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The white tourist gaze: A review perspective

Abdulla Al-Towfiq Hasan1*, Ahammed Sohel Amin Shakib2, Shekhar Mondal3

1Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki,Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

2Faculty of Business Administration Patuakhali Science and Technology University Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

3Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development Patuakhali Science and Technology University Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh

*Corresponding Author:
Abdulla Al-Towfiq Hasan
Assistant Professor, Department of Marketing, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 26-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. gmj-22-61927; Editor assigned: 28-Apr- 2022, PreQC No. gmj-22-61927 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-May-2022, QC No. gmj-22-61927; Revised: 17-May-2022, Manuscript No. gmj-22-61927(R); Published: 25-May-2022, DOI: 10.36648/1550-7521.20.51.304

Citation: Towfiq Hasan AA, Amin Shakib AS, Mondal S (2022) The white tourist gaze: A review perspective. Global Media Journal, 20:51.

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Tourism helps people refresh their minds by attracting them to historical and luxurious places. Why the number of tourists gradually increases in Europe needs to be studied in detail. This paper presents an analysis of tourist attractions in Europe. The study mainly explored the factors influencing tourists to visit the tourist places in Europe. Moreover, the current study identified what problems tourists face when visiting tourist places in Europe. The study findings revealed that a better environment attracts more tourists in Europe. Also, the current study found that socio-economic issues significantly influence tourists' visiting intentions. Further, the study revealed that the culture and history of Europe substantially influenced visitors to visit Europe. This study will contribute to the hospitality industry, suggesting that improving tourists' security and reducing travelling costs will effectively attract more tourists worldwide.


Tourism; attraction; tourist; performance


Tourism is a source of spending time outside the home and travelling to other countries searching for recreation, pleasure, and refreshment. Usually places of historical interest, luxurious cities are selected for tourism [1]. According to McDermott (2018), 'The tourism culture was established in the early 18th century in western Europe.' Europe is the centre attraction for the most tourists in the world. Among the European countries, the United Kingdom is one of the most visited countries by tourists every year. This article aims to focus on the history behind the tourist attraction of the United Kingdom. This grand tour was traditionally started in the United Kingdom. According to Bodley and Hollingshead (2018), 'After the industrial revolution, tourism increased rapidly because of transport's technological advancements, making travelling more convenient and affordable.' In 1841, Thomas Crook's tour arrangement for about 500 passengers from Leicester to Leigh borough was considered a milestone in creating the British tourism industry. Two consecutive world wars damaged the tourism industry in the U.K. After World War II, the government took measures to increase tourism considering tourism's economic and political significance. The U.K has many historically significant places that attract many tourists every year. Maritime Greenwich, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew,Tower of London, Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, Saint Margaret's Church, Edinburgh, Ancient Stonehenge and Medieval Salisbury, Medieval York, and its Minster are some of the hot spots for tourists in the U.K. All of the mentioned places have historical as well as political significance which made them famous over the world. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Arts, Heritage and Tourism is the minister who controls tourism in the U.K. Tourism has a considerable economic value in the economy of the U.K. According to the World Tourism Organization, 3.4% of the U.K's GDP came from tourism in 1987.

The tourism sector understands the purpose of people's interest in visiting the U.K. According to Knorr-Cetina and Bruegger (2017), 'The tourist agencies of the U.K. monitor the tourists for their development.' They decide on travel and tourism based on the tourist's experiences. The perceptions of the U.K. tourist area were represented to guide domestic and international tourists. This paper presents the values and thoughts about the UKbased tourism of the people and communities. The developers of tourism, agencies, and promoters must be co-operated with offering the culture of the U.K. to the people of the world. The socio-economic issues are discussed in the paper. The resources exploit to find the culture of the U.K. The govt. of the U.K. arranges the resources for the tourists and travellers to enjoy the culture and tourist places of the U.K. They think about the interest of the tourists and how they can engage themselves in the tourist places of the U.K.

Theoretical considerations

In 1962 the book named "The Image A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America," Daniel J. Boorstin wrote one famous book about tourism and world history. It was about the unity of the American people and their triumph stories. The subject matter is about holidays, travel and tourism and pleasure and why people leave their residence and workplace for specific periods. When people go for a tour, they gather experiences and relief from typical everyday life [2].

According to Weiner (2017), 'The U.K., like so many other western countries, has explored the tourism industry rapidly during the last two decades.' According to Smith (2019), 'Racial tourism, Historical tourism, and cultural tourism have all considered a great influential medium of earning foreign currencies.' The USA, the U.K, and North America are at the top of the choice for tourists because of their places, peoples, ethnic beauties, and lifestyles. According to John Urry (2017), 'He has based upon an idea criticism of French Philosopher Michel Foucault. Behind and continuous enquiring, the first generation of Americans treated the externals as their slaves.' According to McDermott (2018), 'Tremendous technics enhance the interest of cultural matters [3]. The U.K. agencies and authorities are very concerned about supervising all tourist spots. In U.K. newspapers, the agencies only promote their own. These are going to embrace cultural heritage. North American publishes both for national and international tourists. The tourists will get a clear idea about cultural tourism. According to Bodley and Hollinshead (2018), 'Those travellers must know their limitations and perspective following their own culture and have a strong vocabulary, symbol, communication skill, and text they produce.' The tour agencies should be more careful when the bureau and players visit the tourist spots because they carefully monitor the cultural product. According to Spivak (2017), 'It is critical that they meticulously deconstruct the structures of data they found out or run through.' According to Connor (2019), 'Too rarely the visibility and the interaction conducted but only the mainstream consult. According to Nichols (2017), 'A fictional construct essential for native Americans (many mainstream travellers) now carry in their head.' It is the coordination of thousands of images of Geronimo, of the great John Wayne, of the Gettysburg, barren deserts. It emerges in the volume of novels, literature, and adventures. According to Albers and James (2020), 'The western mocked the composer due to lack of choreography.' By identifying the complications, people can travel from one country to another through the medium of communication technologies. According to Knorr-Cetina and Bruegger (2017), 'The tourism industry plays a vital role in mixing and communicating with different cultural people.' [4]. every year tourists from the whole world visit a lot many western countries. The USA, U.K., Australia, Switzerland, and France are their top choice for travel due to the high degree of proximity and intimacy. This data is collected from some of the participants and the respective airways of these countries. According to Greschke (2017), 'The gradually anonymous social network has become a supported and trusted medium for the participants.' According to Stephan and Stephan (2019), 'To enrich knowledge, gather experiences, and enhance eyesight travel is more important. Travel is the combination of physical, imaginative, and virtual travel.' Brussels (2018) says, "Many people travel to be more competitive." To move from one place to another, the idea of mobility capital offers an expressing perspective. "I think the people who have lots of desire to visit a different place are a desire growing inside. When you know people you will communicate will see them easily besides overcoming your obstacles". According to Murphy-Lejeune (2018), 'The experience of each tour creates a favourable attitude for future tour thus the mobility increases.' According to Belgian and Erasmus (2020), 'When I have my own business, I will instantly plan across Europe.' According to Fred and [5] 'Possibilities, diversity, broadmindedness through the conflict with other cultural norms, ethics, values are general to the combined narratives, creating to some extent a self-oriented border, where one term is back up for another, without one term itself cannot be fully developed.' Young adults and many students have a great thirst for world tours. According to Stephan and [6]. 'Besides, they want to complete their higher study abroad. According to [7]. Many of them face a great problem about insufficient capital.' From Germany, Wagner and [8] when the tourists go to the U.K. to visit the cultural heritage face difficulties for language, voluntary contract, and the financial crisis for a prosperous economy.' The tour guide must be trained carefully about native symbols and text. There are a few processes to teach them, like learning about the out-group, changing behaviour, generating friendly ties, and in-group assessment. According to Aronson and [9] 'We can resolve the communication gap with the tourists by revising our attitude.' According to Jackman and Crane [10]. Using the appropriate sign with the foreigners further creates a positive effect.'

The theoretical approaches of the tourism industry make a clear understanding of the White Gaze. The issues in the white gaze developed by the concerned economists. The theory of Boorstin and Cohen developed an analysis for the tourism industry. They analyzed the 'pseudo-event.' They show in their research that the people of America are not involved with the experience of reality. They want to succeed in the 'pseudo-event.' The 'pseudoevent creates pleasure for the group of people or community in a society. It attracts people from the outside of the world, and the area's local people expelled the entrepreneurs in the tourist sector. Also, the broker in the tourist area affected the entrepreneurs in the tourist sector; as a result, people in the tourist area were deceived by the broker with their activity. Various advertisements, images, and media encourage tourists to visit places of their interest. According to Boorstin and Cohen,The environment of American hotels attracts and fascinates tourists to stay there. Turner and Ash suggest the limitations of the domestic tourism forms and offer several suggestions. Domestic tourism forms have to come forward to overcome the situation. His brief views on tourists set the center of the world. The Surrogate parents, the hotel managers, relieve him of his responsibility as a tourist and tackle him in harsh conditions. As well as the consolidation of domestic tourism firms has limited tourists to beaches and has bought about several changes in their outlook. At the same time, Turner and Ash mentioned the sensuality and domestic limitation of the tourist area. The culture and information of indigenous need to be better presented to tourists so that they are motivated to know about it. They mentioned Bali that there is a tendency of many people toward the art and culture of Bali, due to which the production process is accelerated. Hotels are built near local landmarks to attract tourists, highlighting indigenous diversity worldwide and eliminating monotony. Cohen explains the doctrine of different types of tourist experiences in society. He describes the doctrine that the tourism service does not depend on the existence of the environment. He explains existential and experimental types of tourists. The tourists' experiences need to be focused on organizing them and allowing them to see the places to be aware of them. Tourist places are entirely hidden, and no idea about it until the infrastructure is improved. Obsessed with identity and literature, McConnell developed Boorstin's doctrine's challenges. He realized that the images of the metropolis change rapidly, and there is a sharp separation between them that draws the tourist's attention. He noticed this from the experience of tourists. He disagrees with Boorstin's view that Boorstin emphasizes highclass tourists. MacCannel's initiative and exploration is a special edition for all tourists. According to him, a tourist is a pilgrim who seeks the truth and gives people the fact.

Modern society is trying to spread this authentic experience to the outside of the world. Different types of platforms can be put up for the use of tourists so that they can keep an eye on various incredible activities (Hasan et al., (2020). In a word, MacCannel has a particular attitude towards social communication and social relations. He noticed it in real life, and it is just so obvious. So tourists need to ensure easy penetration into people's lives and be accepted by society. Local tourism entrepreneurs are slowly gaining recognition in the community and can complete their activities without hindrance. They have created a lucrative investment system by attracting tourists. McConnell commented on Boorstin's 'pseudo-events and did not separate tourism from exploration. McConnell noted that religious pilgrims pay special tribute to tourist centers and pay for them. In which he explicitly mentions the work of industry. Because according to MacCannel, it is not just a feature of society; he has identified jobs as leisure-centric work. According to him, the tourist destinations need to be presented more attractively to return to the tourist destination from work and in their spare time. The profitable and meaningful production process can be expedited. They need to be informed about previous events and experiences on the spot to the tourists. According to McConnell, various natural or cultural tourism programs need to be organized outside of antireligious activities. There are several stages in which philosophy,reproduction of sacred objects, and naming are among them. Attraction is the central theme of paying homage to many. According to them, the only attraction is to visit once. In a word, tourists can be eager to explore something new or expect to know something new.


The study was prepared with secondary data. As secondary data, data from reports, articles, web-based material, books, and newspapers based on tourism in Europe has been selected. This research was a mixed-method because the study combined quantitative and qualitative research. Among these, literature on tourism in various aspects was studied to conclude. The qualitative data was collected from newspapers, reports, journals, transcripts, articles, and interviews. The quantitative data was collected through statistics, surveys, financial statements, etc. Some popular tools were used to collect secondary data like devices, bots, libraries, etc. The secondary data was easily accessed through the internet and electronic media. The study collected data about what people thought about tourism in Europe and their experiences. The study also tried to find out the problem of tourism in Europe. The study figured out ways to solve this problem and make people more reliable while tourism in the U.K.


A large number of U.K. NGOs worked on tourism in the 1990s. The central theme of those NGOs' "our holidays, their homes" campaign requiring for peaceful and durable tourism. Klemm and Parkinson stated [11-15] Again for growing economic development by the five operators, there was no intervention by the European Union to rule over them.' As a powerful medium, the tour operators supervise travel agencies all over the industry. The travel agents book approximately 90-92% of holiday packages. In 1999, 40% of Lunn Poly's bookings were taken through the Thomson holidays, Air tours’ holidays’ sales for going places, which are about 38%, and 31% sale for Sunward through Thomas Cook's. According to Hope 'besides travel agencies, every main tour operators have their airlines, of which they can take as much of the holiday traffic as they want.' With this high degree of participation in tourism, the tour operators have a remarkable contribution to the survival of the economy, which should take proper initiatives. According to [16], 'The tour package is "this is not limiting a few numbers of authorities."' The reason mentioned for the large number of firms that contest in the market fields is that the U.K. government earns substantial foreign currencies. For this activity, the share market is rising profitably. Evans and [17,18] mentioned, 'the appearance of the problem has not been affected so much in the economic stability (in addition to the belief in the oligopolistic process), but the activity of this excess capacity indicates that a lot of tourists can travel in the U.K.' Therefore, competition among the tour operators has sharpened. They wish to follow the path of profitability. So, they are engaged to increase privilege and price war". In this situation, with low prices, U.K. citizens have enjoyed their holidays to leave the inertia in daily life. The tour management authorities provide limited facilities and low prices to attract tourists, and because of these issues, marginal profit becomes low. As a result, the economic stability reduces, so the investors discourage from making any long-term investments. Again, taking these steps, the tour operators should behave more responsibly, yet they are indifferent to low marginal profit [19] Ashworth and Good all (2020) believe that due to the lack of ownership, the lack of responsibility is observed in the tour industry. The tour operators and private sectors are entirely responsible and have provided too much freedom (Figure 1).


Figure 1: The outbound trips of the U.S. to Europe in 2019(in millions) Source- (Ashworth and Good all, 2020).

The chart shows the outbound trips of the U.S. to Europe in 2019. The highest number of people who visited Western Europe from the U.S. Likely 11.92 million people made outbound trips from the U.S. to Western Europe. It develops the culture of Western Europe. Western Europe's tourist destinations are overgrowing, and new tourism agencies and entrepreneurs have sprung up among them. There is the second-highest number of outbound trips in Southern/Mediterranean. Like 11.27 million people made outbound trips from the U.S. to the Southern/Mediterranean. Southern/Mediterranean tourist destinations are overgrowing, and new tourism agencies and entrepreneurs have sprung up. There is the second-highest number of outbound trips in Northern Europe. Like 8.92 million people made outbound trips from the U.S. to Northern Europe. Northern Europe's tourist destinations are growing slowly, and new tourism agencies and entrepreneurs have sprung up among them. There is the second-highest number of outbound trips in Central/Eastern Europe. Like 4.32 million people made outbound trips from the U.S. to Central/Eastern Europe. Central/Eastern Europe's tourist destinations are growing very slowly, and new tourism agencies and entrepreneurs have sprung up among them. Middleton and Hawkins state that the private sector should practice voluntary initiatives to adopt a more renewable tourism industry. In 1995 according to a survey of its participants working in many countries who were asked about facing challenges in front of the communities it worked, VSO mainly worked on ethical tourism. "VSO works with many communities, on which they campaign unexpectedly brought many changes on tourism the industry and are desperate about their task. Volunteers describe that many anti-social activities are related to tourism, such as harassing girls, rape and child group sex, and uprooting local people from their land". The VSO's World wise campaign focused on raising the people's awareness of social and environmental issues through postcards, photography, leaflets, and behaviour and motivated visitors to spend more time and money in the local tourist spots. The campaign sowed that 'every travel operator says "visit our local people, they are cordially warmth of your welcome." The campaign aimed to show tourists how they could find more places to travel and travel to the most adventurous location on earth and never take a meal outside the hotel. The campaign encouraged tourists to utilize their holidays best. 'There's most probably go to the local market-You can see many arts and crafts works on which their culture come alive, also can purchase. It will be a good experience for you and earning source for local people. Alex Knight stated [20-22] "We experience the real world vastly through tourism track. When you want to go for a tour, you have to make some effort for capital and time, and go to the destination and interact with native people. But I'll never forget the heartfelt welcome we found and the gratitude they were shown". According to Harold (2017), 'Tour operators have earned a lot of compassion from the tourists who stay in their resorts and workers who work for them (Figure 2).


Figure 2: Tourists trips in the U.K. as a means of accommodation Source- (Harold et al., 2017).

This chart shows tourists' trips to the U.K. as a means of accommodation. It represents the percentage of all trips, domestic trips, and outbound trips in the U.K. There is 32.1% rented hotel or similar on all trips for accommodation. 5.4% of tourists rented campsites, caravans, or trailer parks as a means of accommodation. 19.3% of tourists rented others as a means of accommodation. 12.1% use their holiday at home as a means of non-rented accommodation. 29.7% of tourists provided without charge by relatives or friends as a means of non-rented accommodation. 2.4% of tourists use others as a means of nonrented accommodation. On domestic trips, 21.0% rented hotels or similar for accommodation. 2.1% of tourists rented campsites, caravans, or trailer parks as a means of accommodation. 36.2% of tourists rented others as a means of accommodation. 16.2% use their holiday in the home as a non-rented accommodation. 18.5% of tourists provided without charge by relatives or friends as a means of non-rented accommodation. 6.0% of tourists use others as a means of non-rented accommodation. In outbound trips, 46.4% rented hotels or similar for accommodation. 2.7% of tourists rented campsites, caravans, or trailer parks as accommodation. 19.1% of tourists rented others as a means of accommodation. 6.8% use their holiday at home as a means of non-rented accommodation. 20.2% of tourists provided without charge by relatives or friends as a means of non-rented accommodation. 4.8% of tourists use others as a means of non-rented accommodation. Richard Bowden Doyle, Managing Director of Thomson Holidays, stated 'Our customer's faith in Thomson provides them best facilities. We assure you that we can meet their desire. We always try to provide them with accurate advice and information on which they can rely on us'. VSO worked with the association of tour operators, which established ethical tourism commitment to correspond formed by the campaign and awareness of the responsibilities of its members. The AITO shows In the U.K., independently owned tour operators are about 150. It has adopted guiding tourism responsibility, which is now a part of AITO membership and takes part in an award contest. This organization announced its first award for responsible tourism in January 2003. Tearfund (2018) published a book named 'Don't Forget Your Ethics' mentioning tourism as a behaviour issue- the way people can travel from one country to another country and connect with different ideologies people who raise ethical issues about culture, environmental issues, working places and condition, employment opportunities. Like any other choice that is full of complexity is neither fun nor comfortable. The principles of consumption of tea and cigarette can be applied to tourism. Tear fund forced operators to arrange social, environmental, and economic agendas, thus can ensure fairness in the system, better working conditions, and giving a share of tourism revenues to the local communities. Tourists said 'they could use local facilities and pay a good amount of money, treating the local people with respect and learning and honouring local customs.' In 1993 the European community introduced the package travel and actualized from 1993-to 1995 primarily in member states (without Greece), which requires that tour agencies have some responsibilities. According to Downes and [23], "Laws were implemented to protect endangered species and control pollutants." According to Forsyth (2018), "Tour operators have no scene of responsibility. They think they can sell as many as holiday packages to fulfil their ultimate goal". A Market Opinion Research International (2019), a survey of U.K. environment and tourism consumers, analysis that 61% of consumers are from this sector. However, it is essential for economic development and the global market. It also noted that a large portion of the marginal profit comes from tourism. Tourists also affirm that they would be prepared to pay extra money if the tour operator was ensured to protect environmental issues and exact adherence to accommodation providers. According to Malmony and Ward (2019), 'Even a keen difference is observed in each survey between what respondents say and do.' Therefore a survey by Research International (2017) of the U.K., consumers wanted to know about the green products made by companies. In the same study, respondents said consumers purchased the products because of the labelling. It is clear that consumers were involved with product information, but they could not give any clarification about product details. Despite this, consumers still have to buy products, yet they have no precise data about product qualities. They fail to protect themselves, their families, and the whole world. According to Wight [24] "The seventh main truth is that tourism is a kind of entertainment and tourists are also consumers. They agreed to purchase a product that they wanted. They are not concerned about the price value of the product. They are concerned about the quality of the product. If the products are perceived to fulfil their needs, they will be ready to pay extra money (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Tourism vision forecast 2020 (in millions) Source- (Wight et al., 2018).

The graph shows the tourism vision forecast for 2020 for the Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific, Americas, and Europe. The tourism vision gradually increases in all the countries. The actual tourism vision of Asia in 2020 is 1600 million, which is the highest among other countries.

The actual tourism vision of Africa in 2020 is like 1500 million, which is the second-highest among other countries. The natural tourism vision of Europe in 2020 is 700 million, which is the lowest of other countries. The tourism vision slowly increases in Europe than in other countries worldwide. In the Middle East, Africa, and the Asia Pacific, the tourist vision has risen rapidly from 1960 to 2020. As a result, it helps create a massive development for this country [25]. They try to attract people worldwide to their tourist places and know the culture of these countries. But the tourist mainly focused on the locations of Europe and their culture. Most people have a penchant for touring Europe and learning about their culture. The agencies and entrepreneurs of tourism informed tourists about the place and activities of the tourist places. Europe achieves more than its forecasting vision. Berry and Ladkin (2017) showed that those who can promote and market their products as sustainable would have more tourists as a consequence of this would increase business. Technology has played a vital role in finding out the statistics of a particular tourist spot. Tourists can quickly know about the performance of any renowned company that provides better services [26] According to Wade (2019), 'Computer technology can present any information in a viable form. It is always updated for the user on which they can find any reform data they search for.' Chandler (2018) believes that computer technology is such an influential medium on which any user could find out any product declaration and information, any world heritage, instability of share market, the country's economic policy, and know what is happening around the world. According to Curtin and Busby [27] 'Based on reviews from a tourist on social media, the tourist authorities do lucrative business (Figure 4).


Figure 4: Island tourism activity of the U.K.Source (Curtin and Busby, 2017).

This chart shows the island tourism environment of the U.K. It represents the beach activity of males and females. 20.4% of males are engaged in diving(less than 5 meters in depth), while 20.6% of females are involved with diving(less than 5 meters in depth). The diving activity of females is higher than that of males. 15.9% of males are engaged in diving (depth 5-12 meters), while 13.0% of females are involved with diving (depth 5-12 meters). 53.4% of males are engaged in beach leisure activities. At the same time, 45.8% of females are involved with beach leisure activities. 10.8% of males are affected by Jet gliding; at the same time, 6.1% of females are engaged with Jet gliding. 10.2% of males are concerned with Parasailing, while 10.7% of females are involved. The parasailing activity of females is higher than that of males. 12.5% of males are engaged in Banana boat rides, while 6.1% of females participate in Banana boat rides. 22.2% of males are concerned with Island sightseeing, while 14.5% of females are engaged with Island sightseeing. 8.5% of males are involved with Island cultural sightseeing; at the same time, 12.2% of females are engaged with Island cultural sightseeing. The Island's cultural sightseeing activity among females is higher than the male. 8.5% of males are involved with others, while 12.2% of females are engaged with others. According to Malmony and Ward (2019), 'They accumulate the interest of public and private in the tourism sector to ensure sustainable tourism in the U.K.' they achieve success in tourism in the context of govt. They motivate the tourists by consulting in their activity. They involve the community and international tourists in their tourism activities. They coordinate the planning in tourism and make decisions based on their planning. The tourist agencies and operators investigate the aspects of the culture. They can inspire the tourists with their elements of culture. Explained details need to be presented for visitors in Europe to understand the subject. According to Knorr-Cetina and Bruegger (2017), 'Tourism operators need to play an essential role in developing indigenous sites.

Travellers need to be exposed to conventional or contemporary content and culture. The government is working on compiling small groups and their history. The European government is reducing the tendency of tourism operators to impose on travel programs. The topics selected for developing or promoting tourism operators' travel programs must include culture. The European government embraces contemporary concepts in the country and ensures quality tourism infrastructure (Figure 5).


Figure 5: Number of international tourists in the U.K. from 2008 to 2017(in millions) Source (Chandler et al., 2018).

This graph shows the number of international tourists in the U.K. from 2008 to 2017. The number of international tourists in the U.K. slowly increased. There were 13.2 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2008. The number of international tourists in the U.K. decreased by 11.5 million in 2009. From 2009 to 2016 it gradually increased. . There were 12.7 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2010. There were 12.9 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2011. There were 14.1 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2012. There were 15.0 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2013. There were 15.9 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2014. There were 16.5 million international tourists who visited the U.K. in 2015. The international tourists remained unchanged in 2016. The number of international tourists in the U.K. decreased by 15.8 million in 2017. Those who work with tourism guides and literature on the history and current situation need to be careful [28-30].

Customer tourism behaviour in tourism services needs to be observed more broadly. Tourists need to respond specifically to the service [31, 32]. The European government needs to promote the travel and tourism industry globally and keep the flow of travellers strong.

The networking and clusters used in the tourism sector need to be monitored more closely. There are acting opportunities to manage tourism in Europe by creating a global business environment. For many years, the United Kingdom has been the most significant international tourism producer.

Conclusions and Recommendations

The tour operators and agencies of the U.K. need to be more concerned about tourism activity in the future. The govt. of the U.K. and the U.K. agencies help preserve its culture. If the attitudes of tourism operators can be changed, the tourist centers will come back to life, and their culture will continue. Europe's tourism industry has developed considerably, with tour operators and travel trade intermediaries working to move Europe's tourism industry towards richer resources and diversity. The U.K. govt. Is working to make their domestic presence unbearable. The small operators and large operators played an important role in tourism activity in the U.K. The govt must develop the shape of tourism. Of U.K. So the tourist places attract the tourist and draw them to know the nature of the U.K. The agencies and entrepreneurs need to monitor their activity and performance in tourism. It helps them to operate their function and activity smoothly. It would be made clear to the tourists the necessity of tourism in their life and increase their awareness of creating effects on the tourism industry. They have avoided the negative publicity of tourism for sustainable development in tourism. They can measure the progress in the tourism industry by monitoring this activity. Although tourism is sustainable when people select a tour operator for tourism, If the tour operator ensures that they can provide information and idea about the tourist places, then the tourism will be sustainable for the U.K. The tour operator's news and opinion motivate people to spend their holidays in tourist places. The tour operator must ensure responsible behaviour. It will avoid consumer censure in the long run.

The ethics of tourism help the companies and agencies to compete without the price. It ensures good service in tourism in the U.K. Responsible behaviour, and responsible commitment to tourism create value in the marketplace, increasing the sales of that area. When there is an option to choose trips and holidays, people choose trips in the U.K., providing a better advantage than holidays. The responsible practices of tourist agencies and operators in the U.K. prioritize responsible tourism. The agencies and tourist operators include all the timetables, price, location, and services and ensure the decision in all sectors for good practice in tourism. Sometimes, agencies and operators cannot make any discount services to satisfy their customers. It affects badly in tourism. Responsible tourism has many advantages rather than any ethical product. The govt. of the U.K. ensures high-quality tourism. It provided a more incredible experience for the tourists when they visited the tourist places of the U.K. They can grow their market sector by exploring tourism activity more and the world. It adds value to their economic growth, and they can be benefitted from the tourism services. Consumer services are the top priority should be maintained by the govt. And agencies. It commits to the future if they ensure high-quality services.


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