Received date: May 06, 2016; Accepted date: June 24, 2016; Published date: June 29, 2016
Citation: Abisheva VT, Mazhitayeva S, Kadyrov ZT, et al. The Media Text in Virtual Space. Global Media Journal. 2016, S3:20
Copyright: © 2016 Abisheva VT, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The article deals with the problems of the media text due to intensification processes in the mass media language at different levels of its formation in the conditions of convergence. The research relevance is predetermined by a modern context of information space development and the current evolutionary changes connected with the latest developments in information and communication technologies. The traditional function of "printed communication" is actively being replaced by a new multimedia interactive mass media that in the era of global computerization is not only justified, but also, in practice, more and more necessary. The promotion of electronic types of various and well-functioning prints has become one of the priorities. The intensive development of electronic and audio-visual media, computer technologies, globalization in the information space, of course, affect the new methods of development of verbal communication, language development, the way verbal texts are created and grasped, the functioning of linguistic realities and speech style of
Media text; Intensification; Convergent; Mass-media (MM); Audio-visual media; Globalization in the information space; Cultural convergence
To build a truly civil and democratic society Kazakhstan must enter a new stage of its development in the condition of a huge impact of information on human progress. An important role in this process is played by the media, the integrative role that ensures implementing of such principles as justice, tolerance and communication.
At the time of freedom and pluralism of expression, when there is tough competition for influence over the audience, requirements to the media experts, to the quality and results of their work are getting higher. The new technology development, changes in the mainline media sphere have caused not only a new type of mass communication formation, but also a sharp need to intensify journalism itself.
A similar notion that regards main transformations in the media is a concept of "convergence", which led to the popularity of another concept better known such as ‘universal journalism’. The process of globalization of media space, the emergence of new information technologies, especially the Internet, has been expanding the impact on the audience with the involvement of new media and broadening the functions of language media.
Mass communications of various types in Kazakhstan have served as the basis of the study.
It could be journalists, commentators that make an oral debriefing or television presenters that read scrolling texts displayed but the audience, in fact, fails to wonder about the process of audio or video production at all. What crucial for the audience is that current news that they have an interest in not the functional genre of the text presented.
Broadcasting events, phenomena or detailed account of the fact in the author's interpretation is ensured in the framework of cultural peculiarities and value systems, role models and social conditions that determine the specificity of expressive means and stylistic devices. The synthesis of the components within the text as one of the significant methods of scientific knowledge builds text structure and creates the content.
Meanwhile, the readers or viewers will certainly take into account that briefing news performs mainly informative function and media analysis through ratings, author’s comments and cherry pick information increases the whole impact. World media sometimes with its barely noticeable peculiarities, as channel features, programs presented, the language of media resources, target audience, etc., has a certain impact on the linguacultural communication of audience.
Media texts currently reflect all the features of world view of contemporary man: personification, emotions, intertextuality, mentality, value system and the so-called clip thinking. Due to this fact, one of the typical and traditional methods in linguistics as analysis will be rather insufficient in studying them. Modern media discourse - is the space of various media texts that differentiate in media-cultural peculiarities and the usage of specific codes of perception.
In this regard, we tend to stick to a technique which involves the use of content analysis or social-statistical method of analysis, discourse analysis, as well as the historical and cultural comparative methods. Virtualization of digital journalism by publishing information via personal computers and mobile gadgets on the platform of electronic media has become a reality we are facing today.
Meanwhile the study shows that new mass media in the pursuit of instant news coverage do not always reflect reality adequately. Even questionable statements of some people are sometimes made public. Certain statements of politicians can appear as the reason to publish information by the media. This is not a precedent any more, if the fact is true and expresses a personal opinion of the authority. However inaccurate and replicated information may cause a danger as a catalyst for information war. These issues are close related to the online journalism and online media segments.
New technologies can be a powerful weapon in the hands of good journalists, as in modern society there are almost no borders in broadcasting information.
Today any creative media production is enabled by technology. One of the most successful concepts of media industry development and the relationship between the media and their audiences has become possible due to multimedia. Experts define it as the name implies ‘the integration of multiple forms of media through computer hardware and software’ .
The theory of global communication is developing. It is clear that a key promoter for the development of the media is a global network of resources and technology. Internet is the main place for multimedia.
As for the specific features of electronic text, scientists tend to distinguish such term as “multimedia”, “interactivity” and “convergence”. Due to the ambiguity of the concept, it has many interpretations in science. This fact indicates a phenomenal process, when the concept has been already used, but experts and the scientific community fail come to a single point in common interpretation of the term. On the other hand, the difference in interpretations can be explained - any kind of notion usually tends to describe different aspects of an activity.
For example, to speak about the information transformation into digital form, also known as the process of digitalization, the researchers use “technological convergence”; when it deals with the process of integration, the term “economic convergence” is widely applied. “Social convergence” refers when it comes to versatile and multi-function operation, in this regard a consumer of information can handle with many other things as watching TV, flipping through the pages of newspapers, talking on the phone, surfing the Internet”. The process of simultaneous cultural formation and development with relatively similar characteristics suggests the concept of “cultural convergence”. The advances in Internet technology gave a rise to the concept of "global convergence" in reference to the mobile communication development and available information in the world (Figure 1). Moreover, it can be both text and audio-visual or graphic materials.
Thus, in its broad sense convergence appears as a mutual interference of phenomena and mutual information and communication technologies penetration by erasing the boundaries between them, as a consolidation of separate media tools which provide a basis for media convergence development. The same product is transmitted and distributed through various channels of communication by different means: text, audio or video.
It is confirmed that this process with its specific features which in near future can completely change as the system of mass media and communication and other industries which are in some way related to it.
Ya.N. Zassoursky  aptly stated that the journalistic work is gradually moving away from its original existence as a printed text on paper. Multifaceted, multidimensional discourse suggests the creation of truly polyphonic communication products, which certainly vary from the traditional newspaper, current radio, and visual media, too. It acquires universal features, which occur in different media circumstances and in various media structures. It is a ‘new communicative conglomerate. A new structure of the discourse with its specific expressiveness is as multifaceted, due to such characteristic as compactness. The energy of media text is sharply increasing. Today media text, in some ways, appears to be more than a text’.
At the international conference organized by the World Association of Newspapers in Madrid, it has been emphasized that "newspapers have no future and they prevent the development of online and digital services” .
Indeed, electronic versions of various publications have fundamental advantages over printed media. For example, we can get easily an annual subscription of the magazine in PDF. Now it gives an opportunity to grasp attention of a big audience. The online edition features fast, easy access to information, full-text search, etc.
With regard to an electronic discourse, V.A. Vul  distinguishes media as ‘a complete unification of the products of modern information technologies: text, graphics, video, audio, photo and telecommunications (telephone, television, radio)’.
In recent years, Internet communication has emerged as the fastest growing sector. It has become easy, convenient and natural way of communication. The use of the Internet for education is growing rapidly too and thus virtual communication has become the integral part of perspective education and information technologies. Development and distribution of e-texts involves serious structural analysis of its structure, functional tasks and it is followed up by a number of problems. The process of e-mail text production has its own specific features: 1) a unique type of interaction; 2) punctuation characteristics; 3) e-mails, SMS allow the usage spoken language in the written form of communication; 4) oral questions and written form have no limitation in time frame, etc. .
A new lifestyle requires a new type of language communication. Scientists state the fact of the appearance of new functional varieties - the "language of electronic communications", "variety" with a particular operation field, the system of genres and language means with specific features . These conditions will undoubtedly have a major impact on the language and media text.
In addition, researchers have noted the emergence of a special e-mail (the third form of speech, along with oral and written), as well as the language of text messages sent via other communication platforms, such as mobile phones and some other technical systems for special applications . Also, we should focus on a certain communicative environment which is rapidly developing due to e-mail services.
The latest achievements in the field of information and communication technologies make it possible to determine a new type of communication amid consumers and new phenomena, which embracing all levels of linguistic structure.
So, scientists from different countries stated leveling such thing as a journalistic text. The appearance of new “syncretic”, “speech genres” that shifts the traditional boundaries between text and non-text, embodied the new technical possibilities, on the one hand, the features of e-style, on the other, - says O.V. Dedova  in the study of a special genre of network - Internet banner. E.V. Kakorina  has defined online media forums as a new genre of public discourse which is developing due to specific features of new style of communication. Feature them in that they are specific for the communicative orientation, inherit the traits of the communicative model of the Internet, media, and text features of everyday speech communication.
With reference to the materials from “Media forum 2013”, professor S.N. Barlybayeva  notes that at present in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a population of more than 17 million people about 11 million of them have an access to the Internet. The number of subscribers of cellular mobile communications, with access to broadband high-speed data communication has exceeded 7 million more in 2013. The density of users in Kazakhstan, that have an access to the Internet amounted to 65.6% for every 100 people.
The fact that, until recently seemed fantastic when an owner of a mobile phone is able to receive a bulk of information at the same time, now is just a common thing. Regardless of the geographical area a modern consumer everyday uses in his/her activities a laptop, iPod, and other gadgets.
An active correspondent who gets into the thick of things and intends to obtain important information of public interest, today, it is easy to quickly, without one’s assistance, pass it by various means of mass communication. A universal journalist of new generation has a number of skills in several media areas. He/she can write a material for periodicals, particular websites, if it is necessary can make pictures of the event; they can be immediately dispatched by mobile phone; is easy to make a video clip, and then can be broadcasted on radio and television. Today digital technology can solve this problem efficiently.
In the work “Construing the reader: A multidisciplinary approach to journalistic texts” the researchers aim to analyze, firstly, how does an author produce a journalistic text, and secondly, the way it is perceived by readers. According to the authors of a good journalist should be aware what his reader might like or not in the report. A journalist has to analyze, assess and improve his text in accordance with the aim of communication, his own view and audience perceptions. It is necessary to ensure that a potential reader could follow up his thoughts in accordance with the communication goals. The reader does not just perceive the text, but also determines his/her personal attitude towards raised issues, and it largely depends on the style of accurate and efficient use of linguistic means .
Thus, the media text obtains universal traits that make it possible to be included not only in the different media structures: verbal, visual, sound, multimedia, but in different media circumstances: periodicals, radio, television, Internet, mobile and satellite communications, etc.
In recent decades, electronic texts in the Republic have become an integral part of communicative objective reality. Modern Internet-newspapers are successfully implementing online-modern technology. Online-editors create sites in a system that meets the specifics network standards and in this way attracts more and more users. Traditional media today have Internet-versions which indicate that there is a process of adapting different formats, their mutual influence and interpenetration.
We are able to observe the process of expanding the boundaries of media text through Internet communications, the field that coexists and transform into different types of discourses. Thus, the analysis shows that the number of sites that are closely related to the media in Kazakhstan is increasing Thanks to the Internet, local media in the last decade have significantly changed the form and content, and methods of presenting information. Many of them can be widely found in multimedia edition.
As a new area of human relationships in the Internet has a significant impact on the features of the linguistic reality function and linguistic features of texts in general and some journalistic texts as well. Thus, the traditional publishing language in the media network is exposed to various influences on one hand, and affects other forms of information in the Internet on the other hand. In this case, we focus on the latest communication technologies of the last generation and also other sphere of language function, completely new phenomenon that led to language intensification at different levels of the language system: phonetics, vocabulary, style, syntax, morphology, word building .
We would like to distinguish some of the specific features that characterize a modern media text.
Thus, on the phonetic level, a new format of transliteration has appeared. It deals with changing letters or words into corresponding characters of another alphabet or language. As a rule, transliteration is used when the language is not installed in the system but one intends to type a text in Russian. For example, the letters of the Cyrillic alphabet in the text in Russian language media are replaced by letters of Latin. For common sense the transliteration is based on the sounds of the letters, often used for writing phone messages, addresses, and other Russian language websites. For example: Internet, translit, SMS.
Let us draw attention on the use of so-called ‘gaming language, the need for which arises when there is a need to apply Latin letters in the written text that best correspond to letters in Russian, for example: ‘gpyrue’. This name comes from English slang that stands for a gamer, who plays computer games very seldom. If the word in its initial form is readable, for extensive messages, they are not suitable due to its complicated form. Moreover, one can face with such a vulgar type, when there is a mixture of transcription and gaming language, for example: Zaga4a.
The changes on the lexical and stylistic level are expressed in a significant transformation of the spoken language, which often replaces the officious-politicized lexical and grammatical constructions that constitute at the time the newspaperjournalistic style in the traditional press. A number of psychological features of perception of information from display have been ousted by informal manner of Internet communication [13,14].
The rhythm of modern life dictates new rules of society and creates a constant demand for fresh, breaking information. Communication in real time, of course, affects greatly the style and manner of presentation.
The creativity of linguistic identity in the virtual communication space network is constantly growing. The problem of contact establishment and maintenance lead to a communicative innovation. A linguistic creativity is typical for all language levels, especially it is clearly manifested in the Net vocabulary.
Global network creates a special form of neologisms. Many lexical units in Russian language acquire additional meanings associated with the use of a computer or the Internet.
The approach of using metaphor, metonymy allows us to look at the complicated process from other angle .
A rapid enrichment of the electronic media language by foreign language vocabulary, elements of spoken language has a massive and expansive character. At the same time there is an increase in expressive means of speech, which manifests the penetration of computer slang, jargon, colloquial words, the increase of Anglicism, etc. not only in everyday communication, but in the journalistic texts as well.
Language means are carefully selected and designed according to the audience to make a good contact, to be trustworthy, to get engaged in a constructive dialogue. This led to the emergence of a new linguistic phenomenon as spontaneous writing, which previously could only be attributed to the epistolary genre, intended for purely personal communication. It is characterized by brief, concise, telegraphic text with semantic capacity, non-official, gameraware and abbreviation.
Network users’ community requires the shortening of syntactical constructions, the use of the computer network of slang words and expressions which are clear for both sides. Focused on the knowledge of the consumer, to accelerate the process of writing common expression, the author seeks to simplify, shorten verbal text, for a better comprehension.
Expressive and dynamic means of virtual media in the era of convergence can be considered as an effective expressivedynamic means with a new construction of syntactic texts, which for many years has been quite conservative. A particular word-order in constructing such texts is gradually establishing. A non-linear development of content via hyperlinks, versions of the story, fragments, no doubts is innovative and determines certain requirements: media text should be brief, but expressive, compact but meaningful, informative and simultaneously attractive.
One should pay attention to specific principles of the structural organization, which is based on the usage of hypertext technology, that has become extremely common in the electronic media. The hypertext, which occupies an intermediate position between the documentary and factual information, presents many fragments with certain restrictions. It contains a specific message, but also the device that offers efficient search of similar or related to the topic.
Each media seek to maintain own format - it is their "image", the main direction. Each of them has its own audience, certain language and manner of communication. In the recent decades the media language has undergone significant changes in practice. One can assume that there are some certain text features - both positive and negative impact on the communication process.
Journalistic text on the Internet with its iconic and expressive means are close to audio texts, despite their visual perception. Social networks are fundamentally new media. The intensive use of the global network has risked the danger of loss of national identity as well as linguistic one.
Modern mass media are actively exploring new relationships with active listeners, viewers and readers. It should be noted that the emotional and expressive elements are essential for the so-called "initiative language", which is a form of speech utterances in human communication. This ‘Self-disclosure’ generates expressiveness, accurateness, but sometimes leads to licentious, rude and vulgar expressions that lack correctness. New socio-cultural conditions have led to a serious transformation in the form and content of media texts, including the negative, such as blurring borders between democracy and anarchy, changing priorities in linguistic culture.
Typical innovative characteristics should be considered as well as the associated problems in the process of a networkidentity formation. Analysis of the mass information, available on the Internet, shows that, in contrast to conventional ones, it allows people to be more relaxed, since almost all Internet communication services provide the ability for anonymous participation, under a fictional name.
This makes communication in cyberspace almost uncontrollable. Some online publications seek to publish new material before others to increase the rating of a newspaper. The free flow of information often appears inaccurate, unverified, sometimes even some pictures can violate the principles of journalistic ethics.
The analysis has shown that linguistic works are based on oral communication with a speaker. The vocabulary is chosen relevant and adequate for the written speech and typical for direct speech act
As it can be observed, email revives the long-forgotten epistolary genre with some new varieties, at the same time reveals the problems in grammar, vocabulary and style of the Russian language. The new media is characterized by high frequency of errors from the part of non-professionals in the speech in this language area. Besides negligence of literary standards and complete disregard for punctuation in networks the performance of conventional written work is characterized by this kind of errors: essays, summaries by schoolchildren; creative works, publications - by students, future journalists. Evidence suggests that it led to non-accurate writing skills and overall poor culture of written speech among young people. We can assume that on the Internet conversation people while texting to each other get ruled by the principle of ‘the way we hear, the way we write’, and that the revision of the text in online media affects the habit of an author and proofreader, which makes corrections only in words underlined by text editor.
Based on hypertext technology certain principles of compositional organization have been formed. Special speech genres are appearing as a result of hypertext development on the Internet. In this regard we cannot agree with the Russian scientists E.I. Goroshko  who strongly believes that there is an urgent matter in forming a special disciplinary paradigm ‘Linguistics of the Internet’. The author rightly considers that the aim of this trend should be ‘a description and explanation of the language functioning on the Internet, taking into account the complex interaction of many factors as the original human involvement in the social and cultural context of Web interaction”.
A scientist, Antonio Garcia-Gutierrez, has raised the issue of a procedure and pragmatic analysis of the evidence in journalistic interviews. The accuracy and objectivity of quoted materials based on documentary material in journalistic texts most of the time fails to meet requirements of users. Thus, the author strongly believes that in the era of information society the analysis and the results of media texts must be assessed adequately with the regard to genre’s peculiarities .
The study of media discourses in recent decades has shown the profession of a journalist in the conditions of mediaglobalization had significantly changed. It varies and is diversified more and more due to its audience provided by a virtual TV, audio, network forms of information. New technological opportunities and editorial processes of media convergence certainly significantly affect the various indicators of this profession such as work pace and specific features, the quality of the editorial work.
Such shift in transferring information to mobile media facilitates journalism’s mobility. Due to the vastness of the global field, it turns into a public profession than ever before, because each of the users of social networks feels her/his involvement. Journalism must not lose its role, value and respect due to the invasion of amateurs.
In recent years, different countries have had a common problem of poor regulative measures in Internet-space. National legislation should be brought in line with the current state of Internet technology. In particular, the Kazakh legislation with a view to the relationships regulation in the World Network, was presented in the Act ‘On regulating the Kazakhstani segment of the Internet’ . The main objective of the Act is to ensure the constitutional right and freedom protection of citizens and legal entities in the specific field of public relations.
Each historical milestone is characterized by its specific features of speech. The study of media discourse allows to see new linguistic capabilities of the XXI century journalism and also contributes to new information development and communication environment, including the latest in digital technology, and significantly expands the scope.
Journalism, like many other areas of practical human activity, exists in close connection with science, constantly demands to ensure its activities in scientific research, innovative developments. As electronic communication is becoming one of the ways of expressing the position by means of language, the current issue still requires careful study and thorough research of media discourse in the in the virtual space.