-creating; Empiric
subject; Mass conscience; Routine conscience; Experience;
Predispositions for mass culture development lie in the
society structure itself, when “the mass” is the main part of
the society. Mass culture is oriented at the individual’s
socialization and adaptation to a certain environment, social
and cultural conditions. This culture shapes the space, in which
the exchange of meanings happens and the comprehension
becomes possible. It requires minimal amount of knowledge
and personal experience of a human in order to make sense of
Mass culture is rooted in the stereotypes of a person’s
representations and feelings, such as a wish to love, fear of the
unknown, urge to achieve success, hope for a miracle, etc.
Myth-creating develops on the basis of these representations.
Modern myth occurs not in the conditions of narrow life
experience, as a traditional myth, but in the conditions of
relatively wide, though divided, applied base, when the urge
for ideology synthesis is obvious but there are no means for
conducting such synthesis. Commonly the primitive
syncretisity of the myth is used as a true unity of the
conscience, undivided in the separate parts, or such
“syncretisms” are created from the material of the modern conscience. Speaking of the modern myth and the process of
myth-creating, it is impossible to describe it only through the
traditional categories and to interpret it in the narrow sense.
Because of this, now it is necessary to study myth-creation as a
versatile characteristic of the conscience, which creates vivid
descriptiveness that lies outside the ranges of interpretation.
The subject of modern myth-creating might be each
separate person, who, by creating himself, lives in the myths of
everyday routine. Through myth-creating, the individual’s
routine conscience searches for stability. Each element of the
myth has its own certain essence inside a system. In other
words, symbolism and stability of a myth provides clarity and
tranquility, which are lacking in the lives of modern people.
However, the subject of modern myth-creating uses
completed patterns of a mythology, which already exists,
adding new combinations of essence and meanings, which are
important to him personally and to the society. These patterns
present in the form of archaization, re-medievation and
orientalization. They might exist in the unconscious
(psychoanalytic explanations of the myth-creating), might be
given in the texts (ritual-oriented explanations of the myth), in
cultural artifacts; or they might be consciously rebuilt for the
mass conscience not only by an individual conscience, but also
by professional myth-creators.
There are individual and social myth-creating needs of a
human. Individual needs include creation of individual myths,
which define the essence, meanings and sign constructs of the
behavior, speech and thinking. In order to satisfy the social
needs it is necessary to have myths, which allow developing an
“obedient, easily-managed” citizen in order to reach a
successful functioning of the society.
Studying the myth as a way of mass conscience
development needs to be conducted with regard to the
methodologic approaches, which are presented in the works
of Naydysh, Cassirer, Moscovici, Kara-Murza and other
authors. The basis for the conducted study is the philosophic
methodology, which implies the use of the analysis
techniques. In order to reveal the characteristics of a myth as a
certain type of experience and culture representation, we
used the contextual analysis methods, as well as the
hermeneutic method, which is used for interpreting
philosophic and cultural-studying texts and media information.
Myth-creation as orientation towards
stereotypes and needs of homogeneous social
The phenomenon of myth-creating in mass conscience is
based on stereotypes and needs of homogeneous social
groups. Contrary to the spontaneous myth-creating of the
archaic period (which is limited by the traditions and rules and
exists in their frames), myth-creation today is related to the
functioning of mass-media and exists on professional bases.
Cassirer stated that the XX century was destined to create “a
new myth technique, because myths may be created the same
way and by the same rules as any other modern weapon,
whether it is guns or airplanes” (Cassirer, 1990).
Generalizing the discussion of the mythology, Gurevich
notes that the purpose of the social myth lies on “hiding the
meaning and distracting from the truth” .
Canetti, a well-known psychology specialist of the XX
century, stated that “closed” masses of the past (religious
meetings, military meetings, etc.) underwent significant
changes during urbanization. “…More and more people
gathered in the cities and the population grew
uncharacteristically fast during the last hundred years, which
lead to the development of new enormous masses… All
attacks on the outdated rituals, which are saved in the history
of religion, are a protest of a mass, which wants to experience
its own growth, against the borders, which are pressed on it”
Le Bon, the author of a book “The Crowd: A Study of the
Popular Mind” (1895), which was a hit in the XX century,
understood that the industrial age is a transition phase, when
traditional ideas and norms partly continue to act, getting
weaker, and the ideas of the future start to develop, not being
robust, theoretical, normative and conceptual constructs yet.
This was happening with the background of the destruction of
religious, political and social beliefs, as well as the
development new conditions for human existence, which
occurred as a result of scientific and industrial discoveries.
“The ideas of the past, though being half-destroyed, are still
quite strong; the ideas, which have to replace them, are still on
the stage of their development – this is why the modern age is
the transitional and anarchic time”, - said the author of “The
Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind” .
Therefore, it is possible to state that the mythology of the
transition period depends on the correct work of the media
and on what modern marketing consultants and human
resources specialists call the system of involvement. Rosen
describes a method of working with mass conscience. The
marketing specialist claims that the reason lies in the fact that
people create masses based on the principle of similarity: Look
at the family that is walking on Sunday: mother, father,
adolescent son, little girl and a dog. And there is another
family walking in their direction: one more mother, father,
adolescent son, little girl and a dog. They wave their hands to greet each other. Obviously, those two families know each
other. What do you think will happen when they meet? Most
likely, the adults will talk to each other, adolescent sons will
communicate together and the little girls will start a
conversation. Even the dogs will sniff each other before
starting to play.
The urge to establish connections with the similar
individuals is set in the human nature. Scientists like to talk to
scientists. Rich people interact with other rich people. If we
enjoy mountain biking, most likely we will communicate with
others cyclists. Such tendency of people to feel attraction to
those, who are similar to them, and start relationships with
them is called “homophilia…” .
People’s natural predisposition to choose similar people for
interaction (what Rosen calls a playful concept of
“hemophilia”), causes the occurrence of people’s clusters,
inside of which the information is distributed easily and
naturally: “Why do bikers travel in groups? Why do secondgraders
play together? Because people prone to interact with
those similar to them. The result of this is clusters – groups of
people similar to each other in certain life parameters, which,
as a consequence, often involve in communication with each
other. Millions of unique clusters are developed on
correspondence with such parameters, as age, gender,
education, professional activity, social class, field of interests,
geography and ethnic origin” .
Thus, a brand-manager (this is what a myth-creator is called
in the language of a modern market) needs only to choose a
required cluster correctly and to tell a personality story based
on the stereotypes and needs of the present clusters
representatives. Similar rules of information distribution in the
modern world are also described by a well-known scientist of
semiology and writer Eco when he introduces the concept of
an “ideal reader” of a fiction book, i.e. a reader, who,
according to the author’s thought, ideally deciphers the codes
created by the fiction work author .
Myth as a way of suggestion, based on the
creation of illusion
Mass media, including advertising, social networks and
television, remains an important tool of the modern mythcreation.
“Advertising might be called one of the forms of
modern myth-creating. Nowadays the creation of
advertisement uses “mythological technologies” by which the
advertisement gains the functions of myth” .
It is possible to trace, on the example of the Russian brands,
how the advertisement uses mythological images. During the
development of brands of the “Kalina” concern, mythological
images of noble natural materials, such as gold, silver and
pearl, played a significant role. In the conscience of the mass
culture representatives they are related to the ideas of
prestige and elitism. Due to this, the brands that became
successful were “Golden line”, “Silver line”, and especially,
“Black pearl”. It is common for Russian advertisement to refer
to the traditional motives and to reproduction of the existing
cultural myths, tales and images.
Together with using the traditional images in the
advertising, it is possible to note one other trait of the modern
myth. In the current myth-creating the technical world
entwines with the natural world. The advertisement for
“Kabinet” Internet-provider states that a whale is the biggest
mammal of the sea, an elephant is the biggest animal of the
dry land and “Kabinet” is the largest provider in the Ural. i.e.
this provider creates a picture of its natural existence by
stating the fact that it is the largest in a certain field of the
Modern myths are created in relation to the present tasks
from the market, politics, economics and show-business and
might exist for a short time, replacing each other. A lifespan of
commercial and political myths has decreased drastically. A
modern myth exists from one to fifteen years, at average.
Mythological congestion of the mass culture
The difference between a modern myth of mass conscience
and a myth of the archaic age consists not of its structure or its
conflict-content base (which is created the same way as in the
era of the first written texts, which were preserved until our
times), but of the way to translate and distribute the
information and of the fact that modern people rarely pass the
myth as an inheritance to the future generations but perceive,
memorize, translate and forget the myths much faster.
Consequently, modern myths are much harder to be formed
into myth systems (mythologies). The conscience of a modern
mass culture representative, contrary to empirical subjects,
who perceive the myths in a traditional society, is more mosaic
and less integral. Moreover, it has to deal with a larger amount
of information sources: myths attract attention and attempt to
intrude in the conscience from different sides. If we consider
each advertising message to be equal to a short modern myth
(or neo-myth, as they are called sometimes) and calculate the
amount of such myth, which compete for a conscience of a
usual person on the street of a metropolis in a span of one
minute, it will become clear that a certain empiric subject is
not able to perceive and comprehend all of the attacking
myths. Furthermore, not all of the modern myths are intended
for each empiric subject.
On the one hand, a myth, as a certain way of escaping
reality, has such positive functions as stabilization (stable state
of affairs in a society, due to which a society is able to
overcome the critical stages of its development), isolation
(human mind defense from the moral shocks) and defense
(creation of an example for positive thinking without showing
aggression helps feeling secure). However, the influence is
often aimed at the lower-level human needs and aggressive
urges, e.g., sex, feeling of property, desire of fame, money and
luxury. It exploits the natural human needs: need for food,
security and society, because, the larger the audience, the
more versatile the used targets have to be; a more specific
audience requires a more accurate approach to its traits. Other
versatile stimuli also include pride, urge for pleasure and
comfort, wish to have a family coziness, job promotion and
fame . Schiller notes that “ways of manipulation imply prior
preparation of opinions and wishes, their consolidation in a mass conscience or in the representations of a single person,
in order to make referring to them possible” .
Muzykany confirms it in his studies on the advertisement
genesis, concluding that “there is a mass stimulation of the
primitive human needs, which blocks a possibility for their
spiritual raise and causes the simplification of the social taste.
All of this limits their top limit of the mindfulness and,
therefore, allows reaching an image of fame with less effort
and live comfortably without an extraordinary talent” .
Myth as a seduction from the modern culture
Lipovetsky’s paradigm declares that the post-modernist
society is regulated by a new strategy – a strategy of
seduction. He notes that mass culture is attracted to seductive
figures, which induce admiration and worship in the society –
stars and idols. In the modern time seduction is translated
through Internet communities and Internet technologies, as
noted by Rusakova. “Massive information technologies
development caused a new wave of seduction - the seduction
with interactivity, personal involvement in the information
product creation, the seduction with one’s own significant in
the Internet space” .
Involvement if media- and Internet-technologies lead to
several consequences. Firstly, Jaron Lanier, in his manifest “You
Are Not a Gadget”, suggests that social networks and blogs
lead the humankind to the wrong path – instead of creation
and individuality, shallows statements and the speed of
content generation and consumption are rewarded .
Secondly, as noted by many researchers, using the
opportunities of the Internet worsens the shaped opposition
between a machine and a human, which is noted by a wellknown
German philosopher and cultural scientist Sloterdijk:
“There are machine media, which translate the programs, and
there are personal media- interpersonal communication
environments, i.e. the people, who are able to feel involved, to
some extent, in the tasks of the era and moods of the time and
translate them. If we integrate these two concepts of “media”
and turn them to performing their true role, it will be possible
to suspect even yourself - and are you sure you are not just a
machine, just a translating technical mechanism? Newest
theory of literature and theory of media speak of the author as
of neurotic typewriter – and sometimes in certain situations it
strongly corresponds with the personal experience. I would
have preferred to compare myself to a piano, which suddenly
starts to play on its own, to a certain automatic piano of a
spirit of an era. I can easily fell the mood – but I quite
accurately select, which mood I want to feel” .
A way to overcome these negative consequences of the
Internet-technologies “seductiveness” should become the
development of cynical skepticism in the society. In his lecture
“Free thinking and the official propaganda” Russel claimed
that the habit of analyzing the facts and not accepting the
statements as true without bases should be taught in school.
He discussed the need to teach the school students the art of
reading newspapers by seeing the event from different
perspectives, thus learning to understand that what’s written in the newspapers is more or less a lie. The result of such
learning will be cynical skepticism, which will protect in the
future life from the appeals for idealism, used to summon
respectable people to cooperate with the plans of villains and
Myth as a constituting element of a person’s
As a versatile ability of the conscience, myth-creating not
only develops the routine conscience, but also constructs the
reality, which surrounds the individual, through it. Through the
prism of the routine conscience a myth translates its
phenomenal side, which is primarily subject-centered, to the
world. Because of this specific trait, as well as of
demonstrative-sensory vividness, a myth may be consolidated
in a person’s conscience rather strongly by maintaining in the
images and values. Myth consolidation in the routine
conscience has certain basis.
Firstly, routine conscience is such conscience, which pays
attention only to the object and not to the subject’s attitude
towards the object. This characteristic was revealed by the
German romantics. Schelling integrated routine conscience
with an artistic and aesthetic world reflection. For him, routine
conscience is the conscience, which is “at the lowest stage of
abstraction” ; it is not able to distinguish between “the
object of influence and the influencing or the acting”  and
Secondly, the connection of the routine conscience and
myth-creating is conducted through the concept of the “life
world”. For Husserl, the “life world” (Lebenswelt) is a concept
that reflects the circumstance that the conscience functions
not in an abstract space of psychological forms, but in real life
conditions, thus being a mean of solving the constantly
changing relationships of a subject (which has certain needs,
interests, ways of their satisfaction, etc.) and the environment
(material, natural and social). Life world is a certain sub-system
of a routine conscience representing those deep essential
connections (needs of a human as a bio-social creature,
motives, interests, etc.), by which the subject is inevitably and
necessary integrated into the world, “implanted” into it, and
thus, becomes an inseparable from the being. A person’s life
world is inevitably mythologized.
It is possible to say that a myth serves as a constituting
element of a person’s life world. In some sense, it is a ground,
on which the essential conscience is developed. Along with the
values and emotional experiences, a myth becomes included
in the experience of a person as an individual subject, as well
as a historic one (by being translated through the generations).
Myth carrier is an individual subject, as well as the society. It
is in the society that the myth representation and translation
to the next generations in case of mythological structure
robustness occurs. Because of this, exploring the myth should
start from studying the phenomenon of the crowd – the carrier of mass conscience. Describing the phenomenon of the
crowd, Le Bon noted that one of its main traits is the
susceptibility to suggestion. “Always lingering on the border of
the unconscious, easily complying to various suggestions and
having wild feelings, common for those creatures, which
cannot conform to the influences of the mind, the crowd,
which lacks any critical skills, has to be highly gullible.
Impossible does not exist to it, and it has to be remembered,
because it explains that unusual easiness of creation and
development of legends and the most unbelievable stories”
. It is one of the bases for a myth’s success. Analyzing the
reasons of social disturbance, Bloomer defines the following
significant signs of social disturbance: agitated feelings, which
promote the distribution of gossip and exaggeration, as well as
irritability and increased suggestibility, which leads to
psychological lability and inconsequential actions. “Their state
makes them far more susceptible towards the others, but also
less consistent and firm in their mood and type of actions. To
understand that increased lability and the feeling of
disturbance means to understand why people in a state of
social disturbance are so suggestible, react so easily to various
new stimuli and ideas and also are more flexible” .
In the context of the studied topic it is necessary to explore
the myth-creating specifics in the traditions of Russian
mythologists, who separate three main characteristics of
The first one is that “a myth is always pre- and extratheoretical
generalization of the world” in a sense that
mythological conscience is always integrated in a strict
mythological coordinates system; “a myth was just a way of
generalizing all that experience that was constantly
accumulated in the practice” . And it was exactly that way
in the archaic communities, as noted by the multiple
ethnographic studies. Is “pre- and extra-theoretical
generalization” a trait of modern myth-creating? The borders
of this concept implementation are unclear and are rooted in
the “life experience”, “routine”; due to this fact, this mythcreating
trait can provide very little for the analysis of modern
The second trait of myth-creating is that “the mythological
image, produced by the mythological activity of the
conscience, has its specific characteristics as a type of
generalization. In such image two main functions of the
conscience – knowledge and experience – were not separated;
they were integrated together. And this results in the
fundamental impossibility to interpret the products of mythcreating”
. Consequently, mythological images are
experienced by the conscience but are not explained or
interpreted by it; this is the way that the desirable is presented
as the real. We can only partially agree with this statement.
Myth-creating actually includes large scales of emotions, the
fantasy and the imagination work; but these psychological
dominants accompany any creative process, including research
activity. “Ernst Mach's principle of the economy of thought
plays a great role in the critique of language and its
mythological part in particular. As language critique begins
with violation of the traditional triad “reality–idea–statement [word]‟, the reality appears in absolutely unearthly light,
which is conditional due to impossibility to go outside complex
of sensations. Scientific theories with their all value and
importance do not change or disclose the secrecy of the
hidden, do not influence the mystery of the psychic reality,
finally they all deal with all the same – with elements .
The third myth-creating trait is subjectivity-“vividly
expressed interest in the products of subject’s myth-creating;
his voluntary intensions are directed at them and they are the
object of subject’s volitional self-determination” .
However, this characteristic also does not provide an
opportunity to strictly reveal the specifics of the studied
process, because the scientist, as well as a painter are
interested in the emergence of their creative product, thus
using volitional self-determination (it is known that a picture
might be created many years in a row and laboratory
experiments require multiple repetitions and trials).
In the article “The modern day culture hero: from cynicism
to infernality” the authors point out that “mythological
creativity of mass media is directed on establishment of new
meanings, guided by the logical networks of thinking which are
already set by antiquity, simply reconstructing them according
to the changed meanings. Myth-making does not pass through
stages of intuition, guesses and experiments. The myth does
not look for truth, does not reflect, it states, structures, orders,
clears up and by that provides rest, the happy end of all
unsolved conflicts” .
Thus, myth-creating is a process is the process of emergence
of the new essence. The act of birth of something new might
be comprehended here as a space-time localization (in the
space and time of the conscience) of the essence-making flow.
Because of this it is important to consider that both archaic
conscience and modern myth-creating are different in a way of
creating new essences of human existence as a separate
individual, as well as the society. Myth-creating might be a
result of the unconscious imitation and conscious
reconstruction, a consequence of suggestion of myth-creating
representations of the reality or indirect integration of the
completed myths, built by the ideologists and proposed for
mass consumption, in the conscience.
Working with the concept of a “myth” it is necessary to
understand that it does not have an unambiguous definition.
Myth as a way of experiencing and explaining life, as a certain
experience and myth as a fictional construct, myth as a
product of collective creation and myth as a product of
individual creative fantasy, archaic and modern myths are
fairly different things, which cannot be considered the same.
However, it is possible to compare them by already having
hypothesized about common traits of those myth-creating
means. These traits include the following:
Simplicity, presence of a certain logical pattern, which
presents through symbols that gain their significant essences
in different cultural realities.
Phenomenality of the explanatory patterns: appearance and
essence are almost the same in a myth, causal links are highly simplified, a part replaces the whole and the shallow
connections might be mistaken for the deep ones.
Dualism and thought dynamics through binary oppositions.
Extra-historical presence (perception of a myth and giving
senses to the world as the only possible and constant flow of
the events and as the only correct representation of those
Orientation at panacea. Essences of a myth allow finding
firm bases of the being and instructions for the practical
actions in the world.
Escapism as a flight in the illusory worlds.
Non-catastrophic view: orientation on the events with a
good outcome (“everything is going to be good and excellent
Thus, myth-creating is a cultural universal, which a
significant part of the modern mass and individual conscience.
The beginning of XXI century is signified by the expansion of
Internet-technologies, which greatly multiplies the
opportunities to manipulate mass conscience. Because of this
it is necessary to note the transition from cultural demythologizing,
which was generally common for the XX
century, to its re-mythologizing.
The purpose of a myth in the modern society is narrowed to
the specific tasks; primarily, it is manipulation with the aim of
obtaining a certain result.
This is confirmed by multiple studies. Moscovici notes that,
instead of cooperation between opinions and the mind, there
is a competition, which constantly grows. The power of
communication tools becomes the power of the social opinion
. Kara-Murza found the fundamental changes in the
conscience and thinking in the transition to the new way of
obtaining information – not from a page but from a screen.
The book civilization makes place for a new text carrier – a
screen (TV or computer), which leads to the excess of
information and increased speed of new type of reading –
reading-consuming, as opposed to reading-dialogue and
reading-creation. “A text on a screen is constructed as a flow
of “micro-events”, and that lead to a crisis of “macro-text” that
explains the world and the society” . Kirillova states the
emergence of a new type of intellectual reaction: “Tomorrow’s
culture will be less bookish than yesterday’s one. Since the
discovery of book printing the thoughts have moved using
signs, symbols and letters as a reference point. From now on it
is based mainly on an image”.
Analyzing further perspectives of the humankind J. Ellul
comes to an unambiguous conclusion: “A person of our society
turned from obsessed with work into a person, charmed by
the variance of pictures, intensity of noises and information
flow. Even if he does not like the television, art and science, he
will not escape the influence of the technical means” .
Influence on the mass conscience might happen through the
reference to the individual by using the social networks. As a
result, various media events are organized, while sometimes
their authorship is anonymous.
As Lipovetsky states, “people’s socialization through
traditions, religion or morals is replaced by the influence of
media and information flows” [21,22]. Nowadays it is possible
to observe a very interesting phenomenon-a myth is
translated, created and provided to the masses through
technical and informational means. Therefore, myth-creating
becomes the defining factor in the development of symbolic
space and the way to influence the mass conscience.
- Gurevich P (1991) Sotsialnaya mifologiya. Moscow.
- Canetti E (2012) Massa i valst. Moscow: Astrel.
- Le Bon G (2015) Psikhologiya mass. SPb: Piter.
- Rosen E (2006) Anatomiya slukhov. SPb: Piter.
- Eco U (2002) Shest progulok v literaturnykh lesakh. SPb: Simpozium.
- Afonkina T (2012) Reklamnoe mifotvorchestvo kak sposob konstruirovaniya realnosti (po materialam rossiyskoy reklamy 2010-2011 gg.). Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta im. N.I. Lobachevskogo 1.
- Schiller G (1980) Manipulyatory soznaniem, Moscow.
- Muzykant V (1998) Teoriya i praktika sovremennoy reklamy. Moscow: Evraziyskiy.
- Rusakova O (2012) Sovremennaya politicheskaya filosofiya: predmet, kontsepty, diskurs. Ekaterinburg: Izdatelskiy Dom “Diskurs-Pi”.
- Lanier J (2011) Vy ne gadget. Manifest. Moscow: Corpus.
- Sloterdijk P (2006) Die Sonne und der Tod. Dialogische Untersuchungen. Surkamp Verlag. Frankfurt am Main.
- Russel B (1999) Svobodomyslie i ofitsialnaya propaganda. Iskusstvo myslit. Moscow: Ideya-Press, Dom intellektualnoy knigi.
- Schelling F (1987) Sistema transtsendentalnogo idealizma. Soch: v 2 t, t.1, Moscow.
- Bloomer G (1994) Kollektivnoe povedenie. Amerikanskaya sotsiologicheskaya mysl. Moscow
- Naydysh V (2002) Filosofiya mifologii. Moscow: Gardariki.
- Cherepanova E, Nizyeva L (2015) Influence of Ernst Mach’s ideas on Fritz Mauthner’s theory and Ludwig Wittgenstein’s views. European Journal of Science and Theology 11.
- Ivanova E, Kudriavtseva V (2015) The Modern Day Culture Hero: From Cynicism to Infernality. Asian Social Science 11.
- Moscovici S (1996) Vek tolp. Moscow.
- Kara-Murza S (2007) Vlast manioulyatsii. Moscow: Akademicheskiy proekt.
- Ellul J (1991) Tekhnologicheskiy blef. Filosofiya nauki 9.
- Lipovetsky G (2012) Imperiya efemetnogo. Moda i ee sudba v sovremennom obschestve. Moscow: Novow literaturnoe obozrenie.
- Kassirer E (1990) Politicheskie mify. Vestnik MGU 7.