Oaxaca Mezcal, A Natural Growth Stage Cluster The Mezcal de Oaxaca, A Natural Cluster in Growth Stage
Delfín-García AD1 and
1Technological Institute of Oaxaca. Dr.
Victor Calzada A. Bravo Oaxaca, Oaxaca,
Mexico. CP. 60300, USA
2University of Portland, Portland, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dolphin-Garcia RD
University of Portland, Portland, USA
Received date: April 10, 2016; Accepted date: May 10, 2016; Published date: May 25, 2016
Citation: Curiel-Avilés UG, López-Salinas
A, Delfín-García AD, et al. Oaxaca Mezcal,
A Natural Growth Stage Cluster The Mezcal
de Oaxaca, A Natural Cluster in Growth
Stage. Global Media Journal. 2016, 14:26 .
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This article aims to analyse the influence exercised by the performance of the cluster of mezcal in their competitiveness, in order to build a scale that allows you to measure the performance of industrial clusters. To do this, is reviewed the cycle of life and performance of cluster theory, proposed by Andersson, Schwaag, Sörvik y Wise, (2004), Sölvell (2009) and De Langen (2004). The methodology ascribed to the mixed research paradigm, using the techniques of document review, observation, interview and questionnaire. The Statistical analyses include descriptive statistics, analysis of bivariate correlation and linear regression model. Arose as a working hypothesis, which, It was accepted since performance influences positively and significantly on the competitiveness of the cluster of mezcal. To test the hypothesis were selected 50 companies on-site, same, they are located in the central valley Region of Oaxaca. The results show that there is talk of a natural cluster in growth stage, where competitiveness is based on the comparative advantages that provides its local structure. Are currently recognized a change in the way of competing, condition that has generated the creation of competitive advantages in aspects such as; quality, technology, critical mass, value-added and diversification of products.
Cycle of life; Cluster; Mezcal; Performance; Competitiveness
There is a wide variety of studies and evaluations to political
clusters that bring the proximity between companies, institutions
and support agencies within a specific geographic area, has
advantages ranging from proximity to raw materials, market
access and infrastructure, availability of skilled and obtaining
support of government [1-8] work. However, with all the hype
that has been given to the benefits of geographical proximity and
the formation of clusters, there is a lack of studies in principle,
analyze the performance of clusters and on the other hand
demonstrate the competitive improvement of companies [9-12].
In Mexico several states promote cluster model in sectors
such as ; footwear and automotive (Guanajuato), electronics
(Jalisco), denim (Coahuila), aerospace (Querétaro), auto parts
and agribusiness (Puebla), automotive (Aguascalientes), tourism
and electronics (Baja California), tourism and mezcal (Oaxaca),
between others [13,14]. It seems as state governments for
the implementation and development of these models can be carried out both in regions and sectors developed and developing
regions and sectors. The theoretical framework on clusters does
not exclude or delimits the promotion thereof.
The cluster model to have gestated in developed countries where
their burgeoning industries are quasi-homogeneous and hightech
[15-19], worth pondering and identify those adaptations
that central governments should reconfigure especially in
areas, regions and business sectors where local conditions and
capacities do not favor the traditional concept of cluster model.
In addition to this, it has been shelved for the implementation
and development of these models, the particular analysis of its
genesis, life cycle and the factors that determine their success.
An analysis of these aspects help to design more in line with
the conditions, characteristics and capabilities of the clusters in
question [9,20,21] shares.
Given the characteristics of cluster model promoted by the
state government of Oaxaca in strategic sectors, it is intended
that the theory regarding the life cycle and performance of the cluster, help to better understand the competitiveness of all
companies representing the cluster of mezcal Central Valleys of
Oaxaca Region, as the literature on these concepts only shows
research conducted in developed countries and in sectors with
large companies. From a practical approach, it is expected that
the performance obtained by each of the actors involved in
the cluster of mezcal influence directly and positively on the
competitiveness of companies that comprise mezcal.
The cluster of Mezcal of the central valley of
Mezcal is an alcoholic beverage and diverse odor, flavor colorless
or slightly amber when resting or aged in wooden containers white
oak or oak. According to the provisions of NOM- 070- SCFI–1994
, it is considered mezcal ; to that regional alcoholic beverage
obtained by distillation and rectification of musts prepared direct
and originally with sugars extracted from the mature heads of
In this research the cluster of mezcal represents a population of
companies clustered geographically in the region of the Central
Valleys of Oaxaca, which is characterized by mutual relations
between associations and organizations for collaboration around
a distinctive and specialized activity as production and sale of
mezcal. The cluster of mezcal for Oaxaca is one of the productive
activities of greater economic and social importance. According
to the Ministry of Tourism and Economic Development of the
Government of Oaxaca [23,24], the entity 2/3 of the total
produced in Mexico mezcal produced. This cluster consists of
590 factories and 41,948 families belonging to 603 locations.
Bill annually 115 million. Although the Government of Oaxaca
in its National Development Plan (2011-2016) has considered
the mezcal as one of the strategic sectors, in 2012 launched a
project that was to integrate, formalize and develop the cluster
of mezcal. The purpose was to improve the competitiveness of
companies mezcal, because the mezcal in terms of market share,
production, price and quality, not contained within spirits most
From a political and economic perspective, there has always been
interest in studying the factors driving economic development.
This subject has been discussed at different levels; in national
, company level  and the regional , the latter level
who is receiving increasing attention. Regionalist scientists have
adopted the cluster concept as a means to transform the local
reality, so in principle have identified these groups and have
designed policies and strategies for improving the development
of clusters .
The cluster concept is one possible modern descriptions that
explain a phenomenon observed, at least in the last 100 years
and talks about the territorial concentration of economic
activities, concentration is believed, very widely, which is a factor
important for economic development, territorial development,
innovation and competitiveness. Porter  defines clusters
as "geographic concentrations of interconnected companies,
specialized suppliers, service providers, firms in related industries and associated institutions (eg universities, standardization
bodies, trade) associations in a particular field that compete but
also cooperate "(p. 15). The author presents research supporting
the idea that clusters emerge as efficient mode of production and
which has spread to the design of industrial policies appears to be
a central feature of advanced economies. In introducing the idea
of clusters, Porter argues that industries become internationally
competitive, generally, are not companies or sectors diverse and
disconnected, but develop as clusters of complementary activities
within the same territory. The cluster approach differs from the
traditional policies of state promoting the creation of free zones
or industrial parks, in the sense that they are not decisions or
laboratory designs created by the government to lift a depressed
area, but rather areas where detect any comparative advantage
of its location and therefore have been gathering spontaneously
related industries and embryonic form, these include native
industries which are usually very small scale but with great
potential because they start from a unique location advantage.
According to Porter , competitiveness cluster reflects the
capabilities developed and the results of the companies that make
up the cluster. These results characterize the ability possessed by
the companies to obtain and maintain competitive advantage
in terms of price, quality, internationalization, diversification,
inter alia, that allows the cluster to achieve, sustain and improve
a position in the socio-economic environment that develops. It
points out that the competitive advantage of a cluster is the ability,
resources, knowledge and attributes, etc., of those who have them
and those who lack competitors or have a lesser extent, making
it possible to obtain a higher yield to those. Successful clusters
comparative advantages obtained through acts of innovation by
incorporating new technologies or introducing new methods or
new ways of doing things and taking advantage of and exploiting
the commercial opportunities offered by the market. De Langen
 explains that a cluster is not a population despite an entity
characterized by the formation of networks, elements such as;
heterogeneity, confidence, barriers, competition, etc., must be
taken into account in the design and implementation of collective
actions that contribute to the performance and success of
clusters. The specific model of this research takes as a theoretical
reference to the work on competitiveness and industrial clusters
exposed by Porter [17,26]. In addition, it is complemented by
proposals Andersson, et al. , Menzel and Fornahl (2007),
Aranguren , Sánchez-Mondragon, M., Sesma, J. and Regional
Development Group Tecnologico de Monterrey , Sölvell 
and Aragon, et al.  studying same identification and genesis
of clusters. Finally, for the analysis of performance cluster model
exposed by De Langen is resumed [9,33] and Garcia-Martinez, B.,
González, R. Leal, F. , which considers the following variables
and dimensions (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Estructura, gobernanza y desempeño del Cluster.
According to De Langen , the performance of the cluster is the
sum of value added generated by each of the members of the
population, which does not imply that the companies grouped
this core have to be more profitable than the rest companies,
as high profitability in companies indicates a lack of competition
and balanced participation of internal costs to the cluster, a
condition that does not favor the performance of the cluster
over time [35,36]. This author explains that while it is true the performance of the cluster shows the result of the action of
various agents, behavior (governance) and structural elements
(structure) present in the nature of the clusters, mediate the
performance of clusters. The central theme of behavior in a
cluster is the interaction of business and this interaction reflects
the performance in terms of governance. On the other hand, the
structure and governance of a cluster are interdependent. And
this interdependence is largely related to the performance of the
cluster, because in the structure influence aspects such as:
• Competition and internal cooperation, which promotes
efficiency and is an important engine for growth and
• Agglomeration economies, same as external economies and
are derived from an increase or reduction in the scale of
production, depending on the overall development of the
• Heterogeneity of the population, a condition that expresses
the diversity of skills among smaller companies and large.
• Barriers cluster, understood these as barriers to entry, exit
or to start a new business in a cluster.
Similarly, for governance this relationship between structure
and performance lies in the performance of individual
agents cluster because:
• A better presence of trust reduces coordination costs and
increases the extent of coordination and reducing the risk
• The presence and involvement of leading companies
generates positive externalities for companies in
their network, mainly by innovation, promotion of
internationalization, investment in infrastructure and
human capital formation.
• Quality of collective action regimes, because a better
contribution of the population cluster (business,
government and support agencies) to an argument
underpins community and the use of voice appropriately.
Studies have tried to agglomerations in particular, seen as
generating economies of knowledge, labor, customers and
suppliers, but not with a reference to agglomeration economies.
In this regard, De Langen  explains that no work to study the
conditions and factors inherent performance of the cluster, in
order to understand the causes of inadequate involvement of
customers and suppliers, of distrust between agents clusters, etc.
Competitiveness cluster as the dependent variable and
independent variable performance cluster: Based on the arguments of the literature reviewed a research model with the
following variables is proposed. This model aims to contribute
through the case study of mezcal, with performance analysis and
the influence this has on their competitiveness. H1: the following
hypothesis is proposed cluster performance impinges directly
and positively on the competitiveness of the cluster of mezcal of
the region of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca.
This work corresponds to a (quantitative and qualitative)
mixed research, cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational and
explanatory type. The unit of analysis was the cluster of mezcal
of the Central Valleys region of Oaxaca. During the period from
August 2015 to November 65 polls, 50 of which were applied by
means of questionnaires to representatives of mezcal companies
and 15 through interviews with actors supporting the cluster
of mezcal. Statistical analysis of the results of each index, was
made using a bivariate correlation analysis Pearson (simple and
multiple) linear regression.
The sampling was non-probabilistic and the selection of the sample
was determined to convenience, the stakeholder group support
by all institutions and social organizations that annually invest
resources in support of mezcal as is the Secretariat of Economy
(SE) was integrated, the National Institute of Forestry, Agriculture
and Livestock (INIFAP), the Regulatory Mexican Council of Mezcal
AC Quality (COMERCAM), among others Para the selection of
companies was necessary to consider two specific times ; the
first was the characterization and geographical boundaries of the
cluster of mezcal and the second in the selection of companies
with competitive skills with potential to represent and formalize
the cluster. These companies had to meet the following criteria:
Agglomeration process ; be a manufacturer or distributor of
mezcal, be located in the region of the Central Valleys of Oaxaca,
have at least 5 years of working as a company, produce mezcal
permanently (at least one cycle each month), be duly constituted
(Federal Taxpayer Registration) and work collaboratively with at
least a supporting body and, a) competitive capabilities ; comply
with NOM- 070, have export capacity, have a brand, have defined
the product price/category/market, have communications
infrastructure and basic services.
Once selected potential companies and stakeholders to support
the cluster, the type of production was constructed, which,
helped classify the general systems for the production of mezcal
and design the following code: A composed of 23 companies
and characterized by craft production with manual milling and
distillation crock pot (earth oven, milling deck, fermentation in
wooden vats and/or concrete, distillation crock pot), B composed
of 19 companies and characterized by artisanal production
system under traditional; earth oven or covered with stone,
Chilean mill, fermentation in wooden vats, distillation in copper
stills), C consists of eight companies and characterized by
artisanal production under traditional system with technological
innovations; oven coated stone, Chilean mill or wrenching
use distillation alembic copper and/or steel fermentation vats wood and/or plastic and use of gas) and D consists of 15 actors
(civil servants, representatives of educational institutions and
organizations business). The data were coded and analyzed using
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 19).
For the construction of each dimension, measure and index
the theoretical elements that best represent the concept
of business competitiveness and industrial clusters were
identified. To operationalize the variables, a questionnaire
which facilitated the integration of first-hand information was
designed; this allowed applying two indexes and obtaining
a value for measuring the influence of performance on the
competitiveness of the cluster.
Dependent variable: Competitiveness Cluster.
Cluster competitiveness index. Measures the ability that owns
the whole enterprise of a cluster, expressed in the (market
share, innovation, quality, etc.) competitive advantages that
make it easier to achieve, sustain and improve a position in the
socio-economic environment that develops.
ICCL=Cluster Competitiveness Index.
SRCL=Profitability subscript Cluster.
SPMCL=subscript Market Share Cluster.
SCPCL=subscript Product Quality Cluster.
SLCCL=subscript Customer Loyalty Cluster.
SICL=subscript Innovation Cluster.
SCMACL=subscript Environmental Care Cluster.
Independent Variable: Performance Cluster.
Independent Variable: Performance Cluster.
IDCL=Cluster Performance Index.
SECL=subscript Cluster Structure.
SGCL=subscript Governance Cluster.
SDECL=subscript Economic Development Cluster.
The variables and indicators of the research model was
quantitatively measured using the questionnaire with closed
questions (ordinals), using the combination of Likert scales, as
shown below: Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Ni disagree
or agree (3) under (4) and strongly agree (5).
To determine the level of development of the cluster, in
principle, it was necessary to construct a typology that
would represent the main characteristics of cluster lifecycle
of mezcal, see Table 1. Subsequently, this typology was
incorporated through a closed question questionnaire the
employer, which identified according to their perception of
the level of development of the cluster of mezcal. (Table 1)
|Step 1. Agglomeration
||* Weak cooperation between mezcal companies.
|* Almost no trust between companies
|* Machinery and inefficient for mezcal production technology.
|* Nula diversification of products and services.
|* Nula product certification (NOM 070).
|* Sales are at regional and state level (Central Valleys and Oaxaca) .
|Step 2. Growth
||+ Collaboration of institutions of state and federal government.
|+ Collaboration of universities and support agency ( UABJO , ITO , ITVO , CIIDIR , others)
|+ Diversified products with a brand (young, Reposado, aged, creams and cocktails ) .
| + CertifiedProduct (NOM 070 , organic and kosher )
| + Sale at regional, state, national and international level (incipient ) .
|Stage 3. Development
|| * Strategic integration of companies( distribution and marketing in niche markets ) .
|* Collaboration of government and institutions to improve and strengthen the business environment of the industry.
|* Techniques and sophisticated procedures in the production , distribution and marketing ( e-business ) .c
|* Further development of products for special editions and products with high added value.
| * Collective investment in research and infrastructure projects .
| * Sale to regional, state, national and international level ( evolution).
|Step 4. Maturity
|| + Full productive integration between business, government and supporting institutions .
| + Optimal levels of innovation, technological development and productivity.
|+ High demand for premium and super premium products.
|+ Suppliers and local traders with competitive prices internationally.
| + Sale at regional, state, national and international level ( sophisticated and highvalue-added products)
|Step 5. Transformation
|| * Weakening of thema inactivity (production of mezcal).
|* EPrsencia of new national and international companies with high technology.
|* Processes and substitute products (steroids, biofuels, insulin, etc.) , focused on meeting new requirements of global market and higher value-added products .
|Source: Prepared with information Andersson, et .to the. (2004), Menzel and Fornahl (2007) and Sölvell (2009) .
Table 1: Typology of the main characteristics of the life cycle of a cluster.
Results and Analysis
One of the main features of mezcal of Oaxaca, is the process of
handicraft production, which has been transmitted from parents
to children. For processing cultivated or wild agaves and other
raw materials are used, it is presumed that during the process
of fermentation and distillation no chemicals are added or
substitutes (sugar cane, pineapple, brown sugar, etc.) are used,
ensuring the production and consumption of natural mezcal and
also according to the NOM. 070 categories hold 100 % agave. The
general process for the preparation of mezcal integrates seven
steps: 1) production or harvesting of agave, 2) wrought and carry
maguey 3) baking, 4) grinding 5) fermentation, 6) distilled and 7)
The value chain of mezcal is directly associated with the planting
or harvesting of agave, raw materials processing, distribution and
consumption of mezcal. This chain as a whole integrates six main
1) Auxiliary industry (fertilizers, bottles, wooden vats, stills,
breathalyzers, fillers, filters, etc.).
2) producers or harvesters of maguey (Agave angustifolia
Haw, asperrima Jacobi Agave, Agave weberi Cels, Agave
potatorum Zucc, among others).
3) Production of mezcal (factories with manual milling
and distillation crock pot, factories and factories with
traditional system traditional system with technological
4) Producers and/or packers mezcal (with hitching and private
label or packaging maquila only).
5) Distributors (brand promoters, importer, supermarkets,
specialty stores, etc.) and,
6) Points of sale and consumption (households, bars,
nightclubs, mezcalerías, etc.).
The actions of coordination among actors in the chain are still
emerging and are framed exclusively in the purchase of supplies
on a consolidated or sporadic. Maguey producers represent the
link with lower economic benefits, some of the causes attributed
is the unwillingness to complete the purchase and agree a
fair price. This has led to the increase of maguey in periods of
scarcity. Mezcal producers represent the link that has managed
to formalize partnerships with educational institutions and social
organizations, such as; Benito Juarez Autonomous University
of Oaxaca (UABJO), Mexican Council Regulatory Quality Mezcal
(COMERCAM), State Committee of Sistema Producto Maguey
Mezcal-(CESPMM), among others. Where it is worth noting that
the COMERCAM is the only organization supporting the mezcal
industry has economic autonomy, as the rest of the organizations
are still dependent on government.
Greater integration and associativity between links in the
production chain-mezcal maguey is between the producers-packers
and distributors of mezcal. Currently it exists in Oaxaca
a significant presence of national and foreign investors who have
started a phenomenon of maquila, where the producer of mezcal
is only responsible for delivering your product in bulk or packaged
to prearranged mark. Distributor is the link that greater economic
benefits obtained from the rest of the chain (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Value Chain mezcalero cluster of Oaxaca, 2012.* Source: Based on information from visits to factories of mezcal.
In the state of Oaxaca, there is no formal organization under the
figure of cluster. However, the story about the mezcal in the entity
and the interpretation of the specialization index applied to the
economic censuses of 2004 and 2009 reflect a concentration of
companies producing mezcal mainly in the Central Valleys region
of Oaxaca. In addition, this concentration of mezcal companies
and suppliers of raw materials, constantly collaborating
organizations and institutions to support the development of this
economic activity, without necessarily being a formalized cluster, which allows defining spoken of a natural cluster associated with
the mezcal production.
The genesis of the cluster of mezcal is associated with three
fundamental aspects: the first has to do with the natural
evolution of productive activity in Oaxaca and the conditions that
generated this ancestral activity, to encourage the establishment
of new businesses and organizations without the government
intervention. The second aspect is associated with the progressive allocation of production factors naturally also has the region such
as ; agave, labor, land for cultivation, water, investment capital,
technology infrastructure, etc. And the third aspect is part of
the evolution of the economic benefits it has had activity as a
whole. It is important to recognize that we are talking about
an economic activity dating back over 200 years and there are
several companies that have managed to overcome the threshold
of the technical, financial and infrastructure.
According to the analysis of information obtained from
the questionnaires and based on the typology of the main
characteristics of the life cycle of a cluster, the results show that
87 % of employers surveyed consider that the cluster of mezcal of
the region Valles Oaxaca plants are in the growth stage (stage 2).
The research hypothesis of a type of work, which is presented as
an early response to the problem of low competitiveness cluster
of mezcal of the Central Valleys region of Oaxaca. a correlation
bivariate Pearson was conducted to analyze the level of influence
between the study variables and whether the following research
hypothesis is true: H1: The performance of the cluster has a
direct and positive impact on the competitiveness of the cluster
of mezcal of the Region the Central Valleys of Oaxaca.
Pearson bivariate correlation showed that there is a positive
and significant relationship between performance and
competitiveness of the cluster (r=0.812, p ≤ 0.01), see Table 2.
Table 2: Pearson bivariate correlation between research variables.* **
The correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral).
A complementary bivariate Pearson correlation analysis was
simple linear regression analysis. The results show that the
coefficient of determination obtained in 66% explains the
influence of the performance variable (independent) in the
variable competitiveness cluster of mezcal as the dependent
variable (r2=0.660, p ≤ 0.01), see Table 3.
Source : Prepared based on the SPSS version 19 program , 2015.
Table 3: Simple linear regression between cluster performance and
competitiveness of the cluster.
To check on level of aspect ratio varying performance and
competitiveness of the cluster, a second bivariate Pearson
correlation, which is presented in Table 4 was performed again.
||economic performance cluster
||Innovation in the cluster
||Care for the environment
|economic performance cluster
|Innovation in the cluster
|Care for the environment
| **. The correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (bilateral).
*. The correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (bilateral).
Table 4: Pearson bivariate correlation between dimensions of the research variables.
It was identified that the profitability dimension was related
positively and significantly with the dimensions : structure
of the cluster (r=0.655, p ≤ 0.01) and economic performance
of the cluster (r=0.697, p ≤ 0.01). Both results explain the way
how integration and agent performance cluster have favored
quality, innovation, design and image of products, generating
customer satisfaction and strengthening the profitability of
the business cluster. The results also help to understand why
employers consider the mezcal as a business with favorable
levels of profitability and as this productive activity has improved
the living conditions of their families, as well as improving the
infrastructure and equipping their factories.
The innovation dimension in the cluster was related positively
and significantly with the economic performance of the cluster
(r=0.625, p ≤ 0.01) dimension, this relationship explains the
progress that mezcal companies have achieved in recent
years regarding economic performance, partly it attributed
to the introduction of more efficient equipment in the milling
process, distillation and packaging of mezcal. In the cluster
there are innovative companies that the last 10 years have been characterized by work on specific segments, with promoters of
product identity, improvements in quality, design, authoring
products, among other things, creating a specialization in supply
and product differentiation from the rest of mezcal. However, it is
worth recognizing that there are still few cases where companies
have decided to invest in innovation, for example, of the 50
companies selected in this research, only 3 of them permanently
and has made innovation own actions. The rest (92%), acquires
knowledge, equipment or tools already created and justifies no
resources. They also note that hardly invest in collaboration with
other companies, which helps explain the relationship between
innovation and governance cluster (r=0.277, p ≤ 0.51), governance
in the process of consolidation and even characterized by lack of
trust, cooperation and partnership between actors in the cluster.
Other relationships between dimensions is important to note,
is environmental care and governance of the cluster size, these
relate positively and significantly (r=0.484, p ≤ 0.01), indicating
that the governance or management form cluster considered
today need to implement actions to help mitigate pollution
problems liquids (slops) and solid waste (bagasse) which are
becoming more severe in locations where factories producing
mezcal are established.
It was identified that the participation dimension in the market
positively and significantly associated with the dimension
of economic performance cluster (r=0.744, p ≤ 0.01). This
relationship explains that the economic performance of the
cluster is favorable and that the productive framework has
generated the conditions and capabilities to offer a mezcal with
higher added value and in accordance with the requirements of
national and international growth market.
Based on the results obtained in this research hypothesis is
accepted, because there is a positive and significant relationship
between performance and competitiveness of the cluster of
mezcal of the Central Valleys region of Oaxaca (r=0.812, p ≤ 0.01).
Complementary to the bivariate correlation Pearson, a multiple
linear regression analysis was done to identify as the dimensions
of the independent variable explains the dependent variable Table 5.
|economic performance cluster
Table 5: Multiple linear regression between cluster performance and
competitiveness of the cluster.* Source : Prepared based on the SPSS
version 19 program , 2015.
As can be seen in the regression analysis of the performance of the
cluster, specifically the structure, governance and performance of
the cluster dimensions affect the competitiveness of the cluster
of mezcal of Oaxaca Central Valleys Region. The structure of the
cluster with value β=0.770, governance cluster with β=0.551 and
economic performance of the cluster with β=0.867, p ≤ both
significant at the.01 level.
The mezcal of Oaxaca Central Valleys region is an economic
and social reality concocted more than two centuries ago.
This productive activity today has the anatomical elements
of an industrial cluster (company, government. Collaborating
institutions, financial institutions and research community).
Its genesis is not attributed to the implementation of policies
and government projects rather talking about a natural cluster
where its formation has been associated with both comparative and competitive advantages, such as : the availability of natural
resources, infrastructure, hand skilled, tacit knowledge work,
among others, which have generated the attractiveness of the
location of businesses.
In this research the relationship between performance and
competitiveness of the cluster of mezcal of Oaxaca Central
Valleys region was analyzed, variables and dimensions that
influence the competitiveness of companies producing mezcal
representing the cluster described. This research is based on the
theories of cluster and business competitiveness, which, present
empirical evidence confirming that industrial clusters revitalize
the competitiveness of enterprises and help respond favorably to
the economic environment of global competition that demands
rapid changes in organizational structures companies.
The contribution of this research was the development of scales
to measure the performance of the cluster of mezcal, generally
these scales can be used in other industrial activities with
necessary adjustments. Regarding the hypothesis, it is found
that there is a positive and significant relationship between
performance and competitiveness of the cluster of mezcal. This
hypothesis is accepted because the performance impact for
companies that represent the cluster, achieve to be competitive.
The research results coincide with those found by De Langen
, which states that the effects generated by an agglomeration
contribute to strengthening the competitiveness of a cluster
because: a hand of shared work, knowledge, customers and
suppliers favors the business environment and attracts companies
to the cluster; greater confidence, commitment to intermediaries
and firm behavior of the leading companies, generated as the
resulting improvement in the quality of governance in the
group; internal competition adds to the performance of the
cluster, it encourages specialization and improved cluster from
a perspective of how to address specialized market segments.
The results of the survey show that 42% of employers considered that the cluster of mezcal is at a level of growth (stage two). This
condition explains the evolution of an activity based on the above
factors lead production to an industry that begins to work in
areas such as (water, land, labor, and others.); quality, innovation,
cooperation, sophisticated demand and product identity.
Employers match that has been favorable engage in production
and sale of mezcal. They also argue that competitiveness depends
on the internal workings of their businesses, strategies and chosen
markets. They emphasize that the way to compete has changed
and this has led to the orientation of actions towards innovation,
internationalization, quality and continuous improvement. They
also recognize that support organizations and institutions have
contributed in strengthening the cluster, however, not agree
on a common agenda, generate fragmentation of the sector
and resources. They also consider that it is necessary to work on an agenda that favors the creation of an environment of
relationships based on trust, solidarity, cooperation, honesty,
credibility, honesty and integrity between agents of the cluster.
In conclusion, the influence of the performance variable in
the competitiveness cluster of mezcal is checked, this analysis
reflects the conditions under which the set of characteristics
and conditions inherent in the performance of the cluster and
determine its global competitiveness, either in terms of exports,
quality and price of products. The competitiveness cluster of
mezcal of Oaxaca Central Valleys region, continues rooted in the
comparative advantages offered by its local structure, despite the
globalization of the economy. A change is displayed on the way to
compete and this condition has generated in recent years creating
competitive advantages in areas such as creating technology,
critical mass, value added and product diversification.
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