Citation: Hasan AAT, Islam T, Ehasan A, Sumon SM, Hossain MS (2022) The extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict green tea purchase intentions: The role of green tea satisfaction. Global Media Journal, 20:49.
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The study aimed to identify the factors predicting green tea purchase intentions. Moreover, this study intended to explore the mediating effect of green tea satisfaction in the relationship between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, green trust, and green tea purchase intentions. The study was conducted using a convenience sampling technique. A total of 306 usable responses were collected from respondents. Subsequently, data were analysed using the structural equation modelling technique using Smart PLS 3.3.3. The current study results revealed that attitude, perceived behavioural control, green trust, and green tea satisfaction significantly impacted green tea purchase intentions. However, subjective norms insignificantly impacted green tea purchase intentions. In line with these, green tea satisfaction does not partially mediate the relationship between attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control and green tea purchase intentions. However, green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between green trust and green tea purchase intentions. The study extended TPB, including green trust and green tea satisfaction, to predict green tea purchase intentions for the first time.
Attitude; Subjective norms; Perceived behavioural control; Green
trust; Green tea satisfaction; Green tea purchase intentions
Tea is the second most common beverage after water . The global tea market was valued at nearly USD 200 billion in 2020 and is expected to rise over USD 318 billion by 2025, expecting a 59% growth rate . Among the tea market value, green tea market value is promising as its market size was USD 12.80 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach USD 23.66 billion by 2027 with a CAGR (Compound annual growth rate) of 8.0% during the period .
Green tea, the most popular beverage in developed countries, is becoming a potential beverage in developing countries [1, 4] Due to strong domestic appetite and high customer buying power, North America has dominated the global green tea market in recent decades. In line with the global green tea market, South Asia, especially Bangladesh, is expected to be the largest market for green tea . Because green tea consumption can have many health benefits (e.g., lose weight, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic) and minimize heart disease risks . Since it is free of chemical contaminants, fertilizers, and pesticides, green tea is commonly regarded as a safe and nutritious product  In addition, green tea is grown using unique cultivation methods and processes that help maintain soils, habitats, and people . For these reasons, green the popularity of green tea among government employees has increased in Bangladesh in recent decades.
Previous studies [8, 9] have primarily focused on green tea cultivation and plantations. Another research focuses on green tea history and product promotion  Despite a significant rise in market demand for such a nutritious beverage, little is understood about consumers' expectations and purchasing intentions on green tea. Although  explained several predictors of consumer intention to purchase green tea, including perceived price, trust, environmental concern, and health benefit, in a study conducted in Bangladesh, very few studies examined the effect of factors with the mediating role of green tea satisfaction on green tea purchase intentions. Therefore, the present study extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB), including green trust and green tea satisfaction, to predict green tea purchase intentions among government employees in Bangladesh. Therefore, the current study aims to fulfil the following objectives.
• To measure the effectiveness of predictive constructs of TPB along with green trust on customers’ green tea purchase intentions.
• To measure the mediating effect of green tea satisfaction between predictive constructs of TPB and green trust and green tea purchase intentions.
Green tea purchase intentions
Previous studies investigated the reasons behind the customer's green purchase, especially green tea purchase intention . The intention may be described as how hard people are willing to try and how much determination they want to carry out a behavior . Behavioural intention (BI) is characterized as "a person's subjective likelihood of performing certain behavior" [11, 13] demonstrated that three different antecedents influence behavioural intention: the consumer's attitude, the subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control. However, behavioural intention is the most significant determinant of actions according to motive intervention.  Proposed that a person's motive influences the way they act. Besides, . Stated that if a purpose is triggered, it will serve as a self-fulfilling force, pushing people into a state of "must do" or "will do." Similarly, according to  behavioural intention is a motivational factor that catches how much effort an individual is willing to execute a behavior.
Attitude and green tea purchase intentions
Attitude is "A permanent, general appraisal of individuals, things, ads, or issues" [16, 17]. Consumers' intentions are said to be influenced by their attitudes. Intentions are the potential for individuals to act differently in the future. As a result, understanding attitude as a crucial predictor of action is important. Attitude about executing actions is based on assumptions about the behavior and, in particular, the positive or negative effects [17, 18] According to . positive product characteristics can predict potential green tea purchasing actions. In a Swedish survey,  discovered that green tea's supposed human health advantages affected people's attitudes toward it and purchasing behavior. Therefore, the current study proposes the following hypotheses.
H1: Attitude significantly influences green tea purchase intentions.
Subjective norms and green tea purchase intentions
The subjective norm is the viewpoint of a person who has influenced others. According to , subjective norms are individuals' essential views that advise them to perform or not perform such activities and encouragement followed by a desire to do or not do anything important. Subjective norms are a person's assumptions on how and what to do about others that are important to them, and they are driven to act on those beliefs [22, 23] A subjective norm is derived from the human conscience or inner aspect . It refers to a person's sense of social pressure is to perform or not perform the desired behavior . It can also be described as a person's impression of how other people feel about the suggested behavior. These expectations can impact and pressure a person to conduct a specific behavior, such as a purchasing intention. Thus, an individual's subjective norms are based on their perceptions of significant others' thoughts (e.g., family members, family, and colleagues) on their behavior . Thus, it was hypothesized that:
H2: Subjective norms significantly influence green tea purchase intentions.
Perceived behavioural control and green tea purchase intentions
Perceived behavioural control refers to a person's belief in performing specific behaviours [24-27]. According to perceived behavioural control could be described as people's ability to control their actions and their level of trust in their ability to perform or not perform. As a result, an individual's conviction can affect their behavioural purpose and motivate them to engage in the desired behavior. The number of trust people has in performing the actual action has a significant impact on their behavioural purpose. In this context, consumers' perceptions of behavioural regulation can affect their desire to buy green tea. Hence, the current study proposes the following hypothesis.
H3: Perceived behavioural control significantly influences green tea purchase intentions.
Green trust and green tea purchase intentions
Consumer trust is crucial in determining whether or not to buy green tea . Define trust as "existing when one party has confidence in an exchange partner's reliability and integrity" and define it as "existing when one party has confidence in an exchange partner's reliability and integrity." . described trust as a foundation for constructiveness, reputation, and confidence in the reliability and competence of another person. Under the relationship marketing system, trust is described as a company's expectation that another company will take actions that will result in positive outcomes for the company and will not take unpredictable actions that will result in adverse consequences for the company [29, 30]. Therefore, it was hypothesized that:
H4: Green trust significantly influences green tea purchase intentions.
The mediating role of Green tea satisfaction
Customer green satisfaction refers to a person's feeling that is the outcome of comparing the value of a green product bought with what customers expect . It is measured by a customer's reaction to a perceived mismatch between expectations and results . Defined green consumer satisfaction as a postpurchase assessment where consumption experiences of a green product satisfy customers or not. Besides,  argued that consumer green satisfaction is an emotional state, with frustration, disappointment, annoyance, enthusiasm, and neutrality as possible post-purchase reactions, positively linked to customer's purchase intention and loyalty. Thus, the current study proposes the following hypothesis.
H5: Green tea satisfaction significantly influences green tea purchase intentions.
The current study also examines the mediating effect of green tea satisfaction proposing the following hypotheses.
H6: Green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between attitude and green tea purchase intentions.
H7: Green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between subjective norms and green tea purchase intentions.
H8: Green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between perceived behavioural control and green tea purchase intentions.
H9: Green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between green trust and green tea purchase intentions (Figure 1).
Research design and sampling technique
A quantitative research method was adopted to conduct this study. A set of structured five-point Likert scale questionnaires were adopted from previous studies and modified to the context of this study. Some demographic variables were added to the questionnaires. The questionnaires were purposively distributed among the respondents to collect data through a face-to-face interview—over 1 million active government employees in Bangladesh. Therefore, the employees aged 20 years or older of government institutions will be considered a targeted population for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to have accurate data in this study.
To conduct this study, required data were collected from government and autonomous institutions in Bangladesh. The study considered 306 samples to find out the expected outcome.
Data was collected from the employees of Government institutions in Bangladesh. Five-point Likert scale questions will be used where respondents had to make their level of agreement such as; strongly disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Not Sure (N), Agree (A), and Strongly Agree (SA). Scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 will be assigned respectively for the categories as mentioned above.
Data were analysed through structural equation modelling (SEM) using Smart PLS 3.3.3 software. Including SEM, reliability test, factor analysis, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and hypothesis testing were performed to analyse the data regarding the study's objectives.
The demographic variables presented in Table I exhibit that the majority (n = 177, 57.84%) were males, and 42.16% were females. In terms of age, the majority (n = 188, 61.43%) were between 41 and 65. In the perspective of income, Majority (n = 138, 45.10%) respondents’ monthly income was above BDT 50,000. In terms of marital status, (n = 219, 71.56%) respondents were married (Table 1).
20 to 40
65 or older
|Monthly income (BDT)|
Table 1: Demographic profile of respondents (n = 306).
According to  a two-way approach to structural equation modelling was performed. First, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was estimated presented in Table 2 demonstrated that the standard outer loadings were between 0.807 and 0.966. The Cronbach's alpha values, composite reliability (CR) values, and average variance extracted (AVE) values were sequentially 0.826 to 0.918, 0.896 to 0.948, and 0.743 to 0.859 greater than recommended values of Cronbach's alpha (0.70), CR (0.60), and AVE (0.50).
|Constructs/Items||Factor loadings||Cronbach's alpha (α)||Composite reliability (CR)||Average variance extracted (AVE)|
|Purchasing green tea is a good idea.||0.933||-||-||-|
|Purchasing green tea is a wise decision.||0.962||-||-||-|
|Purchasing green tea is favourable to me.||0.912||0.929||0.955||0.876|
|Most people who are important to me think I should purchase green tea.||0.892||-||-||-|
|Most people who are important to me would want me to purchase green tea.||0.952||-||-||-|
|People whose opinions I value would prefer that I purchase green tea.||0.838||0.875||0.924||0.802|
|Perceived Behavioural Control|
|I believe that I have ability to purchase green tea.||0.912|
|Whether or not I purchase green tea entirely depends up to me.||0.957|
|I have resources, time and willingness to purchase green tea.||0.91||0.918||0.948||0.859|
|I feel that green tea is generally reliable.||0.921|
|I feel that green tea is generally dependable.||0.966|
|I feel that green tea is generally trustworthy.||0.882||0.913||0.946||0.853|
|Green Tea Satisfaction|
|I am glad about the decision to select to purchase green tea because of its environmental image.||0.841|
|I think that green tea purchase is a right decision because of its’ environmental functionality.||0.932|
|Over all I’m happy to purchase green tea because it is environmentally friendly.||0.807||0.826||0.896||0.743|
|Green Tea Purchase Intentions|
|Comparing with non-green products, I am willing to buy green tea.||0.915|
|The next time to buy, the possibility of choosing green tea is very high.||0.959|
|The next time to buy, there is a strong desire to purchase green tea.||0.866||0.901||0.938||0.836|
Table 2: Measurement model results.
The square root of the AVE of each construct with the correlation value of each construct is estimated to confirm discriminant validity; consequently, Table 3 represents higher correlation values, representing models' discriminant validity (Figure 2) (Tables 2 and 3).
|Notes: ATT = Attitude, SN = Subjective norms, PBC = Perceived behavioural control, GT = Green trust, GTS = Green tea satisfaction, GTPI = Green tea purchase intentions,|
Table 3: Results of discriminant validity.
After validating the measurement model, this study estimated the structural model in path coefficients, T-statistics, and P-value. Table 4 demonstrates hypothesized relationships that revealed that attitude significantly affected green tea purchase intentions (H1) (β= 0.128, t= 2.143, p = 0.032), supporting H1. The strength of the relationship between subjective norms and green tea purchase intentions was insignificant (H2) (β= 0.083, t= 1.924, p = 0.055), which does not support H2. Perceived behavioural control significantly impacted green tea purchase intentions (H3) (β= 0.321, t= 6.009, p = 0.000), indicating H3 is supported. The relationship between green trust and green tea purchase intentions (H4) was significant (β= 0.238, t= 3.683, p = 0.000), supporting H4. The direct association between green tea satisfaction and purchase intentions (H5) was distinguished significantly (β= 0.144, t= 2.180, p = 0.029), indicating that H5 was supported (Figure 3).
In the subsequent effort, the study analysed the mediating effect of green satisfaction, where the results presented in Table 4 demonstrates that attitude, including green tea satisfaction, had an insignificant (H6) (β= 0.027, t= 1.739, p = 0.082) impact on green tea purchase intentions, indicating that H6 was not supported. The relationship between subjective norms and green tea purchase intentions, including green tea satisfaction (H7), was found insignificant (β= 0.011, t= 1.167, p = 0.244), which indicates that green tea satisfaction does not partially mediate the relationship between subjective norms and green tea purchase intentions. Perceived behavioural control, including green tea satisfaction, had an insignificant impact on green tea purchase intentions (H8) (β= 0.018, t= 1.546, p = 0.122), indicating that H8 was not supported. The strength of the relationship between green trust and green tea purchase intentions (H9), including green tea satisfaction, was significant (β= 0.070, t= 2.160, p = 0.031), supporting H9. This result indicates that green tea satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between green trust and green tea purchase intentions (Table 4).
|H1||Attitude -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.128||2.143||0.032||Supported|
|H2||Subjective Norms -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.083||1.924||0.055||Not Supported|
|H3||Perceived Behavioral Control -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.321||6.009||0||Supported|
|H4||Green Trust -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.238||3.683||0||Supported|
|H5||Green Tea Satisfaction -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.144||2.18||0.029||Supported|
|H6||Attitude -> Green Tea Satisfaction -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.027||1.739||0.082||Not Supported|
|H7||Subjective Norms -> Green Tea Satisfaction -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.011||1.167||0.244||Not Supported|
|H8||Perceived Behavioral Control -> Green Tea Satisfaction -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.018||1.546||0.122||Not Supported|
|H9||Green Trust -> Green Tea Satisfaction -> Green Tea Purchase Intentions||0.07||2.16||0.031|
Table 4: Path coefficients and hypothesis testing.
The study explored the factors that influence green tea purchase intentions among employees in Bangladesh, leaving some theoretical and managerial implications.
The present study results revealed that attitude, perceived behavioural control, and green trust directly influenced green tea purchase intentions aligned with prior studies [35, 36]. However, subjective norms had an insignificant impact on green tea purchase intentions consistent with a previous study . The current study results also demonstrated that green tea satisfaction significantly influenced green tea purchase intentions. Interestingly, this finding is relatively new to green consumption literature. Subsequently, the study results revealed that green tea satisfaction does not partially mediate the relationship between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and green tea purchase intentions. However, green tea satisfaction partially mediates green trust and green tea purchase intentions. Interestingly, these findings are relatively new to green consumption literature.
The green tea sellers and managers should enhance the customers’ positive attitude, social pressure, personal independence, influencing green tea purchase intentions. The current study results suggest that managers emphasize green tea satisfaction because it can intervene in the customers’ attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and green trust towards green tea consumption intentions.
Limitations and future research
Although the current study has several implications, the study is constrained by several limitations. First, the study was conducted for a certain period, while other research can adopt a longitudinal approach in the future. Second, the study approached only employees, which resulted in partial data. In contrast, future research can consider other respondents- students and nonservice holders. Finally, the current study selected green trust and green tea satisfaction, while other research can consider environmental concerns and environmental sustainability in the future.