The Communication and Interpretation of the One Belt and One Road by
Chinese and Vietnamese Media in the Perspective of Frame Analysis - A Case
Study of China Radio International CRI and Voice of Vietnam VOV in
Tran Son Tung*
School of Journalism and Communication, Wuhan University, Wuchang District, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tran Son Tung, PhD student
School of Journalism and Communication
Wuhan University, Wuchang District
City, Hubei Province, 430072, China
Received Date: Mar 06, 2018; Accepted Date: Mar 15, 2018; Published Date: Mar 27, 2018
Citation: Tung TS. The Communication and Interpretation of the One Belt and One Road by Chinese and Vietnamese Media in the Perspective
of Frame Analysis - A Case Study of China Radio International CRI and Voice of Vietnam VOV in Comparison. Global Media Journal 2018, 16:30.
Copyright: © 2018 Tung TS. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Based on Vietnamese version of Online News Network China Radio International (CRI) and Voice of Vietnam VOV news as the research object, this study uses framing analysis to compare and analyze the two media’s reports on the "One Belt and One Road” initiative (OBOR). The study finds that the subject and content of China CRI mainly focus on benefits and cooperation opportunities coming from the "One Belt and One Road” initiative, and avoid controversial topics. On the contrary, since the territorial sovereignty in the two countries’ bilateral relation has not reached a consensus yet, plus the power and influence of China has been continuously increasing in recent years, result in the Vietnamese media tends to pay more attention to the controversial topics, and often uses the territorial dispute as a groundwork so as to lead to relevant content of the "One Belt and One Road” initiative. At the same time, it also cites the third-party reports of foreign media to indirectly make China's image negative and raise questions about the initiative.
One belt and one road (OBOR); Framing
analysis; China radio international; Voice of Vietnam
Background and Origin
In visiting to Kazakhstan and Indonesia, China’s President Xi
Jin Ping proposed his strategic vision of “New Silk Road
Economic Belt" and “21st Century Maritime Silk Road" in
September and October 2013 respectively. Since then, the
“One Belt And One Road” initiative has attracted international
attention. There are 64 countries and regions along the line
“One Belt One Road”, all countries have different cognitions
and reactions to the “One Belt and One Road” initiative by
reason of some aspects such as geopolitical benefits and
cultural differences., the United States, as China's biggest rival, had a relatively complex perpective of the “One Belt and One
Road”, with positive affirmation, neutral, negative disavowal in
coexistence , but in general, the United States’ doubt about
China’s initiative was obvious, it believes that China desires to
expand the international influence through the “One Belt and
One Road” would directly affect the US’s benefits and leading
position in Eurasia . Although Russia publicly supported the
“One Belt and One Road” initiative, said that it was a good
opportunity and brought mutually beneficial win-win results to
both sides, but also showed the vigilant and nervous attitude
towards the “One Belt and One Road” initiative at the same
India belongs to ambiguous hesitant faction along with
Russia, its government also publicly supported the initiative
“One Belt One Road”, but still took relatively obscure
precaution against China‘s "power expansion" , also
indicated that it was a kind of remission of the fears of other
countries about China's continuously growing force/power, the
"One Belt And One Road" initiative not only could improve
their international position and influence, it is also a response
to the United States to bring pressure on China .
Vietnam, which borders on China and has a territorial
dispute, has changed from "suspicion" to "cautious welcome"
in its perception and attitude towards "One Belt One Road"
. Since the official establishment of diplomatic relations
between the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the People's
Republic of China in 1950, so far the two countries’ bilateral
relation has experienced a lot of ups and downs, but the
bilateral friendship has also been strengthened constantly.
However, there exists a tension core problem is the territorial
sovereignty in the relation of China and Vietnam and both
countries announced their own territorial waters towards this
region that causes a lot of frictions and conflicts. Since 2015,
on principle of respect for the benefits of both sides, Vietnam
also has repeatedly expressed the willingness to work with
China to promote the cooperation’s under the framework of
"One Belt One Road" and "two corridors and one economic
circle", that was an important significance to the construction of the "One Belt One Road" initiative, Vietnam’s General
Secretary Nguyen Phu Trong obviously expressed support for
the International Cooperation Summit Forums on the "One
Belt One Road" initiative held successfully in 2017 after
meeting with China’s President Xi Jin Ping. The two sides have
reached a consensus on enhancing cooperation in various
fields under the framework of "One Belt One Road" and "two
corridors and one economic circle" following the principle of
equality, mutual benefit and compliance with the laws of both
In Vietnam, the news media is the essential information
mean of social life, the speech organ of the Party’s organs, the
State organs, socio-political organizations, socio-political
profession organizations, social organizations, socialprofessional
organizations, and the forum of the people as
well. Its main duty is to propagate and popularize the Party’s
propositions, policies and national laws, and to make a
contribution to the political stability, eco-social development
and the improvement of people’s intellection. The Vietnamese
government unifies and manages the news media, and the
ministry of information and communications is responsible for
the management of the news media to the government.
Therefore, the country’s news media need to follow the
guidance of the communist party, state administration, and
the news media activities need to abide by the laws and
The important mission of the news media is to guide public
opinion, China published the "nine-dash line" and established
SanSha City in 2009, result in increasing tension situation of
territorial waters dispute. Faced with this situation, the
Vietnamese communist party and the government made clear
that the contradiction between the two countries is quite
complicated, whereas Vietnam’s highest principle is to defend
national independence and territorial sovereignty. The
ministry of information and communications of Vietnam
required the domestic mass media not to incite public opinion,
but to do ideological work well for officials, party members
and people . Vietnam's Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc
emphasized: “Our media is a revolutionary media and every
reporter … actively struggle to defend the sovereignty and
territory of the motherland…”.
For such a neighboring country that has long-term friendly
and complicated relations with China, by examining the
reports and interpretations of its national media on the "One
Belt and One Road", it indirectly reveals the attitude and
opinions of the Vietnamese government and compares it with
China's reporting on Vietnam. It will help China to carry out
external communications on the "One Belt and Road" issue.
Framework studies have arisen since the 1970s. As regards
the origin of framework theory, some scholars think that the
clues could be found from two research fields ; the first one
is sociology, the frame is a psychological principles and
subjective process of personal organizational events. People
regard the daily life real picture into the framework, in order to understand and react to the social situation ; the second
one is psychology, formed a kind of hypothesis construction
regarding individual cognitive process, also named schema,
our knowledge is stored in the memory in the form of data
structure, called the frame .
There is similarity in these two fields’ viewpoint, that people
use the frame as a tool to identify the external world. Then
frame started to be used in the field of journalism and
communication, the concept of "media frame" came out,
supposed that frame is a tool for journalists to package up a
large amount of information and deliver it effectively to the
audience . The frame can be divided into two levels
“boundary” and “building frame”; "boundary" is known as a
kind of border, the range of drawing materials, while people
explain events of the outside world through “building frame”
In conclusion, although there are a large number of
researches regarding frame definition, the core idea of these
researches is still related to the fundamental process of
meaning construction in which some aspects or characters or
some ideas, themes and experiences of issues or events are
highlighted or attract attention, while others will be ignored
The frame theory has been widely appreciated and applied
by journalism and communication scholars in the 21st century.
Though the frame analysis was not originated from the field of
communication, it had become a hot topic of communication.
After more than 20 years, the communication research on the
theory and approach of frame analysis has no breakthrough,
or even become vague .
The news frame analysis can be divided into three
categories: discourse, discourse construction and discourse
acceptance. The news frame can be divided into many types,
such as thematic frame and fragmented frame, strategic frame
and topic frame . The news frame mainly includes text
contents such as the presentation mode, some key words,
phraseology, news source, news schema structure and so on.
However, the framework of news report can be presented
through syntactic structure, script structure, thematic
structure and rhetorical structure , and the emphasis of
speaker when narrating or discussing a certain news event or
topic , reveal the idea of the construction of news
metaphor, the news media leads to different thinking and
perceptions through different frames .
Based on the above viewpoint, this study examines the two
countries’ media on the same topic of China‘s initiative “One
Belt One Road” with the same topic but different framework
setting, and reveals the characteristics of the two media's
dissemination to the same audience.
This study chooses Vietnamese version of Online News
Network China Radio International (CRI) and Voice of Vietnam
news (VOV) as the study object, analyses the news reports and
their differences of the two countries’ media regarding “One Belt One Road” initiative, and the reasons of report differences
Due to CRI Online news is one of China's official media with
Vietnamese version, so understanding this network’s news
reports in regard to the “One Belt One Road” initiative is the
way to understand how the Chinese government to spread the
“One Belt One Road” initiative to Vietnam; and Voice of
Vietnam (VOV) news network, which is supervised by the
government, is also Vietnam's official news site and represents
for the voice of the government.
By using key words “Một vành đai, một con đường” ("One
Belt And One Road") and “con đường tơ lụa” ("silk road"), this
study collected all the relevant news reports of the Voice of
Vietnam VOV from September 1st 2013 to April 30th 2017,
obtained 80 articles of samples in total, in which two of them
were the same, so only 79 articles left after screening. At the
same time, the study also collected all reports of the "One Belt
One Road" initiative on CRI Online, total 30 articles. From the
perspective of frame analysis, the study compared the two
countries’ media coverage of the "One Belt One Road"
initiative, analyses the three levels of news frame in relevant
reports (macro concept hierarchy framework, mid-level
framework and micro-text hierarchy framework), referred to
context creation, word usage, report tendency and report
source and so on… of the "One Belt One Road" initiative, made
further interpretation of the initiative "One Belt One Road"
presented on media, and probe into the differences between
Chinese media and Vietnam media and their causes.
CRI concerns initiative’s content whereas VOV
concerns initiative’s relevant events
Vietnamese media coverage’s source is more abundant:
The source of CRI and VOV reports involving the "One Belt One
Road" initiative reflects relatively obvious differences, China
CRI’s report sources primarily come from domestic official
media, such as CRI (16 articles), CRI Online (3 articles), Xinhua
news (8 articles), Xinhua net (1 article) and China news (2
articles). Vietnam VOV’s report sources mainly come from
domestic media such as VOV (64 articles), Vietnam news (1
article), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1 article), and foreign
media such as Interpreter （ 1 article, Reuters (4 articles),
Russia-Direct (1 article), Sputnik (2 articles), Tehran Time (1
article), Xinhua news (3 articles), Yonhap (1 article). Despite
small quantity of direct transmission fromforeign media, in
term of the information sources of news coverage’s main text,
CRI reports information mostly come from the spokesmen of
Chinese and foreign government organizations, scholars at
home and abroad, the Chinese and foreign enterprises
leaderships, while VOV not only includes the spokesman of
government organizations, scholars at home and abroad, but
also direct cites the commentary of the more authoritative
media in the west. It can be seen that even though China’s
reports refer to the “One Belt One Road” initiative,
Vietnamese media rarely cite or transmit the reports of Chinese official media. Therefore, the preliminary finding is
that the Vietnam’s media VOV is influenced by foreign media,
especially the western media, and tends to pay attention to
the perspectives and opinions of the third-party countries and
The negative trend of Vietnamese media is more
prominent: The tendency of news reports can be judged
through the title, the introduction, the context of text, word
usage and the news source. This part is not only aimed at the
report tendency of China's "One Belt And One Road" initiative,
but also refers to the report tendency of all China’s aspects
consisting of positive, neutral and negative.
Looking at the overall, CRI's reporting tendency is positive,
reflects a support, praise, affirmation of China's "One Belt And
One Road" initiative and China's overall appearance, and
builds a good national image.
VOV's reporting tendency is mainly positive (42 articles,
account for 53%), next come negative (21 articles, account for
27%) and neutral (16 articles, account for 20%). This shows
that when VOV involved the China and China "One Belt and
One Road" initiative, it mainly reported on its support, praise
At the same time, however, there are also some notable
news reports that take a questioning, blaming, and denying
attitude reported (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Time distribution and report trend of VOV involving “One Belt And One Road” initiative.
A further analysis was conducted according to time
distribution and tendency of the quantity of news reports
involving the “One Belt One Road” initiative, found that the
increasing trend in quantity reflects the Vietnamese media pay
more and more attention to the initiative "One Belt And One
Road", among which the quantity of positive reports tended to
increase from 2013 to 2016.
Meanwhile, the number of negative reports abruptly
increased in two periods 2013-2014 (none article and 6
articles), and 2015-2016 (5 articles and 10 articles), the main
reason came from the drilling work of China ocean oil platform
981 in May 2014, since then, the problem of the Chinese-
Vietnamese territorial waters was mentioned in the majority
of negative reports context.
In addition, along with VOV’s continuously increasing
attention and the official launching of the "One Belt One Road"
initiative, all countries in the world came up with their own
opinion on China’s initiative "One Belt And One Road", in
which referred to some countries’ expression with doubtful
and hesitant attitude as well.
“One Belt One Road” is not Vietnamese media‘s crucial
highlight to attract the reader: From the point of overall
content, CRI reports focus on the content, idea and related
events of the "One Belt One Road" initiative, while VOV
reports focus on the initiative’s related events and the detailed
process, background and reason of events. Its characteristics
can be found in the title of news reports.
There are totally 30 reports of CRI referring to "One Belt
One Road", in which "One Belt And One Road" appears on 27
reports’ title, “Maritime Silk Road” appears on 2 reports’ title,
and only one report’s title has no relevant word. On the
contrary, "One Belt One Road" appears on 2 titles, “New Silk
Road” appears on 5 titles, and remaining 72 titles have no
relevant word in VOV reports.
Obviously, China's CRI report has a clear target and
directivity, so that Vietnamese readers can judge and learn the
correlation between its content and "One Belt One Road" through the news titles. And majority of VOV titles have no
appearance of these key words, it means that the media did
not consider “One Belt One Road" as highlight or important
topic to attract the reader, they need to read more in the
introduction and main text to get the relevant information of
The Vietnamese media is more concerned about the
territorial sea: The scale of “one belt one road initiative” is
very grand, involves over 60 countries and regions along the
route Obviously, the context concerning the "One Belt and
Road Initiative" will be closely linked to the content of
diplomatic relations and cooperation between China and
In regard to reports topic, the news reports of both media
China CRI and Vietnam VOV refer to the content and
cooperation in many aspects, namely Sino-foreign diplomacy,
economy, culture and art, information dissemination,
education, military, territorial waters, and China’s domestic
events. CRI's news reports are mainly related to the content of
Sino-foreign diplomacy and economic cooperation, while VOV
also pays special attention to the content of the territorial sea
issue besides the above two aspects (Table 1).
Table 1: CRI and VOV’s news topic involving the “Belt and Road” initiative
|Culture and Art
|China’s domestic event
In recent years, China's territorial waters issue has been a
common concern of international audiences. Whereas since
the event of China’s Ocean Oil Drilling Rig 981 happened in
May 2014, the Vietnamese media have been concerning
China's every move in this sea area. Later, the Sino-Philippine
arbitration once again raised the heat of this topic up.
Hence, the territorial disputes between China and some
countries have been extremely attracting attention of the
United States, Japan, and ASEAN countries. According to
statistics, none of CRI’s 30 articles refers to territorial sea
issues, while VOV‘s 38 articles refer to this issue, account for
half of the total number of reports. Currently, the biggest
problem of the Sino-Vietnam relation appear in the two
countries’ territorial waters sovereignty, although both sides’
leaders reached a consensus in the methods and principles on dispute settlement, the territorial waters sovereignty is still
one of the relatively remarkable problem.
The differences between the media of Vietnam
and China from discourse and third-party
The Vietnamese media's discourse style is conflictive and
complicated: From the perspective of the use of word in
relevant reports of CRI and VOV, it clearly shows the difference
of the languages used by the two media.
The terms used by China's CRI are mostly commendatory
terms, which are intended to emphasizing the major benefits of participating in "One Belt And One Road" in the fields of
economic and trade cooperation (Table 2).
Table 2: CRI reported beliefs, key opinions and use of words Related to one Belt one Road initiative.
|CRI Report Tendency
||“one Belt one Road” brings development opportunities to countries along the routes.
||“long-term stability”, “highlight”, “boost”, “new development chance”, “prosperity”, “better benefit”, “new economic model”, “be beneficial to…”
|Foreign countries positively join in China’s “one Belt one Road” initiative
||“positively participate in”, “welcome toparticipate in”, “important cooperation partner”, “common construction ”, “enhance relationship”
|“one Belt one Road”relevant events
||“enhance communication” , “vigorous investment”, “eye-catching”, “successfully held”
Some titles use the phrases "Welcome …to participate in",
"positively participate in”, emphasize that China is very
enthusiastically welcome other countries to participate in the
“one Belt one Road" initiative. In addition, this kind of
expression present to Vietnamese readers that up to now
China’s “one Belt one Road" initiative has received the
attention and support from many countries.
Such news contents directly affirm and praise the initiative,
as well as further indirectly convince Vietnam audience have
faith in the “one Belt one Road” initiative which have
“important meaning”, can "promote cooperation", are
“beneficial to the long-term stable development”, bring
"prosperity" and "development" to China and other countries.
The language used in Vietnam VOV news reports involving
the “one Belt one Road” initiative is more plentiful than China
CRI. As referring to the view of two countries’ senior leaders
about the “one Belt one Road” the obviously colorful positive
words were also used to describe the two sides agreed that
the initiative would promote the development of the two
countries. However, when the territorial dispute issue was
linked to the relevant view or content of the initiative, VOV
would use many offensive words to accuse China.
At the same time, the negative views and attitudes of
foreign governments, experts or media were also cited to raise
questions and objections to the “one Belt one Road” initiative
and relevant content (Table 3).
Table 3: The report tendency, main points and use of terms of VOV involving “one Belt one Road” initiative.
|VOV Report Tendency
||China‘svigorous investment in the “new silk road”.
||“strengthen diplomatic relations”, “sign important documents”, “improve infrastructure”, “become an important concern”
|China and foreign countries strengthen cooperation and positively participate in the “one Belt one Road” initiative.
||“strengthen cooperation”, “positively participate in”, “come to a consensus”, “mutually beneficial cooperation”, “having many prospects”, “promote development trend”, “highly value diplomatic relations”, “high evaluation”
|Successfully hold the events related to the “one Belt one Road” initiative.
||“strategic meaning ”, “important meaning”, “priority to the development”, “deepen bilateral relation”, “positive”
||China increase influence through the “Belt And Road” initiative, cause a threat.
||“political intrigue”, “inflation”, “corruption”, “economic loss”, “stuck”, “face the challenge”, “threat”, “terrorist crisis”, “security crisis”, “broken”
|Foreign countries are skeptical and cautious about the “one Belt one Road” initiative.
||“hesitate ”, “call into question”, “loss of trust”, “national interest conflict”
|The territorial dispute becomes a major obstacle to the implementation the “one Belt one Road” initiative.
||"Infringement", "illegal", provocation, "invasion", "violation", "sticking point"
||Sino-foreign relations assessment
||“influence”, “concern”, “visit”
|China's diplomatic policy analysis.
||“diplomatic policy”, “new order”, “purpose of visit”
Thus it can be seen that the discourse used by Vietnam VOV
is contradictory and complex, on the one hand, it expresses
supportive affirmative attitude, and on the other hand, it
refers to the opinion of question and accusation to report. But
in term of the characteristics and position of VOV news
network, it is directly subordinate to Vietnamese radio station
supervised by the Vietnamese government; VOV's mission is to
transmit the line and policy of the Vietnamese communist
party and the law of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and to
improve people’s intellection and spiritual life. Hence, VOV's
view of the “one Belt one Road” still indirectly reflects the
voice of Vietnamese government. In other words, VOV
presents the Vietnamese government ‘s official attitude
through the news involving the official opinions of the two
countries, as well as transmits the negative news reports and
comments under Vietnamese government supervision, give Vietnamese readers a comprehensive understanding,
therefore the Vietnamese audience easily arise the skeptical
attitude to the “one Belt one Road” initiative.
The reflection of foreign countries indirectly reveals the
cautious attitude of Vietnamese media: In respect of foreign
countries’ attitudes and perceptions of the “one Belt one
Road” initiative, nine of thirty CRI’s reports involve this
content, respectively refer to the viewpoint of the Maldives,
Mongolia, Laos, Switzerland, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia,,
Madagascar and Hungary.
They basically support and affirm the implementation of the
“Belt and Road” initiative.
A total of 36 VOV’s reports are related to this content,
accounting for nearly half of the total amount of sample, the
attitudes and opinions of all countries are also plentiful, as
follows (Table 4):
Table 4: The reaction of other countries on the Vietnamese media VOV.
On the Vietnamese media VOV, most of the above countries
and regions support the construction and implementation of
the " one Belt one Road” initiative, but some countries are also
suspicious (Russia) and hesitant (India and Southeast Asian
The response of the Vietnamese media VOV to readers is
more comprehensive than that of the Chinese media. Hence it
can be deduced that firstly, in addition to foreign countries’
support and affirmative attitude, CRI did not unintentionally or
intentionally present the doubtful, hesitant, reconsider
attitude of the foreign countries. For Vietnamese readers, it
obviously cover-up of foreign countries’ negative reactions to
their initiatives, but it is perfectly reasonable towards China's
own interests. Second, by reporting third parties' hesitant and
skeptical attitudes and their reasons, VOV makes Vietnamese
readers feel more suspicious about the initiative, thus
indirectly expresses Vietnam's cautious attitude towards the
The territorial sea dispute influences on the
Vietnamese media’s report and understanding
of the “one Belt one Road" initiative
Further statistics of word frequency found that although
every report mentions the "Belt and Road", the initiative is
often mentioned as the "Silk Road", total 125 times, among
which the number of occurrences of "Maritime Silk Road" as
an important part of the "one Belt one Road" initiative and
"Economic Belt" is 36 times and 25 times respectively.
This suggests that the Vietnamese media VOV is more
inclined to call the “Belt and Road” initiative as “Silk Road",
increase focus on the content of “Maritime Silk Road".
The sea area of the South China Sea (known as the East Sea
in Vietnam) has crucial economic, geopolitical and geostrategic
position; it is a maritime transportation route connecting the
Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and one of the most
dynamic routes in maritime transportation all over the word.
Therefore, any dispute in this area will directly affect the
interests of many countries.
Vietnamese media VOV stressed that the Silk Road crosses
by the sea area with full of sovereignty dispute, and in recent
years, the contradictions and conflicts of territorial waters
sovereignty have been occurred among China, Vietnam and
If the issue of territorial waters sovereignty has not be
solved completely yet, it will still be the stuck-point between
China and ASEAN countries, will directly affect the cognition
and reflection of ASEAN countries about the "one Belt one
China highly needs the support of the ASEAN countries to
the Maritime Silk Road, it is called a supplement to the landbased
Silk Road Economic Belt.
In spite of the rapid implementation progress of the
progress of the Economic Belt, the continuous improvement of
the strength of the Chinese naval forces and Coast Guard make neighboring countries feel threatened, so in these countries'
view, the Maritime Silk Road is still a fully vague idea.
In addition, the number of occurrences of words as the East
Sea, dispute, sea area, contradiction, conflict, violation and
corruption is more than which reflect the prominence of the
territorial waters dispute in the report (Figure 2).
Figure 2: Key words statistic of relevant news reports on Vietnam VOV.
It is noteworthy that China clearly emphasized that the
"territorial waters dispute" could only be resolved through
bilateral consultation, and required no interference from any
third party, while the Vietnamese media VOV tended to
enlarge the problem of territorial disputes. The Vietnamese
media mentioned not only the dispute between China and
Vietnam, but also the Sino-Philippine arbitration, the dispute
of Senkaku Islands between China and Japan, and the collision
with Indonesian vessel. Since then it emphasized that the
territorial dispute is not a question between nations, but an
international problem which not only affects the interests
between the two countries, but also affects the interests of
other countries as well as the peace and security in the region
and the world. Besides, VOV also showed that China had
introduced its own initiatives to countries all over the world,
especially economic projects welcome the participation of all
countries, this means that once all countries participate, they
must abide by China’s requirements, and accept China's
leading position as well, this is related to China's own interests,
which also involve all disputes of the territorial sea
sovereignty. If China successfully implements the Maritime Silk
Road, it will mean that China would justifiably increase its
influence in this sea area. Obviously, this will lead to the loss of
equality in cooperation, but in the CRI, these views are only a
kind of "misunderstanding".
Because the “one Belt one Road” initiative involves the
territorial dispute and affects Vietnam's interests and
sovereignty, so in 11 reports on Vietnam and the "Belt and
Road” initiative, it is not difficult to find out the Vietnamese
media reported the Vietnam’s viewpoints with an especially
cautious attitude. The content of the report focus on the
mutual visits of the top leaders of China and Vietnam, and the
common statement of both sides. They first mentioned the
history of the friendship between China and Vietnam, the two countries’ achievements in various fields of cooperation. The
second is the problem of Sino-Vietnamese relations, which is
territorial water, both sides reached an agreement on
solutions to this issue, but at the same time, they avoided to
determine the ownership of sea area sovereignty. Once again,
they talked about the willingness of China and Vietnam to
promote cooperation within the framework of “one Belt one
Road” and "two corridors and one circle". In particular, in
these reports, “one Belt one Road” and "two corridors and one
circle" appeared in the same sentence.
The geographic scope of cooperation within the framework
of “Belt and Road" and "two corridors and one circle” does not
contain the sea area in dispute. In other words, the
Vietnamese government’s view presented by Vietnamese
media VOV is to agree and support the construction of the
"Belt and Road" initiative but does not involve the disputed
sea area. This media created a close and rational context
which can both represent a supportive attitude and show its
firm standpoint, safeguard of its own interests. In addition,
combining with the transmission of "suspicious" and "hesitant"
attitude of other countries reflected Vietnam’s "cautious"
There are obvious differences of multi-aspects such as
sources, tendency, topics and the way of discourse between
the two media. China CRI tends to spread the economic
benefits brought by the "Belt and Road" initiative to Vietnam
audience, presents the positive views and supportive, praising
and positive attitude of the top leaders of Chinese and foreign
government, international scholars, Chinese and foreign
enterprises, emphasizes 100-year plan of the " one Belt one
Road" initiative which is supported and expected by many
countries of the world, the implementation of the " one Belt
one Road" will bring multiple interests to all countries along
the route. The VOV, which can represent the voice of
Vietnamese government, does not focus on the economic
interests of the initiative, but tends to the controversy of the
initiative, the cited views of foreign governments’ top leaders
and international scholars and the use of word in the report
are relatively plentiful; on the one hand, it is similar to the
"one Belt one Road” Initiative as described by China's CRI, and
on the other hand, it expresses doubt and negative, supposes
that the Chinese government wants to take this opportunity to
enhance its position and influence, and bring a threats to
In recent years, despite the fact that China-Vietnam bilateral
relations have been continuously strengthened and promoted,
territorial waters dispute is still one of the most striking issues.
Among the 79 related reports of VOV, the issue of maritime
territorial disputes often appears and allegations of China's
every move in this area, VOV use it as a foundation to lead to
relevant content of the "One Belt One Road" initiative. This
reflects two issues: first, VOV emphasizes Vietnam's
sovereignty and standpoint on the issue of territorial waters
disputes, at the same time, it accuses China’s every move of
violating sovereignty and international laws; second, this sea area is the essential part of the "21st Century Maritime Silk
Road", mentioning maritime dispute issues means indirectly
emphasizing the issue of the "One Belt One Road Initiative”. In
addition, the Vietnamese media VOV has repeatedly cited the
negative reports of third parties, further making Vietnamese
readers call into question with the real purpose of the
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