Twitter Uses and Gratifications of High School Students
Menawer Alrajehi *
Assistant Professor, Kuwait University Communication, Kuwait
- *Corresponding Author:
- Menawer Alrajehi
Kuwait University Communication, Kuwait
Tel: 0090 216 578 0000 (1921)
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 26, 2016; Accepted date: September 16, 2016; Published date: October 26, 2016
Citation: Menawer Alrajehi. Twitter Uses and Gratifications of High School Students. Global Media Journal. 2016, 14:27.
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Because of its growing popularity among young adults and its real time nature, Twitter was the social network chosen for this research. Twitter is a social networking site that allows users to produce 140 character bursts of information that are called tweets. Twitter was developed in 2006 to be an outlet for individuals to say what they were doing in the allotted amount of characters (Maxwell, 2012). Twitter gave users the ability to share moments of their lives as they were happening (Williams, 2009). The advantage of being able to send updates in real time led Twitter to be a source of valuable information during natural disasters. Eight percent of Internet users are Twitter users (Smith, 2010). The social networking site is popular among young adults, which makes the high school student population appropriate participants for this study. The study was conducted on 360 of high school students in Kuwait. The data obtained by the survey was analyzed and commented upon using the SPSS program. As the results show, majority of the participants use Twitter on their smart phone for 3-4 hours per day, and use it to meet new people, to follow the local news, and to discuss and exchange of views. Also the results stated that the majority of the students use twitter as a source of information, and never use it as a source of news because the doubt its’ credibility.
Twitter; Uses; Gratifications; Social networking; Students
Twitter has been launched in October 2006. It is a free realtime
short messaging service that enables users to send and
read messages (tweets) through the Twitter website, short
message service (SMS), mobile application, and various desktop
applications. One important characteristic of Twitter is that it
limits users to send updates in only 140-character. Despite the
critics of the 140-character medium, there is an explosive growth
and adoption of Twitter. For example, Barack Obama used Twitter
during his 2008 presidential campaign to spread his messages
to the American public. Some organizations have had great
success in using Twitter to inform their customers of discounts
and news related to their products. Many social media marketers
and researchers believe that Twitter has a lot of business values.
In particular, marketers can easily use Twitter to find out what
people are saying in real-time and what people are talking about
their products (electronic word-of-mouth). Twitter, an online
social networking and micro-blog service, is a relatively new
phenomenon. Academic research on Twitter usage is still very
limited, and most existing studies tended to focus on the initial
usage. In recent years, there are a significant number of new
online social network sites.
The ability to retain and lock members in competitive situations
has become the most important concern for most online social
network sites. In order to achieve long-term success and gain
long-term benefits in a competitive environment, it is particularly
important to conduct a study on the post-adoption of Twitter so
as to understand the factors influencing continuance intention
to use Twitter. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the
reasons that drive high school students to use Twitter and the
benefits they achieve from using this social network site.
Twitter Uses and Education
Web 2.0 technologies are widely used by all Internet users [1- 4]. It is accepted that Web 2.0 users have an active role on the
Internet. Nowadays, the users from all over the world are able to communicate co-operatively share information and take
attraction to their shares . Via Web2.0, users can share not
only news but also photos, videos and many other personal
moments . These web sites motivate theirs users to create
groups, support each other and increase their shares. In 2007, a
new blogging concept arose, so called microblogging. According
to Refs. [7,8] microblogs can be considered as weblogs, however,
they have a stronger social network structure.
Twitter is a multiplatform Web 2.0, part social networking - part
microblogging tool, freely accessibly on the Web . However
there are many of other popular Web 2.0 microblogging tools,
Twitter is one of the most popular of these microblogging
tools [9,10]. Communication can be managed in form of short
messages around 140 characters . Social network structure of
Twitter allows its users to follow each other and communicate via
short messages. Drapeau and Thompson stated that Twitter has a
potential to be used as a professional and social networking since
individuals who have similar interests can meet on Twitter .
One of the most important aspects is that the communication
occurs in real time. Also  and  suggest that the exchange
of information is immediate between peers, and users can share
information and ideas immediately via using Twitter on mobile
Like many 21st-century youth, students of Kuwaiti high schools
use social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, Tumblr,
and Instagram which have become the lived environments
where young people display information and ideas, establish
camaraderie or feuds, and share conversations and perspectives
from the imaginative to the mundane. These sites are increasingly
becoming the (cyber) spaces that serve and reflect youth
constructing, articulating, and participating in the formation of
their social realities for and with other individuals. In essence,
young people using social networking sites are involved in
fundamental acts of teaching and learning .
When Twitter’s technical structure and characteristics are
considered, it is clear that Twitter’s use in education will be
inevitable in future days. In the age of technology we are
currently in, it is important to support education environment via
new technologies. From this point of view, investigating Twitter
usage of students is essential for future. So that this research
investigates the uses of twitter of high school students and the
Theoretical Framework (Uses and Gratifications)
The uses and gratifications theory developed by Elihu Katz
provides the foundation for the recent research. This theory
focuses on the actions of the audience in regards to its media
The uses and gratifications (U&G) framework is a media use
paradigm from mass communications research that guides the
assessment of user motivations of media usage and access. The
main purpose of this paradigm is to explain the reasons that
people choose a specific medium over alternative communication
media and to elucidate the psychological needs that people use
a particular medium.
This paradigm assumes that users are goal-directed in their
behavior and are aware of their needs. The framework has been
applied to various media, including newspapers , radio ,
and television , cable television , VCR , mobile phone
, email , the Internet , virtual community , social
network sites [27,28] and mobile services .
Elliott and Rosenberg  argued that whenever a new
technology enters the stage of mass communication, the uses and
gratifications paradigm will be applied to explain user underlying
motivations and decisions to use the new communication tool.
Stafford et al.  further suggested that uses and gratifications
can be used to explain continued use of something already
chosen. In recent years, there are a growing number of studies
using the uses and gratifications paradigm to explain user
participation in virtual communities [26,30,31]. Gratifications of
using new communication technologies have been elicited by
previous new media studies over the past few years. A review of
the prior uses and gratifications research shows that there are
three gratifications for using the Internet: content gratifications,
process gratifications, and social gratifications. Recent
adaptations of U&G research to the Twitter are incomplete and
have not identified important new Twitter-specific gratifications.
The Aim of the Research
Aim of this research is to investigate the Twitter usage habits of
high school students and to discover key Twitter functionality
preferred by the participants. The study aims to find answers to
the following questions:
• How do high school students use twitter?
• Hours per day, the students use Twitter.
• Why do high school students use twitter?
• Twitter as a source of information and news.
• The confidence in twitter news.
• Twitter advantages.
• Twitter disadvantages.
• Twitter benefits for high school students.
The study was conducted between 2014-2015, participants were
recruited from a high school in Kuwait, 360 students participated
in this study. The sample had equal representation of both male
and female participants (Table 1).
Table 1: Shows the characteristics of the sample.
Data was collected by printed survey developed by the researcher.
The survey consisted of 14 questions that included all subjects of
the research determined obviously in the aim of research. The
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient of this scale was 0.83.
Data was collected using the developed scale. After the data
obtained by the survey was analyzed using the SPSS program
with the percentage, frequency, and rank statistical analysis
Results and Discussion
How do High School Students use Twitter?
According to the Figure 1, 2.8% of students use the Twitter on
their personal computer, 75% on their smart phone (55.6%
I-Phone, 19.4% blackberry). When the results were examined, it
was observed that majority of the participants use the Twitter via
their mobile phones. Uzunboylu, Cavus and Ercag  noticed
that mobile phones are small, and portable. So that, students
carry cell phones with them  and most user prefer to use
Twitter on their mobile phones. Many researchers stated that
the personal use of mobile phones has increased in recent years
[34-36]. Results of this study were supported by Smith  he
found that 94% of people used Twitter on their mobile phones
Figure 1: Devices student use in twitting.
Figure 2: Why students use twitter.
The Daily Use of Twitter
The results indicates that most of participants tweet 11-15 tweets
per day (61.1%), and read 41-60 tweets (55.6%), 2.8% of students
writing less than 5 tweets, 25% tweets from 5- 10 tweets, 11.1%
writing 16-20 tweets per day. Also the results shows that 19.4%
of the Participants read 20-40 tweets, 16.7% of the high school
students read 61- 80 tweets, and finally 8.3% read 81-100 tweets
Hours per Day, the Students use Twitter
Table 2 shows the frequency of Twitter use. 11.1% of students use
Twitter for less than two hours per day, 47.2% use it for less than
three hours, and 41.7% use Twitter for more than three hours
per day. The results revealed that majority of the participants,
88.9%, spent most of their time on Twitter. Webster (2010) stated
that the number of Twitter usage increased rapidly from 2008 to
2010 and this is indicated by an increase in usage from 5% to 87%
(Table 2 and Figure 2).
|Less than 2 hours
|From 2 - less than 3 hours
|From 3 - less than 4 hours
Table 2: Shows the frequencies.
Why do High School Students use Twitter?
On analyzing the data it was seen that 13.9% of students use the
Twitter to obtain general information, 14.1% to follow the local
news, 16.6% to meet new people, 11.4% to follow world events,
11.3% use it to discuss their academic work, 12.6% use it discuss
and exchange points of view, 9.8% to social networking with
friends, and finally 9% For entertainment. These results indicate
that meeting new people is the most popular motive of the
students to use Twitter. A study conducted in The University of
New Hampshire  also concluded that majority of the students
use social networks for entertainment purposes. On the other
hand Boaru et al.  suggests that using Twitter has positive
effects on language education. Table 2 Indicates the various uses
reported by the students.
Twitter as a Source of Information and News
It was noted that half of students (50%) used Twitter as a source
of information, and never use it as a source of news. But, 11.1% of
the participants always used Twitter as a source of information and
news, while 38.9% of them sometimes used Twitter as a source of
news, and never used it as a source of information (Table 3).
|Interactivity and exchange of views
|Follow daily events
|Improving writing ability
|Improving the ability to dialogue
Table 4: Twitters’ advantages.
Participants referred to the “spread” as the most popular
advantage of twitter from perspectives of high school students in
Kuwait with 11% of sum ranks, then the speed which suggested
by 9.9% of the students, 9.3% see that twitter is characterized
by brevity, 8.3% suggested privacy, interactivity and exchange of
views, and objectivity as advantages of twitter.
The research also found that 6.8% of participants used Twitter to
seek guidance, 6.7% used it to increase knowledge, 6.1 relied on
it for entertainment and reality, 6% used Twitter to improve their
writing, and lastly 5.7% used it to improve their ability to dialogue
According to the Figure 3, 2.8% of students reported that some
of the limitations of Twitter is that it causes isolation, however
most students reject this idea because they see that Twitter is
an effective way to communicate with others, this coincides with
previous findings that others studies that pointed out this as a
prominent features. Twitter’s interactivity and exchange of views
was one of the mostly widely sought features as students used
Twitter to meet new people.
Figure 3: Twitters’ disadvantages.
On the other hand we found that Twitter was one of the strong
reasons citied by students that leads to wasted time as reported
by 5.6%, and reduces direct communication with people by 25%
Twitters’ Gratifications for High School Students
According to the Figure 4, 19.4% of students think that Twitter
helped them to communicate with others, 25% thought that it
helped them in making new relationships, and 52% of students
stated that Twitter helped them in spending spare time. Only 2%
of the sample indicated that they used Twitter for entertainment
(Figure 4 and Table 4).
Figure 4: Twitters’ benefits for high school students.
The Confidence in Twitter News
“According to the Table 4, 16.7% of high school students in Kuwait
have a high trust in the information and news they follow on
twitter, and 44.4% of them trust in twitter some kind, while 38.9% never trust in twitter. This result differs from what  noted to
be an advantage of Twitter, as people liked to send updates in
real time, this led Twitter to be a source of valuable information
during natural disasters (Table 5).
|Trust in twitter very much
|Trust in twitter some kind
|Never trust in twitter
Table 5: Trust in Twitter.
Social networking websites, such as Facebook, Myspace, and
Twitter, have become an indispensable part of number of
individuals using Twitter and its adoption is increasing significantly
each day. According to Nielson Online, the annual growth rate
of new Twitter users increased 1382% in 2009. Twitter allows
students to connect with each other and create uninterrupted
communication . Elavsky and Mislan  pointed out that
impact of Twitter on social interaction remains a fertile area for
This study was conducted on 360 of high school students in
Kuwait. The data obtained by the survey was analyzed and
commented upon using the SPSS program. Results showed that the majority of the participants use Twitter on their smart phone
for 3-4 hours per day, and use it to meet new people, to follow the
local news, and to discuss and exchange of views. Also the results
stated that the majority of the students use twitter as a source
of information, and never use it as a source of news because the
doubt its’ credibility [43-45].
Also the results found that most of the student think that Twitter
is an effective way to communicate with others, and if we noticed
the previous result for the advantages of Twitter, we find that the
most prominent features is its interactivity and exchange of views
and many of students use twitter to meet new people. On the
other hand we found that Twitter is a very strong reason which
distracts students from studying, wastes time, and reduces direct
communication with people.
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