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The Responsibility of the Social Media in the UAE towards Terrorism from the Perspective of the Emirati Youth: A Field Study on the Emirati Audience

Fawzia Abd Allah Al-Ali*

Department of Mass Communication, College of Communication, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE

*Corresponding Author:
Fawzia Abd Allah Al-Ali
Department of Mass Communication
College of Communication, University of Sharja
Sharjah, UAE
Tel: +97165053609
P.O.Box: 27272
E-mail:falali@sharjah.ac.ae

Received date: May 22, 2019 Accepted date: June 05, 2019 Published date: June 13, 2019

Citation: Al-Ali FAA. The Responsibility of the Social Media in the UAE towards Terrorism from the Perspective of the Emirati Youth A Field Study on the Emirati Audience. Global Media Journal 2019, 17:33.

 

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Abstract

The one, who scrutinizes the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism, finds that it gained great importance through the peoples and governments all over the world due to their critical impacts on the state security and stability upon discovering that we deal with an organized criminal phenomenon, which aims at creating a general atmosphere of fear, terror and threat by practicing violence against individuals and properties; i.e. this critical phenomenon aims at hindering the stabilities of communities, impacting their political statuses and destroying their national economy.

Keywords

Terrorism; Social media; Media coverage

Introduction

More recently, the media has been paying special attention to the events of terrorism due to including an increasing degree of conflict. These events are preceded by the introduction of newsletters on television, international satellite channels and the front pages of the newspapers. In this regard, the public perceives them as very important events during a certain period of time.

Along with the global concern of media in general, and the Arab media in particular towards covering the events of terrorism, several types of terrorism related to this coverage are revealed, however; few studies have sought to identify the audience's own assessment of media coverage of terrorist events. Hence, the importance of this study is revealed, as it seeks to determine the attitudes and perceptions of the audience about the media coverage of terrorism [1].

There are two theories regarding the extent to which media coverage of terrorism affects the public opinion:

1. The theory of causal relationship between media discourse and terrorism, where media coverage of terrorism leads to the spread of terrorism;

2. The theory of media discourse, terrorism and divergent relations; the theory is that there is no scientific evidence that the media coverage of terrorism is responsible for doubling the terrorist operations.

3. There is no relationship between the two variables. Therefore, the authors of this theory call for noninterference in the performance of the media in general and in relation to terrorism in particular.

4. The Arab media generally do not rely on experts and specialists in the security, social, psychological, cultural, religious and educational fields to deal with the different aspects of the security phenomenon, nor do they cooperate with the educational, religious and social institutions concerned with confronting the terrorist phenomenon.

5. The Arab media coverage of the terrorist phenomenon is dominated by official character and is almost exclusively dependent on a single source.

6. The coverage of the terrorist phenomenon by the Arab media is characterized by irregularity and lack of continuity.

7. This coverage is characterized by spontaneity, improvisation and lack of planning, Making it a cover that lacks a frame of reference that achieves systematic coherence.

8. This coverage is often in the form of exaggeration or intimidation of the terrorist phenomenon.

The role of the media in dealing with terrorism issues derives its importance from the increasing public reliance on mass media, which is characterized by non-stability. These are the conditions, which are the result of the occurrence of terrorist events, where the audience are quick to use the means of communication as being considered a communicational system that is created around the changing events in the society in order to get acquainted with those events, understanding them and considering the exigencies of positive interaction with their consequences [2].

The role of the media in covering and addressing the issues of terrorism is not confined to providing the public with information about terrorist events, but also its role extends to dealing with these events professionally, in order to draw attention to the dangerous and renewable nature of these events, which require exerting efforts by the mass media in order to guide the professional practice to be able to convince them to realize the seriousness of terrorist events, Accordingly, the importance of this study is revealed, as it provides the mass media with data on the perceptions and attitudes of the audience towards covering the events of terrorism.

Importance of Study

The importance of the study lies in the following aspects:

1. The intensity of media attention to terrorist events and the effective role of various mass media in covering terrorist events and its obvious impact on the formation of public opinion.

2. Assessing the limits of social responsibility of the media in dealing with terrorism issues.

3. Its attempt to clarify public perceptions and attitudes towards the media treatments of terrorism

4. Seeking to identify the perceptions of one of the important parties, namely youth and university students in evaluating the media treatments of terrorism.

Objectives of Research

1. Knowing the attitudes and perceptions of the audience towards the media coverage of the terrorist events through the Arab Mass Media.

2. Knowing the attitudes of media students towards the advantages and disadvantages of the terrorist events through the Arab Mass Media.

Previous Studies

Al-Ebiary's study, shooting of combatting terrorism, a comparative analysis of Al-Jazeera and CNN's coverage of Gaza and Iraq 2003, New Castle University, Britain [3]. It dealt with the relation between the army and media in the satellite channels coverage of the contemporary wars and forming the image, which helps in forming the public opinion. The study showed the decisive impact of the military forces on the TV knowledge. Moreover, it showed the forms of resistance against the forms of hegemony used by the military machine, and showed the superiority of Al-Jazeera satellite channel's speech against the speech of CNN, where the image shown by Al-Jazeera channel clearly surpassed all images. Saleh's study on the extent of the security media contribution in dealing with the terrorist phenomenon revealed that most of the materials related to terrorism were published in the inner pages, and the informative nature dominated the Saudi Arabian Press in dealing with issues of terrorism. Moreover, the narration method was dominant and the local correspondents took the first place as being the sources of news on terrorism.

The study of Razan [4], "The Arab Media Strategy of Combatting Terrorism", observing the points of strength and weakness in the Arab Media Strategy of Combatting Terrorism, dissociation of its intellectual take-offs and observing its objectives and mechanisms of implementation. The study concluded that the take-offs and references of the Arab Media strategy of combatting terrorism must be mainly based on the basis and reference of human rights and the freedom of opinion and expression first and for all. With the absence of those references, and the comprehensive approximation, which adopts more than one approach, the strategy will necessarily be incomplete, stimulating and producing an atmosphere that considers more acceptances for adopting the thought of terrorism and produces homogeneous media outputs either consciously or unconsciously with the contexts of terrorism.

The study of Tahseen [5], on the role of mass media in combatting the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism, aimed at knowing the role of mass media in combatting the phenomenon of terrorism and extremism, members of the teaching staff for the variable of status.

The study of Hasan, titled: "The Extent of Audience's Dependence on the Egyptian Mass Media during the Crises". The researcher deduced a number of results, which revealed that the "television" followed by the "newspapers" and the "Egyptian Broadcasts" come on top of the mass media on which the audience depends during the crises. Moreover, the results indicated that there were statistically significant differences among the three Egyptian Mass Media in terms of the reasons relevant to the audience's dependence on them during crises and the existence of a high degree of similarity between the audience's degree of confidence in the Egyptian Mass Media and the degree of depending on them.

The study of El-Halim [6], "Terrorism and the Internet", 2008, which indicated that the sample of study used the Internet as being considered the quickest method of presenting information on the critical and urgent issues. Results of the field study indicated the support shown by the sample of study for the great role played by the newspapers and Internet in providing it with information towards all the community issues, and not only the ones related to terrorism, even if some of the study sample individuals mentioned that both newspapers and Internet had a clear impact in recognizing terms that are directly related to the phenomenon of terrorism.

The study of Basha [7], "Attitudes of the Arab Youth towards the Religious Terrorist Communities and Employing the Social Networking Sites", 2015, indicated that the sample of study realized the danger of the terrorist communities and agreeing that the terrorist communities use Facebook to disseminate their ideas and that they use terms; such as "Striving" and "Maintaining Belief" to attract the youth.

Al-Safty dealt with the incidents of religious violence, which took place in "Al-Kash'h Town", in the Egyptian Governorate, "Suhaj", and the researcher sought to know how the Egyptian, national and partisan newspapers would deal with the urgent events and crises by applying this to "Al-Kash'h" events. Results of the study indicated that most of the journalistic manipulation of "Al-Kash'h" events had an informative nature in the first place, while the other journalistic manipulations; such as the article, investigation and materials of opinion came in the last place. Moreover, newspapers, sample of study, focused on the religious discourse towards the events; especially the one delivered by Al- Azhar and other religious institutions in Egypt.

In a study conducted by Ibrahim [8], attempting to know the extent of attention paid by the Egyptian partisan newspapers towards the issue of terrorism and how to deal with it, titled: "Attitudes of the Partisan Newspapers towards the Phenomenon of Terrorism", she used the Newspaper Content-Analysis Approach. Results of the study proved that the partisan newspapers were interested in the phenomenon of terrorism and its impact on violating stability in Egypt. Moreover, the researcher concluded that there were differing political partisan newspapers in terms of defining terrorism. In addition, results of the study revealed that the reasons of the spread of terrorism in Egypt referred to external foreign powers, lack of job opportunities and political vacuum.

In a comparative survey study conducted by Basiuny [9], titled: "The Relation between Exposure to Social Media and the Nature of Attitude towards the Problem of Terrorism", she attempted to know the extent of success shown by the means of communication in crystalizing and supporting attitudes that reject terrorism in light of a number of influential intermediary variables. Results of the study showed that television, personal communication and radio broadcasting were the main sources of the sample to get acquainted with the phenomenon of terrorism, which began to increase in the Egyptian Society. Moreover, the study indicated that the feelings of rejection towards terrorism among the sample individuals increase along with the increase in the rate of using the means of communication.

The study of Yosry [10], "The Journalists' Attitudes towards the Egyptian Media Coverage of the Terrorist Events", concluded that the coverage of the Egyptian Media for the international events and issues of terrorism was informative from the journalists' perspective, and the journalists in the sample of study considered the necessity of changing the form and content of TV manipulation in dealing with the current events in a way that achieves promptness, fast pace and providing different opinions about the events.

The study of Fadel was interested in knowing the relation between exposure to the Egyptian newspapers and the awareness of the issue of international terrorism through the university youth. The study indicated that the spiritual impacts were in the first place and the impacts were followed by the cognitive and the behavioural ones.

Regarding the university youth's dependence on social media during Dahab explosions crisis, results of the study, which is conducted by Al-Faraj [11], indicated that the satellite channels occupied the information sources list in terms of the university youth's dependence on them, followed by the national newspapers and the Egyptian Television.

The study of Al-Safty revealed that there was compatibility among the respondents' attitudes towards the media coverage and their attitudes towards the issue of terrorism.

The study of El-Din discussed the relation between exposure to the informative content of the social media on terrorism and being aware of this issue through the public opinion. Results of the study indicated that there were statistically significant positive correlations between the intensity of exposure to the informative content of social media and the respondents' attitudes towards terrorism.

Problem of Research

The problem of study is crystalized in knowing the extent of audience's dependence on social media as sources of news relevant to the terrorist events and observing the social responsibility of social media in dealing with the issues of terrorism as well as evaluating the Arab Media performance from the Emirati Audience's perspective in dealing with the issues of terrorism, its extent of homogeneity with the necessities of the professional performance as well as inducing a future perspective in light of dealing with the events of terrorism through the Emirati social media.

Theoretical Framework of Study

The study adopts several theories as referential frameworks, including:

Mass media dependency theory

Upon the increasing rate of information in the modern age, information has been representing a source of strength and excellence to those, who possess them and access them. At the general level of society, most of the systems; such as the political and economic systems, etc. seek to obtain information for the survival of the system and its ability to interact with the society and other systems. At the private individuals' level, each individual seeks to obtain information to achieve the social and psychological objectives. Social media are considered as one of the important and basic sources of information on which individuals depend in the modern age. Due to the difference of individuals' objectives and interests, they also differ in terms of the degree of dependence on social media, and consequently, they form special systems for the social media related to the individual objectives and needs for each one of them, the nature and degree of dependence for each method in terms of their relation to those objectives, and the individuals' participation in some objectives and the degree of dependence on the methods, which achieve those objectives, result in the emergence of common systems of social media among categories or groups. For instance, individuals, who are highly interested in local affairs within a category that has its own system of media when it finds that this interest is achieved through reading local newspapers and others within categories seeking entertainment and relaxation through certain programs on TV. Accordingly, this division of categories indicates the existence of different systems of social media in terms of individuals and determined by the nature of objectives, the degree of interest in them, the nature of dependence on certain methods and the degree of achieving those objectives [12].

Relations of dependence on social media are based on two main pillars, which are:

(1) Objectives: In order to achieve the personal and social objectives of the individuals, communities and organizations, they must depend on resources controlled by other individuals, communities and organizations and vice versa.

(2) Sources: Individuals and organizations seek to access the different sources that achieve their objectives. Social media are considered a social system to which individuals seek in order to reach their goals, and social media control three types of information sources, which are: collecting information, coordinating information and editing information in order to be given appropriately, then published and distributed to undefined audience.

The social responsibility theory

"The group of tasks that the press is committed to perform in front of the society in its different political, economic, social and cultural fields; where the professional values must be available in their manipulations and materials; such as accuracy, objectivity, balance and comprehensiveness, provided that the press must have actual freedom, which enable it to be responsible before the law and society. Social responsibility of press also means "maintaining common interests or maintaining the needs of society and its welfare through the press being characterized by rectitude, accuracy, and justice as well as considering the ethical aspects and values". From the two previous definitions, it is evident that the concept of media social responsibility is based on a simple principle, which is the commitment to the familiar professional values by the press; such as accuracy, objectivity, honesty, considering the culture and beliefs of society as well as performing tasks that are relevant to the satisfaction of society needs [13].

The structure of study depends on the informative frameworks theory

The studies of the Gate Guard Theory has proven that communicators intervene in determining what is published and what is not published, which allows them to carry out this task in an easy, systematic and quick way; thus they form the frameworks and contexts of knowledge for the public. This in turn affects how the audience perceives the content they are exposed to.

The experiential framework of the communicator may be of such strength and importance that it sometimes eliminates the personality of the contact person; in the end, it becomes function-only; it has no distinctive features or general character that distinguishes it from choice or determines its style; which impose their patterns and patterns on them during work. It may be done by selecting specific contexts and vocabulary to describe the event; either by exaggeration or understatement, as well as by addition, deletion, distortion, or allowing specific details to be mentioned; it is a specific view to the extent that the information is The communicator relies on reference frameworks in the selection and formulation of the news, focusing on these frameworks to highlight certain aspects of the story at the expense of other aspects, so that it appears. The news is true; but in fact it is not perfect.

The frame gives the meaning or meaning to the news to be meaningful or important to the public, and determines the portal, or the corner through which the news can be seen. It is also a tool for interpreting media events in a way that helps the recipient understand them. The types of frameworks vary between general and specific frameworks, depending on the characteristics of the objectivity. There are two levels: the first concerns the measurement of unclear content or what is known as implicit content, and the second influencing the shaping of public attitudes towards the issue under consideration. The media by focusing on certain aspects that define themselves as frameworks that can eventually influence the shaping of public standards on certain issues; this is reflected in the identification of public views and attitudes towards these issues

Usage and satisfaction model

In this context, the researchers extracted, based on empirical studies, several types of uses: First, information-related uses. The second general category of uses is linked to the so-called event coordination, such as organization of school meetings, social events, fund raising, religious events and birthdays through the use of the event program provided by the Facebook site. The third category of uses relates to the creation of groups sharing common interests. These uses confirm that social networks have a strong relationship to everyday activities; where the introduction of uses and saturation assumes that members of the public are motivated by psychological and social influences to use the media in order to obtain special results called "Satisfactions" [13].

Type and Approach of Study

This study is a descriptive one, which aims at collecting data on the perceptions and attitudes of the audience about the media coverage of terrorism, as well as studying some variables related to usage; such as gender, social status, educational stage and others. This study is based on the survey approach as a systematic scientific effort used to obtain information or descriptions of the phenomenon, subject of study.

The methodological vision of this study is based on measuring the following variables:

(i) Standards of measuring the usage intensity and pattern of use;

(ii) Measuring the habits of usage;

(iii) Measuring the motivations and satisfactions, taking into account the diversity of dimensions that constitute the needs directed to our behavior in the use of the social media, between "psychological, social, and cognitive." There are areas of overlap between psychological, social and cognitive needs that guide the behavior of individuals in the use of the social media. This reinforces the likelihood that the relationship will shift to a reliability relationship rather than a relationship of use and satisfaction, assuming that the multidimensional need is more powerful than the one-dimensional need.

Questions of Study

The study seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the extent to which the Emirati Audience is exposed to news about terrorist incidents?

2. What are the reactions of the Emirati Audience about the news related to terrorist incidents?

3. What are the perceptions of the Emirati Audience about the roles played by the Arab media in dealing with terrorist events?

4. What are the perceptions of the Emirati Audience about terrorism and terrorists?

Approach of Study

The study depends on the survey approach, which is considered as one of the main approaches in the descriptive researches with both their descriptive and analytical aspects in order to collect and interpret data to reach implications of scientific importance to observe the audience's attitudes and perceptions towards the coverage of mass media for the terrorist events.

Sample and Community of Study

The community of study consists of Sharjah University Students with their different specializations as a sample that represents the youth in the UAE Community, and to get acquainted with their perceptions and attitudes towards the media coverage of terrorism.

Data Collection Method

The study uses the questionnaire form as a data collection tool. It included the various aspects that the study seeks to identify according to the objectives of the study and its questions. The questionnaire paper included two axes:

The first axis: The habits and uses of the media in exposure to media coverage related to terrorism.

The second axis: Evaluation of the roles played by the Arab media in covering terrorist events from the point of view of the public

Reliability and consistency test

In order to verify the validity of the questionnaire, its validity for the application and the extent of its representation for the purposes of the study, it was presented to a number of specialized professors in the field of media. 10% of the respondents, it was necessary to rephrase a number of statements to be more suitable for the respondents, thus achieving the veracity of the data.

To verify the stability of the data, the researcher used the test-retest method, where the researcher re-applied 20 form equivalent to 10% of the sample, and the proportion of consistency 94, which indicates the clarity of the form, and confidence in the validity of the final application, and then this form was applied during the months of May, June and July 2017

Statistical Processing of Data

Data were statistically processed using the SPSS program. The following statistical parameters were applied: simple frequencies and percentages, mathematical average and standard deviation, T-test and F-test.

Field Study

Figure 1 Shows the distribution of sample in terms of exposure to mass media.

global-mediajournal-mass-media

Figure 1: The ext ent of exposure to mass media.

The previous chart shows the extent of the exposure of the members of the study to the various mass media. It was found that the extent of permanent exposure to mass media, and it took the first place 83.9%, followed by the Internet at 83.30%, the second place was for mobile devices 87.20%, the mobile devices 87.20%, which took the third place, then computers at a rate of (47.8%), then television at a rate of (32.2%) and, finally, the newspapers (4.4%). While exposed "sometimes" had a rate of 53.9%, television 55.0%, computer 40.6%, internet 7.2%, social media 7.8%, and mobile devices 4.4%. This indicates that the permanent use of media took the first place for most of the mass media.

Figure 2 Shows the distribution of sample as per the extent of daily exposure.

global-mediajournal-daily-exposure

Figure 2: Extent of daily exposure to mass media.

The previous graph shows the extent of the daily study sample's exposure to the mass media. It was found that the exposure to newspapers is less than one hour per day by 90.00%, the TV from one hour to less than two hours by 52.20%, the computer from two hours to less than three hours a day by 45.00% Of the three hours by 68.30%, social media more than three hours by 70.60%, and mobile devices more than three hours by 77.20%. According to the previous analysis, the rates relevant to the use of more than three hours for most of the media were respectively mobile devices and social media and the Internet (77.2%, 70.6%, and 68.3%). This indicates the ability of these devices to attract the sample due to their speed and spread in the community.

Figure 3 Shows the distribution of sample as per the most prominent topics followed by the study individuals via the mass media.

global-mediajournal-study-individuals

Figure 3: The most prominent topics followed by the study individuals via the mass media.

The above chart shows that the most prominent subjects followed by the study individuals via the mass media as per the following order: 1. Artistic topics and news 69.7%, and it ranked first, sports topics and news 68.0%, which took the second place, political topics and news 64.0%, took the third place, scientific topics and news 57.7%, took the fourth place, economic topics and news, 31.4% took the fifth and last place.

Figure 4 Shows the extent of following news and topics relevant to terrorism via the mass media.

global-mediajournal-topics-relevant

Figure 4: The extent of following news and topics relevant to terrorism via the mass media.

The previous graph shows the extent of the follow-up of news and topics related to terrorism via the mass media. It was found that most study individuals follow the news and topics related to terrorism via the mass media to a limited extent by 63.30%, 17.80% of them to a large extent, then 12.20% of them do not follow, and finally 6.70% are not interested in follow-up. This indicates that the media could not attract the sample individuals to follow the news and topics related to terrorism on the one hand, the indifference of the sample to follow these topics on the other hand because of their succession and the inability of communities to address them radically, causing the loss of the sample's hope to follow-up those topics permanently. The rate of those who follow these topics permanently reached 17.8%, which is a low rate compared to the topics presented by the mass media.

Figure 5 Shows the extent of following-up news and topics relevant to terrorism via the mass media as per the gender.

global-mediajournal-mass-media

Figure 5: The extent of following-up news and topics relevant to terrorism via the mass media as per the gender.

The extent of following-up news and topics relevant to terrorism via the mass media as per the gender.

The previous graph shows the extent of follow-up of news and topics related to terrorism via the mass media as per the gender. It was found that 63.70% of males know to a limited extent, 22.00% to a large extent, 12.10% do not follow, 2.20% are uninterested. For females, 62.90% know them to a limited extent, 13.50% to a large extent and 12.40% do not follow, 11.20%. At the level of males and females, it was found that the rates of follow-up of these topics did not change compared to the overall follow-up among males and females. The percentage of males was 63.7% compared to 62.9%. There were no significant differences at 95 confidence level. This indicates that males and females are equal in terms of the type of their follow-up for topics related to terrorism.

Figure 6 Shows the extent of knowing the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East region.

global-mediajournal-terrorist-organizations

Figure 6: The extent of knowing the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East region.

The above chart shows the extent to which the study individuals know the names of the terrorist organizations in the Middle East. 68.30% of them know them in a limited manner, 16.10% know them to a large extent and 15.60% do not know them. It is also evident through the previous analysis that the sample individuals focused their knowledge on the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East in a limited manner. This indicates that the media did not fulfill the right of this information in order for the public to have sufficient awareness and knowledge of the names of these terrorist organizations.

Figure 7 Shows the extent of knowing the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East region as per the gender.

global-mediajournal-names-terrorist

Figure 7: The extent of knowing the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East region.

The above figure shows the extent to which the study individuals know the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East Region as per the gender, and it is evident that 70.30% of the males know them in a limited way, 20.90% know them to a large extent, and 8.80% do not know. For females, 66.30% of them are of limited knowledge and 22.50% do not know and 11.20% know them to a large extent. Also, at the level of males and females of different ratios to identify the sample individuals with the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East where they accept them to a limited extent.

The most prominent terrorist event that the study individuals were keen on following through the Arab media, the events of September, the events of Turkey, the events of France, the attack on the mosques, the preaching and the Iranian occupation of Yemen, their support of the Houthi Militias, the attacks in Brussels, the bombing of mosques in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, the assault on the Saudi embassy in Tehran, the events in Syria, the beginning of "Al-Qaida" presence, the extreme political parties and the Egypt Air Plane Crash.

Table 1 Shows to what extent do the Arab mass media play the following roles.

Extent of Role Performance
Always  Never  Sometimes Average
% Q % Q % Q Phrase
1.67 0.078 14 0.517 93 0.406 73 Providing true information on the terrorist incidents.
1.76 0.1 18 0.556 100 0.344 62 Providing accurate information on the terrorist incidents.
1.68 0.078 14 0.528 95 0.394 71 Providing objective opinions about the terrorist incidents.
1.66 0.133 24 0.394 71 0.472 85 Providing information, news and opinions about sources that support terrorism.
1.64 0.106 19 0.428 77 0.467 84 Providing information, news and opinion about sources that condemn terrorism.
1.58 0.089 16 0.4 72 0.511 92 Explaining the implications and impacts of the terrorist incidents in a clear and simplified way.
1.77 0.1 18 0.567 102 0.333 60 Putting the terrorist incidents they deal with in a context that reveals all their dimensions.
1.65 0.072 13 0.506 91 0.422 76 Seeking to present an image that implies repelling from terrorism and terrorists.
1.59 0.089 16 0.411 74 0.5 90 Seeking to achieve general social harmony against terrorism and terrorists
1.71 0.111 20 0.489 88 0.4 72 Seeking to ease the pressure and tension caused by terrorist events
1.59 0.083 15 0.422 76 0.494 89 The news of terrorist events is published and broadcasted dramatically
1.71 0.1 18 0.511 92 0.389 70 Seeking to take the lead in terms of terrorism news
1.98 0.206 37 0.572 103 0.222 40 Covering (do not publish) terrorist events in the public interest
1.77 0.156 28 0.456 82 0.389 70 The Arab media have succeeded in raising the awareness of young people about the dangers of terrorism
2.22 0.344 62 0.533 96 0.122 22 Publishing details of terrorist events help to identify others in ways of terrorism
2.12 0.294 53 0.539 97 0.167 30 Terrorist events are treated like other events
2.15 0.267 48 0.617 111 0.117 21 Publishing articles and news that are considered as the unintended propaganda of terrorism
2.26 0.383 69 0.5 90 0.117 21 Spreading panic and fear of terrorism by spreading news
2.02 0.239 43 0.55 99 0.211 38 Helping terrorist groups attract new members
2 0.189 34 0.628 113 0.183 33 Helping terrorist groups by publishing their statements, news, pictures, and demands
2.05 0.239 43 0.572 103 0.189 34 Providing a means for terrorists to raise their demands and threats
1.99 0.3 54 0.394 71 0.306 55 Helping terrorists get publicity and advertise themselves
2.02 0.328 59 0.372 67 0.3 54 Taking into account the privacy and privacy of victims of terrorist operations in their news
2 0.328 59 0.35 63 0.322 58 Affecting the public so that terrorist groups receive concessions from governments
2.1 0.3 54 0.5 90 0.2 36 Do not confirm the mistaken views of terrorists
2.03 0.3 54 0.433 78 0.267 48 Directing the public's concerns according to the terrorist agenda
1.96 0.311 56 0.344 62 0.344 62 Inciting the public against governments
2.03 0.317 57 0.4 72 0.283 51 Inflating the power and capabilities of terrorists
2.07 0.278 50 0.522 94 0.2 36 The repetition of Arab media scenes and images of terrorism lead to the consolidation of their stances.
2.02 0.278 50 0.467 84 0.256 46 Arab media show terrorists as being the most gracious case owners
2.14 0.278 50 0.589 106 13.320.0%% 24 Arab media lacks the ability to cover terrorist events from their positions
2.07 0.317 57 0.439 79 0.244 44 Some Arab media focus on the events of terrorism for material interests
2.04 0.272 49 0.5 90 0.228 41 Some Arab media focus on the events of terrorism for political interests

The above table shows to what extent the Arab media plays some roles related to terrorism and it has been shown that they always play the following roles, respectively. Providing accurate information about terrorist incidents by 40.6%, providing accurate information on terrorist incidents 34.4%, providing objective views on terrorist incidents 39.4%, transmitting information, news and opinions on sources supporting terrorism 47.2%, transmitting information, news and opinions about sources condemning terrorism 46.7%. The terrorist events that are dealt with in a context that reveals its full dimensions are 33.3% and seeks to convey a picture that distinguishes terrorism and terrorists 42.2% and seeks to achieve a general social agreement against terrorism and terrorists 50.0% and seeks to reduce the pressures and tension caused by terrorist incidents 40.0% spread and broadcast terrorist news dramatically and 49.4% and seeks to achieve a scoop with respect to the news of terrorism 38.9% cover (for not doing newsworthy) for terrorist events of general interest of 22.2% and Arab media have succeeded in educating young people the seriousness of terrorism 38.9% and they rarely play the following roles:

It spreads terror and fear of terrorism by publishing 17% of the news, publishes details of terrorist events, helps to identify others in ways of terrorism, 12.2%, and publishes articles and news that constitute unintentional propaganda of terrorism. 11.7% Arab media lacks the ability to cover terrorist incidents from their websites. 20.0% of the Arab media and 20.0% of the Arab media focus on terrorist incidents. They provide a means for terrorists to raise their demands. And threats 18.9% and some Arab media focus on terrorist events for political interests 22.8% and direct the public's interests according to the terrorist agenda 26.7% and increase the strength and capabilities of terrorists 28.3%, helping the terrorist groups to attract new members 21.1%, not taking into account the privacy and sacred rites of the victims of terrorist operations in their news 30.0% and the Arab media show the terrorists are the best owners of the cause of 25.6% and help the terrorist groups by publishing their data, news, pictures and demands 30.6% Terrorist groups receive concessions from governments 32.2%, help terrorists get publicity 30.6% and incite the public against governments 34.4% (Table 2).

Table 2 To What Extent do the Arab Mass Media Play the Following Roles: from the Perspectives of Males and Females.

Extent of Role Performance
Never Sometimes Always
Average Grade Significant Value Mann Whitney % Q % Q % Q Gender Phrase
90.43 0.983 4043 4.4 4 57.10 52 38.50 35 Male Providing correct information on terrorist events
90.57 11.20 10 46.10 41 42.70 38 Female
88.8 0.617 3894.5 6.60 6 59.30 54 34.10 31 Male Providing accurate information on terrorist events
92.24 13.50 12 51.70 46 34.80 31 Female
95.52 0.142 3593 8.80 8 57.10 52 34.10 31 Male Providing objective views on terrorist events
85.37 6.70 6 48.30 43 44.90 40 Female
85.93 0.192 3634 11.00 10 37.40 34 51.60 47 Male Transmitting Information, news and opinions about sources supporting terrorism
95.17 15.70 14 41.60 37 42.70 38 Female
84.59 0.089 3511.5 6.60 6 41.80 38 51.60 47 Male Transmitting information, news and views on sources that condemn terrorism
96.54 14.60 13 43.80 39 41.60 37 Female
90.92 0.903 4011.5 8.80 8 40.70 37 50.50 46 Male Explaining the implications and effects of terrorist events in a clear and simplified manner
90.07 9.00 8 39.30 35 51.70 46 Female
92.74 0.509 3845.5 8.80 8 61.50 56 29.70 27 Male Putting the terrorist events they deal with in a context that reveals its full dimensions
88.21 11.20 10 51.70 46 37.10 33 Female
93.66 0.356 3762 5.50 5 57.10 52 37.40 34 Male Seeking to convey a picture of alienation from terrorism and terrorists
87.27 9.00 8 43.80 39 47.20 42 Female
88.2 0.505 3840.5 8.80 8 38.50 35 52.70 48 Male Seeking to achieve general social harmony against terrorism and terrorists
92.85 9.00 8 43.80 39 47.20 42 Female
88.43 0.552 3861.5 9.90 9 48.40 44 41.80 38 Male Seeking to ease the pressure and tension caused by terrorist events
92.61 12.40 11 49.40 44 38.20 34 Female
96.64 0.074 3490.5 9.90 9 47.30 43 42.90 39 Male Publishing and broadcasting the news of terrorist events is published and broadcast dramatically
84.22 6.70 6 37.10 33 56.20 50 Female
100.58 0.003 3132.5 9.90 9 63.70 58 26.40 24 Male Seeking to take the lead in terms of terrorism news
80.2 10.10 9 38.20 34 51.70 46 Female
93.32 0.409 3792.5 16.50 15 69.20 63 14.30 13 Male Coverage (do not publish) about terrorist events in the public interest
87.61 24.70 22 44.90 40 30.30 27 Female
87.62 0.414 3787.5 14.30 13 44.00 40 41.80 38 Male The Arab media have succeeded in raising the awareness of young people about the dangers of terrorism
93.44 16.90 15 47.20 42 36.00 32 Female
92.45 0.573 3872.5 35.20 32 54.90 50 9.90 9 Male Publishing details of terrorist events help to identify others in ways of terrorism
88.51 33.70 30 51.70 46 14.60 13 Female
90.41 0.978 4041 26.40 24 60.40 55 13.20 12 Male Terrorist events are treated like other events
90.6 32.60 29 47.20 42 20.20 18 Female
92.89 0.471 3832 26.40 24 65.90 60 7.70 7 Male Publishing articles and news that are considered as the unintended propaganda of terrorism
87.6 0.419 3785.5 26.40 24 46.20 42 27.50 25 Male Directing the public's concerns according to the terrorist agenda
93.47 33.70 30 40.40 36 25.80 23 Female
88.59 0.597 3875.5 27.50 25 38.50 35 34.10 31 Male Incite the public against governments
92.46 34.80 31 30.30 27 34.80 31 Female
84.2 0.081 3476.5 25.30 23 42.90 39 31.90 29 Male Inflating the power and capabilities of terrorists
96.94 38.20 34 37.10 33 24.70 22 Female
88.13 0.497 3833.5 25.30 23 53.80 49 20.90 19 Male The repetition of Arab media scenes and images of terrorism lead to the consolidation of his positions
92.93 30.30 27 50.60 45 19.10 17 Female
81.71 0.014 3249.5 17.60 16 53.80 49 28.60 26 Male Arab media show terrorists as being the most gracious case owners
99.49 38.20 34 39.30 35 22.50 20 Female
87.93 0.446 3815.5 25.30 23 60.40 55 14.30 13 Male Arab media lacks the ability to cover terrorist events from their positions
93.13 30.30 27 57.30 51 12.40 11 Female
89.45 0.769 3954 31.90 29 41.80 38 26.40 24 Male Some Arab media focus on the events of terrorism for material interests
91.57 31.50 28 46.10 41 22.50 20 Female
88.32 0.536 3851 27.50 25 46.20 42 26.40 24 Male Some Arab media focus on the events of terrorism for political interests
92.73 27.00 24 53.90 48 19.10 17 Female

To study the statistical differences between males and females in terms of their point of view towards some statements that show the extent to which the Arab media has been using the statistical test of non-scientific Mann Whitney has been shown as follows:

There are no statistically significant differences between males and females in terms of their point of view towards some expressions that show the extent to which the Arab media is where the value of the p value is greater than 0.05:

1. Providing accurate information about terrorist incidents, provide accurate information on terrorist incidents, provide objective views on terrorist events, and transmit information, news and views on sources supporting terrorism, and conveying information, news and views on sources that condemn terrorism. It explains the implications and effects of terrorist events in a clear and simple manner. In a context that reveals its full dimensions and seeks to convey a picture of alienation from terrorism and terrorists and seeks to achieve a social consensus against terrorism and terrorists and seeks to reduce the pressures and tension caused by terrorist events and publish and broadcast the news of terrorist events in such a way. The Arab media have succeeded in educating young people about the dangers of terrorism, publishing details of terrorist events, helping to identify others in ways of terrorism, dealing with terrorist events like other events, publishing articles and news that are considered as unintentional propaganda of terrorism and broadcasting Panic and fear of terrorism as a result of its news, is helping terrorist groups attract new members and help terrorist groups by disseminating their statements, news, pictures and demands, and providing a means for terrorists to raise their demands and threats. For advertising themselves, does not respect the sanctity and the specifics of the victims of terrorist attacks in the news, affect the public in order to get terrorist groups concessions from governments, do not confirm the wrong views of terrorists, directs interests the public, according to the agenda of terrorists, inciting the public against governments.

2. Inflating the power and abilities of terrorists, repeating the images and scenes related Arab to terrorism leads to the support of its stances, media lacks the ability to cover terrorist events from their positions, some Arab media focus on terrorist events for material interests, some Arab media focus on terrorism events to the interests of the Arab media.

3. There are statistically significant differences between males and females in terms of their point of view towards some expressions that show the extent to which the Arab media is where the value of the p Value less than 0.05:

a. Seeks to take the lead in the news of terrorism. This difference is due to males with an average grade of 100.58 and females of 80.20.

b. The Arab media show terrorists as having a case. This difference is due to females with an average grade of 99.49 and

Conclusions and Recommendations

The results of the study showed the following:

1. Followed by the Internet with 83.9%, followed by the Internet with 83.30%, followed by Mobile Devices (87.20%), Computers (47.8%), Television (32.2%) and Newspapers (4.4%). In order to reduce the exposure to traditional media.

2. The results showed that the use of more than three hours for most of the media, where rates were respectively mobile devices and social media and the Internet (2%, 70.6%, 68.3%). And indicates the ability of these devices to attract the sample of the speed and spread in the community.

3. The news and technical subjects were 69.7%, and took the first place, the news and the sports subjects 68.0%, the second place, the political news and subjects 64.0%, the third place, the news and the scientific subjects, 57.7%, the third place, the news and the economic subjects.

4. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the members of the study follow the news and topics related to terrorism in the media in a limited manner by 63.30%, 17.80% of them significantly, then 12.20% of them do not follow and 6.70% Not interested in follow-up. And this indicates that the media could not attract members of the sample to follow the news and topics related to terrorism on the one hand, on the other hand builds the indifference of the sample of these subjects because of their succession and the inability of communities to address them radically, which caused the loss of hope to follow up these subjects permanently. The proportion of those who follow these subjects permanently 17.8%, which is a small proportion of the comparison of the subjects presented by the media.

5. The above chart shows how well the members of the study know the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East. 68.30% of them know them in a limited way, 16.10% know them very well and 15.60% do not know them. It also shows that the members of the sample focused their knowledge on the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East in a limited manner. This indicates that the media did not fulfill this information in order for the public to have sufficient awareness and knowledge of the names of these terrorist organizations.

6. The results of the study showed that the study of the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East by type of sex was found to be 70.30% of males and 20.90% of males. 22.50% do not know and 11.20% know it very much. And also at the level of males and females to different ratio to identify individuals with the names of terrorist organizations in the Middle East where they accept them in a limited manner.

7. The results also indicate the extent to which the Arab media plays some roles related to terrorism. It has been shown that its most important roles are: to provide objective views on terrorist events, 39.4%, to transmit information, news and opinions about sources supporting terrorism, 47.2% sources that condemn terrorism 46.7% explain the implications and effects of terrorist events in a clear and simple manner 51.1% and seek to convey a picture of repudiation of terrorism and terrorists 42.2% seek to achieve a general social agreement against terrorism and terrorists 50.0% and seek to reduce the pressures and tension caused by terrorist incidents 40.0% Dramatically and 49.4% and that they seldom perform the following roles:

a. 20.0% and some Arab media focus on terrorist events for material interests 20.0%, some Arab media focus on terrorist incidents for political interests, 22.8% And the terrorist organizations are recruiting 21.1% of the terrorist groups and do not take into consideration the privacy and privacy of the victims of the terrorist attacks. 30.0% of the news media and the Arab media show that the terrorists have the best interests and 25.6%. By publishing their data, news, pictures and demands 30.6% and influencing the public for terrorist groups to obtain concessions from governments 32.2%, helping terrorists get publicity 30.6% and inciting the public against governments 34.4%.

The study recommends the following:

1. The need to pay attention to the use of social media in the interest of terrorism issues and topics related to terrorism and terrorist organizations so that the public is aware of what is happening in the field of terrorism at the local and global levels.

2. To work on, to provide the possibilities that help to employ these social means within the Arab universities, and to qualify students and teachers of the media to deal with these new means, and to promote the positive aspects of these means and avoid negative, and not only to use a certain means.

3. Those responsible for the satellite channels in the state should assist the operators of these channels in the production of programs that deal with terrorism issues and combat them in an objective scientific manner.

4. Finally, the study recommends concentrating local satellite channels on programs that show the difference between the legitimate resistance and terrorism as well as the programs that show the tolerant image of Islam and the lack of linking terrorism, especially after the results of the study showed a lack of tendency of the sample members to follow satellite channels in relation to terrorism issues.

References

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