The Role of Alikhan Bukeikhans Journalistic Activity in Publicism of Alash
Sailaukyzy A1*, Sak K1 and Lebedeva T2
1LN Gumilyov Eurasian National University,
2European Institute of Public Relations
(IEERP) Paris, France
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sailaukyzy A
LN Gumilyov Eurasian National University
Received date: October 03, 2016; Accepted date: November 03, 2016; Published date: November 14, 2016
Citation: Sailaukyzy A, Sak K, Lebedeva T.
The Role of Alikhan Bukeikhan’s Journalistic
Activity in Publicism of Alash. Global Media
Journal. 2016, 14:27.
Visit for more related articles at
Global Media Journal
national identity in the twentieth century. National outbreaks began to emerge rapidly in or all the European empires and these processes occurred in the Russian Empire, as result, Kazakh nationhood began to revive on its territory. Alikhan Bukeikhan was the leader of the national movement in Kazakhstan. He was not only politician, but also a journalist and author of more than a thousand articles, essays. The article analyzes journalistic activity of Alikhan Bukeikhan. A parallel is being drawn between his work as a journalist, and its influence on the formation of a national and political movement of the Kazakhs. We consider the position of the authorities on the work of Alikhan. Methods, which Bukeikhan used to maintain national identity among people, are disclosed. Methods of Alikhan’s political struggle, their influence on his professional journalistic activity are also considered in the article. As a result of his actions, Alikhan Bukeikhan became the founder of professional Kazakh journalism, he created the first nationwide newspaper, which was published in the Kazakh language – “Qazaq”. Today, Alikhan is one of the heroes of the national movement in Kazakhstan.
Journalism; Management and marketing experience; National
consciousness; Political publications; Subversive асtivitу; Kazakh journalism; Alash
Publicism; Alikhan Bukeikhan; National movements; National leader
Printed press is one of the first media [1-3]. Today there are a
huge number of publications on any subject , which reflect all
aspects of social life.
Printed press had a particularly important role in a revival
of national consciousness in Kazakhstan. At the beginning of
twentieth century, radical political changes occurred, the collapse
of empires led to the emergence of new states, including the
territory of modern Kazakhstan [5,6]. Alikhan Bukeikhan, who
headed the government “Alash Orda”, furthered this process.
Alikhan Bukeikhan is primarily known as a politician and first
Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, but he is also famous for his
journalistic activity, which is studied insufficiently.
Analysis of Alikhan Bukeikhan’s journalistic activity would allow
• to consider influence of printed press on the formation of
• to show the origin of the Kazakh printed press as an independent cultural and national phenomenon, not as a
part of the Soviet media;
• to fill the gaps in the history of Kazakhstan in the twentieth
According to the research of Sultankhan Akkululy, bibliographical
reference of Alikhan Bukeikhan exceed 30 pages. There are nearly
1,000 articles and essays, more than 50 other works in the Kazakh
and Russian newspapers and magazines were published almost
under 40 pseudonyms .
Active journalistic path of Alikhan Bukeikhan covers the period
from 1889 to 1927. Consequently, he had not stopped writing for
Views on Alikhan Bukeikhan’s Journalistic Activity
Alikhan's activity as the first Kazakh journalist and editor can be
divided into 4 groups [8,9]:
1. Continuous journalistic activity
2. Being a member of several Russian publishing houses and
3. Being an editor in two newspapers distributed in the
territory of tsarist Russia
4. Organized the first nationwide Kazakh newspaper «Qazaq»
Alikhan Nurmukhameduly’s journalistic activity includes:
• Publications and studies, debates and addresses (Nationaldemocratic
problems in basic form: solution of the land
issue, increase of political literacy, religious literacy,
education, science, etc. Articles that raised people’s
consciousness, for example, «The problem of Kazakh
muftiate», “Bukeys presence in muftiate”, “The Congress
of Muslims» and others) .
• Literary and political translations (“The Coffee-House of
Surat” (L. Tolstoy, 1900), "Makar's Dream" (V. Korolenko),
“Simon's Papa” (Guy de Maupassant), “The Star-Child”
(Oscar Wilde), “The Communist Manifesto”, “The October
Manifesto”, “Communist call (1926)” (K. Marks) .
• Historical sketches («Historical fate of the Kazakh
(«Kyrgyz») region and its cultural achievements» (coauthor,
1903), a historical sketch “Kazakhs” (1910) .
• Literary criticism, reviews and feuilletons ("Dala
Walayatynyng Gazeti", 1900) "What is a novel?" (“Qazaq”,
48 issue), “Kalkaman-Mamyr. Review.” (“Qazaq”, 1915
№121), «Kara Kypchak Kobylandy» (“Qazaq”, 1915 №126-
• Requiem (memoir) (dedicated memoirs: Moscow scientist
K.A.Verner, Abay, leader of the German Workers August
Bebel, an American entrepreneur-philanthropist Alfred
Vanderbilt, Turkish politician Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha,
Eugene Michaelis, French leader Jean Jaures, Alexander
Kolyubakin, close friends Barlybek Syrttanuly, Kakitay
Alikhan Nurmukhameduly was a member of the editorial board
of such journals as “Sibirskie Voprosy” (1908-1910) and “Stepnoy
Krai” (1895-1897, 1902-1903), newspapers “Semipalatinskii
Listok” (1905-1907) and “Sibirskaya Zhizn' ” (1906-1917),
encyclopedic publishing house. Participation in the editorial
board of the All-Russian publishers is the recognition of him as a
professional journalist. He was appreciated as a very competent
political figure by the Russian public figures and prominent
scholars, academics like G. Potanin, F. A. Shcherbina, S. P.
Shevtsov, V. V. Bartold and F.V. Radlov .
The first newspaper where Alikhan began to work was the
newspaper “Irtish”. This is the official publication of Akmola region
and Omsk party committees of “Party of People's Freedom” of
Tsarist Russia. It was published continuously from July 1906.
De jure, a close friend of Alikhan lawyer Ivan Aksentyevich
Povarennyh was the editor in chief; de facto, Alikhan Bukeikhan
was the real editor of the newspaper. “Irtish” was the first of
three newspapers, where Alikhan was an editor . Officially,
Bukeikhan could not be an editor due to the persecution of the authorities. “Irtish” issues (from 2 to 92) are stored in the Omsk
State Museum of Local History.
Newspaper “Omich” was being published from the November
1906, right after the suppression of “Irtish” , and again, V.I.
Veredenko was the editor in chief of this newspaper only de
jure. The newspaper continued to follow the views, which were
peculiar to newspaper “Irtish”. Therefore, the government had
closed a newspaper for an unknown period with the same charge
that was brought to “Irtish”. “Omich” is the most severely affected
newspaper. There were published 30 issues of the newspaper,
but today only 2nd, 3rd, and 22nd issues have been found.
The newspaper “Golos Stepi” was being published from January
1, 1907, immediately after the suppression of the newspaper
“Omich” . De jure, the editors were D.V. Ivanov, and one month
later, V.V. Kiryanov. However, after the publication of 42nd issue
in February, the St. Petersburg court put Alikhan to prison for 3
months. One thing, which became the reason for this persecution
was that together with colleagues after the forced dissolution of
the First State Duma, he put his signature in address “To the nation
– from the representatives of the nation”. Alikhan Bukeikhan
served his sentence in prison of Semipalatinsk not for 3 but for 8
months. Then he was exiled to Samara, where he stayed until the
February Revolution. All 42 issues of the newspaper “Golos Stepi”
were saved in Russian archives.
Representation on political views of Alikhan
Having systematized all of the above information, it turns out
that all three newspapers, which were published under different
names, with different editors because of difficulties of those
period, are an extension of each other, pursuing common idea,
published under the guidance of one person. This is supported by
the following arguments:
• Publications of aforementioned newspapers occurred
alternately in chronological order. Therefore, if one
newspaper was persecuted, it was suppressed immediately,
and instead of it a following newspaper under a different
• At first thought, even if the newspapers looked differently,
with editors in chief, the address of all three newspapers
was common (“Omsk, the corner of the Tobol'skaja i
Ekaterininskaja streets, Dudoladova house. Phone number
• In the case of the suppression of each newspaper, it was said
that the newly opened newspaper would provide redress for
numerous regular readers.
• When Alikhan Bukeikhan was serving a sentence for his
political voice in prison of Semipalatinsk, the third newspaper
was temporarily closed, the publication was suspended.
Alikhan Bukeikhan during the publication of these three
newspapers, in the parlance of our time, had gained wide
management and marketing experience. Firstly, the status of the
real editor allowed Alikhan Bukeikhan to publish articles on the
front page, even without specifying his name.
Secondly, advertisement placed on the first page of every
newspaper were a clear indication that he had learned the laws
of the market, striving for independence of the newspaper from
a financial point of view.
Cultural renaissance of Kazakhs was the main aim of Alikhan. In
order to achieve this goal, national liberation movement “Alash”
was created. A printed edition was necessary for the expansion of
national ideas. For the first time, the first issue of the newspaper’s
foundation in the Kazakh language and typography on a national
scale has been raised in the form of signatures under “Karkaraly
petition” on 5 July (in some reports 26 June), 1905 by 14,500
people (according to some sources, 12 767 thousand).
The document, which included freedom of speech and mothertongue
education, religious freedom and other relevant issues,
was prepared for the Tsarist Government Cabinet by educated
people led by Alikhan. After this important document the way
was cleared for the intellectuals of Alash, they could create a
party, publish an issue of the newspaper, manage the problems of
education, pursue a policy towards the development of national
autonomy. Alash leaders elected as deputies of I and II State
Duma, from the rostrum of the supreme legislative body of Russia
raised the national interests of the Kazakhs, they cooperated in
order to attract the attention of the imperial authorities to the
problems of the Kazakh people.
The newspaper “Qazaq” became the first nationwide newspaper
in the Kazakh language. In June 1906, the newspaper “Nasha
zhizn' ” (St. Petersburg) provides the following information: “On
October 17 (indicates the manifesto, released on October 17,
1905) or later, Bukeikhan, wanting to release a newspaper in the
Kazakh language, with his countrymen have left in the steppe to
discuss upcoming elections and the immediate interests of the
Kazakh people”. According to M. Kulzhabayuly, “as a member of
the State Duma, having direct relationships with the people close
to the supreme power Of Russia, he played a significant role in
the organization of “Qazaq” . In accordance with the Russian
archive documents, even if permission for publication of the
newspaper was received on December 9, 1905, the order 14508
of the Governor-General Sukhomlinov , the preparations for
newspaper’s release, for objective reasons, lasted until February
These reasons included multiple author’s committing to prison,
finding finance for the production of the newspaper, searching
for contacts with the authorities, organizational work, the lack
of experience of release papers, etc. The order of the Governor
of the Orenburg Higher Press Office from 5 January 1913 is
preserved in the Central Archives of St. Petersburg. It says about
a permission to publication for weekly newspaper “Qazaq” in the
Kazakh language in Orenburg.
Despite the fact that the resolution on the publication of the
newspaper was issued for Mustafa Orazayuly and Аkhmet
Baytursynuly was an editor in chief, it was Alikhan, who initiated
the release of the first edition of the Kazakh newspaper.
The newspaper “Qazaq” fulfilled all functions of professional
journalism, and it included following characteristics:
• Satisfaction of demand;
• Publication, even if its point of view is not the same as the
point of view of authorities;
• Desire for independence from the state, private
• Attraction of extraordinary talented authors with the
• Presence of columns in newspaper;
• Profitable work organization;
• Editing a newspaper text literacy.
Giving testimony to investigator of OGPU (Unified State Political
Department) in 1931, Halel Dosmuhameduly said, “The majority
of Kazakhs with secondary and higher education went to work in
“Qazaq”. Bukeikhan was the leader of “Qazaq”, he participated in
the determination of its platform”. Mambet Koygeldy said that
the introduction of the book, released by Alikhan more than 22
years ago, consisted of the articles published in the newspaper
“Qazaq”. He said that, "since 1913 A. Bukeikhan was not only one
of those who laid the foundation of the newspaper in Orenburg,
who determined its course, but he was among the most active
and productive writers who survived in the severities of the
Alikhan Nurmukhameduly had pushed different issues. Famous
playwright, writer and one of the activists of movement “Alash”
Koshmuhammed Kemengeruly wrote about him, his researches,
owing to which a modern culture of Kazakhs was developed and
about his participation in the formation of the Kazakh nation in
1924. “There was only a group of people, who endured exile,
prison and sacrificed their lives for the nation in the days of
severe persecution by the authorities. This group was fostered
by Alikhan. He was the founder of the literary language, brought
up a group that followed him against religious fanaticism. Kazakh
nation, which has nothing in common with the Tartars, was born
exactly this way” .
We would like to mention that Alikhan Bukeikhan had about 40
pseudonyms. According the research of Sultankhan Zhusip, we
have learned that Alikhan used the following: “A.N.” (A-likhan
N-urmukhameduly), “Qır uğlı” or “Qır ulı”, “Qır balası”, “Q.B.”,
“Ğali khan” or “Ali khan”, “Ğ. B.” or “A. B” (Ğ-alikhan B-ukeikhanov
or A-likhan B-ukeikhanov), “Arıs ulı” (“Arıs uğlı”), “Türik balası”,
“Qalmaqbay” and «V». There are little more pseudonyms, which
he used in Russian: “A.N.” (A-likhan N-urmukhameduly, “Syn
stepei” or “Dala Balasy”, “Tuzemets”, “V”, “A. B.”, “Statistik”,
“Kirgiz-kaysak”, “Alikhan”, “Al. Kochevnik”, “Musul'manin”,
“Kirgiz”, “Stepniak”, “K.Stepniak or “Kirgiz-stepniak”, “Obyvatel' ”,
“Nabliudatel' ”, “Chitatel'”, “Uak” “N.Sh.” .
Alikhan Nurmukhameduly remains a national hero of Kazakhstan,
he contributed the awakening of national consciousness of the
Kazakh people. He became famous as a journalist and politician,
who led the national liberation movement “Alash”.
According to given above information, there is a reason to say
that being an editor in chief of “Irtish”, “Omich” and “Golos
Stepi” in 1906-1907, Alikhan Nurmukhameduly was also a citizen,
who carried out managerial and organizational (managerial:
effective management; marketing: self-financing, placement
of advertisements) requirements at the beginning of twentieth
The main directions of Alikhan’s journalistic activity were political
and economic realities of Kazakhstan and Russia, permanent
work on creation of the Kazakh professional journalism.
The main obstacle on the way of his journalistic activities was the
official government. In this connection, he had to change jobs or
go underground, but in spite of that, in all the newspapers where
he worked his writing style and his ideas were observed.
The study of the history of national journalism and publicism of
Alash by expanding it in accordance with the national outlook, the
departure of plagiarism and imitation of the world’s journalism,
allows us to increase the level of national journalism. This work
can be a source of information for the study of the national
independent journalism in Kazakhstan.
- Esser F, Umbricht A (2014) The evolution of objective and interpretative journalism in the western press comparing six news systems since the 1960s. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 91: 229-249.
- Ward S (2015) The invention of journalism ethics: The path to objectivity and beyond. McGill-Queen's Press-MQUP, T. 38.
- Toktagazin MB, Adilbekova LM, Ussen AA, Nurtazina RA, Tastan TR (2016) Epistolary Literature and Journalism: Theoretical and Practical Aspects. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education 11: 5833-5843.
- Tleuova AZ, Baltymova MR, Niyazova GM, Tektigul ZhO, Toxanbayeva TZh (2016) The World of Fantasy and the Trends in Modern Kazakh Fantastic Literature. IEJME-Mathematics Education 11: 1591-1605.
- Kappeler A (2014) The Russian empire: A multi-ethnic history. Routledge.
- Brower D (2012) Turkestan and the Fate of the Russian Empire. Routledge.
- Zhusip S (2010) Bokeykhan publicism about the names and aliases. In Complete set of the works in 9 volumes. Astana: Sary-Arka.
- Tanatarova ZT (2015) Repressions of 1937-1938 in Kazakhstan and their Consequences. IJHSSE 2: 100-106.
- Charginova G (2014) Historical role and views of Alikhan Bukeykhanov. Bulletin of the Kazakh state women's teacher training university 6: 47.
- Nurgozhina SH (2016) Some aspects of the coverage of economy in the national journalism: fledging period. KazNU Herald, Series of Journalism, 29.
- Tahan S (2013) Alikhan Bukeikhanov’s Essays on the pages of the Russian press.
- Useinova GR (2015) The idea of the rightful state in the works of A.N. Bukeikhanov and modernity. KazNU Herald Series of Humanities and social sciences, 4: 38-41.
- Zhumagulov S et al. (2012) Integration of Cultures and the Problems of Translation Into Kazakh. European Researcher 33: 1890-1894.
- Sanborn JA (2016) Russian Empire. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
- Қoygeldi M (1994) Bokeykhanov Works. Astana: Sary-Arka.
- Subkhanberdina C, Dautov S, Sakhov K (1998) "Kazakh" newspaper. Almaty: "Kazakh encyclopedia".
- Koigeldiev M (1994) Alikhan Bokeikhanov. Works. Almaty: Kazakhstan.
- Kemengeruly K (1996) Optional. Almaty: Kazakhstan.